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k 


THE 

CO-OPERATIVE  Wholesale 
Societies  Limited. 


Annual 


\y 


1915 


"Published  by 

THE  co-operative  WHOLESALE  SOCIETY  LIMITED, 

I,  BALLOON  STREET,  MANCHESTER; 

and 

THE  SCOTTISH  CO-OPERATIVE  WHOLESALE  SOCIETY 
LIMITED, 

95.  MORRISON  STREET,  GLASGOW. 


PKINTED   AND   BOUND 

BY   THE   CO-OPERATIVE   WHOLESALE    SOCIETY   LIMITED, 

LONGSIGHT,   MANCHESTER. 


Preface, 


AT  the  time  of  writing  most  of  the  European  nations  are  at 
J-\  deadly  grips,  death  and  devastation  are  daily  increasing, 
and  none  can  discern  the  end.  Still,  we  deem  it  well  to 
pubhsh  our  Annual  as  usual,  for  the  principles  and  truths  of 
co-operation  are  steadfast,  and  to  divert  the  minds  of  readers  from 
the  carnage  of  battlefields  to  the  social  problems  that  still  await 
solution  is  to  render  a  real  service. 

The  main  features  of  this  voluriie  are  little  •  altered  from  those 
of  its  predecessors,  but  among  our  illustrations  will  be  found  some 
interesting  photographs  of  estates  acquired  by  the  C.W.S.  in 
further  development  of  its  positions  as  farmer,  landowner,  and 
fruit  grower. 

In  writing  of  "^Yomen  in  Industry,"  Mr.  James  Haslam 
wisely  devotes  his  efforts  to  presenting  "the  living  facts  as  we 
have  them  before  us  at  this  moment."  The  exploitation  of  female 
labour,  the  remarkable  increase  in  the  numbers  of  women  and  girls 
employed  in  trades  previously  monopolised  by  males,  and  other 
phases  of  the  subject  are  presented  in  a  vivid  and  impressive  form. 
The  article  proves  itself  an  invaluable  contribution  upon  an  urgent 
social  problem. 

Mr.  Money's  intention  in  writing  upon  "Our  National  ^Yealth: 
The  Conditions  of  its  Continuance"  is  "to  trace  in  broad  outlines 
the  circumstances  which  have  made  Britain  what  she  is,  and  to 
show  in  their  true  perspective  the  factors  which  constitute  our 
strength  or  our  weakness."  Touching  upon  the  rise  of  Britain  as 
an  industrial  powej;"  due  to  our  great  national  assets  in  coal  and 
iron,  Mr.  Money  passes  on  to  deal  critically  with  the  national 
wealth,  its  distribution  and  the  comparative  failure  of  production. 
At  the  close  of  a  live  and  stimulating  article,  the  author's 
conclusion  is  thus  stated:  "Co-operation  .  .  .  can  eliminate 
all  unnecessary  costs,  and,  informed  and  inspired  by  scientific 
management,  produce  the  greatest  amount  of  material  wealth  with 
the  least  expenditure  of  labour." 

The  views  expressed  by  Mr.  H.  M.  Richardson  on  Continuation 
Education  are  no  doubt  controversial.  It  is  well  that  opinions 
contrary  to  the  popular  conception  of  the  value  of  such  education 
should    be    heard    and    considered,    and    the    appeal    is    made    to- 


,  Preface. 

co-operators  for  a  new  estimate  of  the  aims  of  knowledge.  He 
says:  "The  nation  which  first  teaches  its  democracy  to  think,  to 
know  itself,  its  history,  its  conflicting  potentialities,  the  why  and 
wherefore  of  social  disturbances — that  nation,  in  the  course  of  a 
few  generations,  will  be,  if  not  the  greatest,  the  happiest  in  the 
world. 

Within  the  compass  of  twenty-six  pages  Mr.  Pollard  contrives 
to  give  very  interesting  glimpses  of  the  great  civilisations  of 
the  past,  touching  upon  their  rise  and  decline  and  their  main 
characteristics.  The  relative  positions  of  the  peoples  of  the  various 
nations  to  their  rulers  are  explained,  and  parallels  and  comparisons 
•drawn  between  the  conditions  prevailing  among  these  ancient 
peoples  and  our  own  time,  besides  much  information  as  to  their 
habits  and  customs. 

Of  the  special  articles  that  by  Mr.  H.  Clement  Gray,  on  "The 
Cost  of  Living,"  is  directly  concerned  with  co-operative  theory 
and  practice.  The  many  causes  of  rising  prices  are  discussed, 
among  them  being  currency,  increased  consumption  and  wages, 
supply  and  demand,  combines,  and  others.  The  question  of  the 
ability  of  co-operation  to  provide  an  effectual  remedy  is  considered 
from  the  standpoint  of  a  candid  friend.  Mr.  Gray  knows  well  the 
potentiality  of  the  movement  if  wisely  used,  but  he  is  also  equally 
well  acquainted  with  the  l^indrances  besetting  the  path  of  progress, 
and  thus  justifies  trenchant  criticism.  The  value  of  a  national 
co-operative  society  is  strongly  advocated  in  the  course  of  the 
article. 

Mr.  Porritt  in  his  article  on  "The  Handling  and  Transportation 
of  the  Canadian  Grain  Crop ' '  provides  a  mass  of  interesting 
information,  chiefly  relating  to  the  history  of  grain  elevators. 
The  subject  does  not  at  first  sight  seem  to  promise  much  attraction 
to  the  average  reader,  but  the  narration  of  the  efforts  of  the  growers 
to  avoid  exploitation  in  the  various  provinces,  and  the  impression 
made  by  the  gigantic  figures  relating  to  the  grain  production,  do 
certainly  impart  elements  of  real  and  vital  import. 

The  final  article,  written  by  Mr.  J.  J.  Dunne  on  "What 
Co-operative  Dairying  has  done  for  Denmark,"  affords  striking 
evidence  of  the  value  of  the  united  action,  backed  up  by  scientific 
methods,  which  has  placed  Denmark  foremost  among  butter- 
producing  countries. 

We  trust  that  this  volume  of  the  Anyiual  will  be  found  worthy 
to  rank  with  its  predecessors. 

THE  COMMITTEE. 


List  of  Maps,  Diagrams,  Plates,  €rc. 

CO-OPERATIVE    WHOLESALE    SOCIETY. 

PAGE 

Diagram :  Comparison  of  the  Sales  of  Wholesale  and  Retail  Co-operation  xiii. 

„           Fifty-one  Years'  Progress  of  Co-operation xiv. 

„  Fifty  Years'  Progress  of  the  Co-operative  Wholesale  Society 

Limited xvi. 

Map  of  the  World,  showing  Foreign  and  Colonial  Depdts xviii^ 

Map  of  the  United  Kingdom,  showing  Depots,  &c.,  of  the  WTiolesale 

Societies xx^ 

Manchester : 

Original  Balloon  Street  Premises 2 

Bird's-eye  View  of  Central  Premises 3 

Mitchell  Memorial  Hall,  Boardroom,  Offices,  &c..  Corporation  Street  4 

Balloon  Street  and  Garden  Street  7 

Drapery  Warehouses,  Balloon  Street 8 

Original  Dantzic  Street  Premises  10 

Dantzic    Street:      Woollens,    Ready -mades.    Mantles,    Millinery, 

Carpets,  &-c 11 

Traff ord  Bacon  Factory  and  Wharf  12 

Grocery  Packing  Warehouse,  TrafTord  Park 15 

Broughton  Building,  Traffic  Departments,  &c 16 

E.  and  S.  C.W.S.  Joint  Insurance  Department,  Corporation  Street ..  19 
Newcastle : 

West  Blandford  Street  20 

Waterloo  Street  in  1876 21 

Waterloo  Street  and  Thornton  Street 23 

Quayside 24 

Stowell  Street  27 

Bird's-eye  View  of  Pelaw  Works 28 

Pelaw  Drug  and  Drysaltery  Works 31 

London : 

Leman  Street  32 

Bacon  Stoves,  &c 35 

Fairclough  Street  36 

Bird's-eye  View  of  Silvertown  Factories  39 

Silvertown  Productive  Factory 40 

Bristol  Depot,  Broad  Quay 43 

Cardiff  Depot,  Bute  Terrace 44 

New  Depot,  Cardiff 47 

Northampton  Saleroom,  41,  Guildhall  Road  48 

Nottingham  Saleroom,  Friar  Lane 51 

Birmingham  Saleroom,  16,  Pershore  Street   52 

Huddersfield  Saleroom,  14,  Upperhead  Row 55- 

Longton  (Staffs.)  Crockery  Depot  66- 

Pontef ract  Fellmongering  W^orks  59- 

Limerick  Depot,  Mulgrave  Street 60 

V. 


List  of  Mcq^s,  Diagra7ns,  Plates,  &c. 

PAGE 

Armagh  Depot,  Dobbin  Street  63 

Tralee  Egg  and  Butter  Depot,  Pembroke  Street 64 

Tralee  Bacon  Factory,  Rock  Street  67 

Esbjerg  (Denmark)  Depot  68 

Odense  Depo  t  71 

Herning  Bacon  Factory  72 

Sydney  Tallow  Works 75 

Denia  (Spain)  Depot,  Calle  Gayarre 76 

London :  Tea  Department  79 

Luton  Cocoa  and  Chocolate  Works 80 

Crumpsall  Biscuits,  Cakes,  Jellies,  and  Sweets  Works 83 

Preserve,  Marmalade,  and  Peel  Works,  Middleton  Junction  84 

Vinegar  Brewery  and  Pickle  and  Sauce  Factory,  Middleton  Junction  .  87 

Leicester  Wheatsheaf  Boot  and  Shoe  Works  88 

Leicester  (Duns  Lane)  Boot  and  Shoe  Works  91 

Enderby  Boot  and  Shde  Works  92 

Heckmondwike  Boot,  Shoe,  and  Currying  Works  95 

Rushden  Boot  and  Shoe  Works 96 

Leeds  Boot  and  Shoe  Works  99 

Irlam  Soap,  Candle,  Glycerine,  Lard,  and  Starch  Works 100 

Silvertown  (London)  Soap  Works  103 

Dunston-on-Tyne  Soap  Works  104 

Batley  Woollen  Cloth  Factory 107 

Leeds  Clothing  Factory  108 

Broughton  (Manchester)  Tailoring  Factory Ill 

Pelaw  Clothing  Factory 112 

London  Clothing  Factory  115 

Leeds  Brush  and  Mat  Works    116 

Brislington  Butter  Factory 119 

Dunston-on-Tyne  Flour  Mills  120 

Silvertown  (London)  Flour  Mill  123 

Sun  Flour  and  Provender  Mills,  Trafford  Wharf 124 

Star  Flour  Mill,  Oldham 127 

Avonmouth  (Bristol)  Flour  and  Provender  Mills  128 

Manchester :  Broughton  Shirt  and  Cabinet  Factories  131 

Pelaw  Cabinet  Works 132 

Manchester:  Broughton  Mantle  and  Underclothing  Factories 135 

Desborough  Corset  Factory  136 

Manchester:  Longsight  Printing  Works  139 

Pelaw  Printing  Works  140 

Leicester  Printing  Works  143 

West  Hartlepool  Lard  Refinery,  &c 144 

Littleborough  Flannel  Factory 147 

Manchester  Tobacco  Factory 148 

Hucknall  Huthwaite  Hosiery  Factory 151 

Bury  Weaving  Shed 152 

Radcliffe  Weaving  Shed   155 

Keighley  Ironworks  156 

Dudley  Bucket  and  Fender  Works  159 

vi. 


List  of  Maps,  Diagrams,  Plates,  &c. 

PAGE 

Birtley  Tinplate  Works  160 

Rochdale  Paint,  Colour,  and  Varnish  Works   163 

S.S.  "Fraternity"   164 

S.S.  "New  Pioneer"   ,..  167 

Roden  Convalescent  Home     168 

Roden  Tomato  Houses    171 

Wisbech  Fruit  Depot,  South  Brink 172 

Coldham  Estate,  near  Wisbech:  Views  of  the  Farms  175 

Harden  Estate  and  Views  of  the  Fruit  Farm 176 

Chaigeley  Manor  and  Views  of  the  Estate 179 

Mahavilla  Tea  Factory  180 

Mahavilla  Bungalow  182 

Weliganga  Tea  Estate , 183 

SCOTTISH    CO-OPERATIVE    WHOLESALE    SOCIETY. 

First  Central  Premises  Owned  by  the  Society  290 

Orocery  and  Provision  Warehouse,  Coal  and  Building  Departments' 

Offices,  119,  Paisley  Road,  Glasgow 291 

Registered    Office    and    Furniture   Warehouse,    95,    Morrison    Street, 

Glasgow 292 

Grocery  and  Provision  Warehouse,  Links  Place,  Leith  295 

Orocery  and  Provision  Warehouse,  Grange  Place,  Kilmarnock  296 

Grocery  and  Provision  Warehouse,  Seagate,  Diindee  299 

Enniskillen  Branch:  Central  Premises  300 

Drapery  Warehouse,   Dundas  Street,   Wallace  Street,   and  Paterson 

Street,  Glasgow  303 

Drapery  Warehouse,  Wallace  and  Paterson  Streets,  Glasgow.    (Another 

view)  304 

Productive  Factories,  Paterson  Street,  Glasgow 307 

New  Stationery  Warehouse,  Morrison  Street,  Glasgow 308 

Furniture  and  Furnishing  Showrooms,  Chambers  Street,  Edinburgh  ...  311 

Productive  Works,  Shieldhall,  Govan  312 

New  Frontage  and  Printing  Department,  Shieldhall 315 

Boot  Factory,  Shieldhall 316 

Cabinet  Factory,  Shieldhall  319 

Dining-rooms  and  Ready-made  Clothing  Factory,  Shieldhall  32  0 

Chancelot  Roller  Flour  Mills,  Edinburgh 323 

Junction  Meal  and  Flour  Mills,  Leith 324 

Regent  Roller  Flour  Mills,  Glasgow 327 

Gram  Elevators,  Winnipeg,  Canada  328 

Ettrick  Tweed  and  Blanket  Mills,  Selkirk  331 

Soap  Works,  Grangemouth  332 

Hosiery  Factory,  Leith  335 

Creamery  and  Margarine  Factory,  Bladnoch,  Wigtownshire. .., 336 

Fish-Curing  Works,  Aberdeen  339 

Dress  Shirt  Factory  and  Laundry,  Potterhill,  Paisley 340 

Calderwood  Castle  and  Estate  343 

Diagrams  showing  Progress  of  Society  since  Commencement  345 

vii. 


Index, 


PAGE 

Accidents,  Railway 618 

Acts,  Public,  Passed,  1914 596 

Administrations  from  December,  1783 623 

Ancient  Civilisations  and  their  Lessons,  Some. — By  Bedford  Pollard  ..  489 
Articles — 

Cost  of  Living,  The :  The  Co-operative  Movement  and  Its  Mission. — 

By  H.  Clement  Gray  515 

Handling  and  Transportation  of  the  Canadian  Grain  Crop,  The. — 

By  Edward  Porritt 545 

Our  National  Wealth:    The  Conditions  of  Its  Continuance. — By 

L.  G.  Chiozza  Money,  M.P 449 

Problem  of  Continuation  Education,  The. — By  H.  M.  Richardson  471 
Some    Ancient    CiviHsations    and    their    Lessons. — By    Bedford 

PoUard 489 

What  Co-operative  Dairying  has  done  for  Denmark. — By  J.  J. 

Dunne 568 

Women  in  Industry. — By  James  Haslam  419 

Bank  Holidays 642 

Barometer  Instructions 626 

Births,  Marriages,  and  Deaths,  Registers  of 642 

Calendar  for  1915 643 

Calendar,  Principal  Articles  of 641 

Canadian   Grain  Crop,   The  Handling  and  Transportation  of  the.— 

By  Edward  Porritt 545 

Congresses,  Co-operative  .• 398 

Consolidated  Stock,  Average  Price  of 602 

Continuation  Education,  The  Problem  of. — By  H.  M.  Richardson 471 

Contributions  which  have  appeared  in  "  The  Co-operative  Wholesale 

Societies'  Annual,"  from  1885  to  1915  644 

Co-operative  Congresses  39S 

Co-operative  Congresses,  International 415 

Co-operative  Congresses,  Papers  read  at  401 

Co-operative  Progress,  1862  to  1912  (United  Kingdom)  585 

Co-operative  Societies,  Summary  of  Law  relating  to  415 

Co-operative  Union:   Its  Principles  and  Constitution 414 


Co-operative  Wholesale  Societies- 


English.  Scottish. 

Advantages  of  Membership ...  363 

Annual  Return,  Abstract  of,  for  Year  ended 

December  27th,  1913  224     ... 


Index. 
Co-operative  Wholesale  Societies  {con. 


i 


English.  Scottish. 

Artisan  Clothing  Factory  •  •  •  376 

Auditors,  Past  216  ... 

Biscuits,  Sweets,  &c..  Works,  Crumpsall 82,236  ... 

Bonus  to  Labour •  ••  395 

Boot  and  Shoe  Department  228,277  ...  372 

Boot  and  Shoe  Works : 

Leicester    89-90,262  ... 

Heckmondwike 94,  264  ... 

Rushden  97,264  ... 

Sliieldhall ••  317,380 

Brush  Factories 117,266  ...  382 

Bucket  and  Fender  Works,  Dudley  158,268  ... 

Business  Notices,  &c ...       288,  361-3 

Business  Premises,  &c 185-90  ...  284-5 

Cabinet  Works : 

Broughton 130,266  ... 

Pelaw  133,  272  ... 

ShieldhaU ...  318,381 

Coal  Department 276  . . . 

Committees,  Auditors,  and  Scrutineers 191  ...  286 

Committees,  Past  Members  of 212-4  . . . 

Committee,Membersof,whoDied  during  Office  215  ... 

Confectionery  Works ...  386 

Corset  Factory,  Desborough  137,  254 

Creameries,  Bladnoch  and  Whithorn ...  337,  392 

Drapery  Department ' 9,10,227,277  ...       302-5,371 

Employes  in  Departments 196-9  . . .  393 

Events    in    connection   with   the   Wholesale 

Society  in  1915,  Coming  200  ... 

Events,  Record  of 201-7  ... 

Fish  Curing  Works  ...  338,391 

Flannel  Mills 146,  252  ... 

Flour  Mills: 

Dunston 121,  242  ... 

Silvertown 122,244  ... 

Manchester  S\m  Flour 125,244  ... 

Oldham  Star  126,246  ... 

Avonmouth 129,  246  ... 

Chancelot ...  322,  387 

Junction  ...  325,388 

Regent ...  326,389 

Furnishing  Department  229,  277  ...  293,  310,  373 

Grocery  Department 14,226,276  ...294-9,367-70 

Hosiery  Factory 150,254  ...  334,378 

Ironworks,  Keighley 157,268 

Lard  Refinery 145,248  ... 

London  Branch 32-37,  233-5,  280-1  ... 


Index. 

PAGE 

Co-operative  Wholesale  Societies  (con.) —         ^ ^^~- ■ . 

English.  Scottish. 

Mantle  Factory 134  ...                    377 

Newcastle  Branch  21-31,  230-2,  278-9  . . . 

Officers  and  Departments 1 92-5  . . .                    287 

Paint,  &c.,  Works 162,270  ... 

Preserve,  &c.,  Works 85-6,238  ...                    385 

Printing  Works : 

Longsight  138,250  ... 

Pelaw  141,252  ... 

Leicester  142,  250  ... 

Shieldhall ...           314,  383 

Progress  of  the  Wholesale  Societies  21 8-2 1  ...                365-6 

Reserve  Fund  Account  222 

Scrutineer,  Past  216  ... 

Shirt  Factories 130,256  ...            341,375 

Soap,  Candle,  &c..  Works: 

Irlam 101,  238  ... 

Silvertown 102,240  ... 

Dunston 105,  240  ... 

Grangemouth  ...           333,  390 

Tailoring  Factories : 

Leeds  109,260  ... 

Broughton 110,260  ... 

Pelaw  113,  272  ... 

Shieldhall ...           321,  374 

Telegraphic  Addresses 208  ... 

Telephonic  Communication 210  ... 

Tinplate  Works,  Birtley 161,270  ... 

Tobacco  Factory  149,  248 

Trade  Terms,  Conditions  of  Membership,  &c. 

Underclothing  Factory  

Union  Bank  of  Scotland,  Branches 

Weaving  Sheds: 

Bury 153, 

Radcliffe 154, 

Woollen  Department    228, 

Woollen  Mills,  Batley  106,256  ... 

Cost  of  Living,  The:    The  Co-operative  Movement  and  Its  Mission. — 

By  H.  Clement  Gray  515 

Customs  Tariff  599 


Death  Duties,  The  606 

Denmark,  What  Co-operative  Dairying  has  done  for. — By  J.  J.  Dunne  568 

Discount,  Average  Minimum  Rate  per  Cent,  of 603 

Dunne,  J.  J. — MTiat  Co-operative  Dairying  has  done  for  Denmark 568 

Duties,  Customs,  in  the  United  Kingdom 599 


248  ... 

384 

362 

134  ... 

379 

... 

364 

258  ... 

258  ... 

277  ... 

Index. 

PAGE 

Eclipses 642 

Education,  The  Problem  of  Continuation. — By  H.  M.  Richardson 471 

Expectation  of  Life 614 

Grain  Crop,  The  Handling  and  Transportation  of  the  Ccuiadian. — By 

Edward  Porritt 545 

Gray,  H.  Clement. — The  Cost  of  Living:   The  Co-operative  Movement 

and  its  Mission  515 

Haslam,  James. — Women  in  Industry 419 

Holidays,  Bank  '. 642 

Income  and  Expenditure  of  the  United  Kingdom,  year  ending  March 

31st,  1914 598 

Income  imder  Review  by  Inland  Revenue 625 

Intestate,  Rules  by  which  the  Personal  Estates  of  Persons  Dying,  are 

Distributed 609 

Intestate,  Rules  of  Division  according  to  the  Law  of  Scotland  of  the 

Movable  Estate  of  a  Person  who  has  Died  611 

King  and  Royal  Family 622 

Land,  Dealings  with 604 

Law  Relating  to  Societies,  Sunmiary  of  the 415 

Law  Sittings 642 

Life,  Expectation  of  614 

Meteorological  Tables 629-634 

Money,  L.  G.  Chiozza,  M.P. — Our  National  Wealth:    The  Conditions 

of  its  Continuance '. 449 

Our    National    Wealth:     The    Conditions    of    its    Continuance. — By 

L.  G.  Chiozza  Money,  M.P 449 

Parliaments  of  the  United  Kingdom  622 

PoUard,  Bedford. — Some  Ancient  CiviHsations  and  their  Lessons 489 

Population,  Total,  of  the  United  Kingdom 619 

Porritt,  Edward. — The  Handling  and  Transportation  of  the  Canadian 

Grain  Crop  545 

Presidents  of  the  L^nited  States  of  America  624 

Price  of  Two-and-a-Half  per  Cent.  ConsoUdated  Stock 602 

k Progress  of  Co-operation  (United  Kingdom)  585 

Public  Acts  Passed,  1914 596 

Railway  Accidents 618 

Rainfall,  Tabulated  Statements  of 635 

Registers  of  Births,  Marriages,  and  Deaths '642 

Richardson,  H.  M. — The  Problem  of  Continuation  Education 471 

xi. 


Illd 


ex. 


PAGE 

Royal  Family,  The  King  and 622 

Rules  by  which  the  Personal  Estates  of  Persons  Dying  Intestate  are 

Distributed 609 

Rules  of  Division  according  to  the  Law  of  Scotland  of  the  Movable 

Estate  of  a  Person  who  has  Died  Intestate 611 

Terms  and  Abbreviations  Commonly  Used  in  Business  640 

Tide  Table,  Liverpool 636 

Tide  Table,  Goole 638 

Time  all  over  the  World  625 

Union,  Co-operative,  its  Principles,  and  an  Account  of 414 

United  Kingdom,  the  Public  Income  and  Expenditure,  Year  ending 

March  31st,  1914 : 598 

United  Kingdom,  Customs  Tariff  of  the  599 

United  Kingdom,  Parliaments  of  the  622 

United  Kingdom,  Population  of  the 619 

United  States,  Presidents  of 624 

Wealth,    Our    National:     The    Conditions    of    its    Continuance. — By 

L.  G.  Chiozza  Money,  M.P 449 

Women  in  Industry. — By  James  Haslam 419 

Wrecks,  United  Kingdom : 620-1 


Comparative  Progress  of  Wholesale  and  Retail 
Co-operative  Societies  in  the  United  Kingdom. 

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i 


i 


90 
85 

80 
75 
70 
65 
60 
55 
50 
45 
40 
35 
30 
25 
20 


15 
10 
5 


FIFTY-ONE   YEARS'    PROGRESS   OF  CO-OPERATIVE 
SOCIETIES  IN  THE  UNITED  KINGDOM. 


Sales. 
Years.         & 

1862  2,333,523 

1863  2,673,778 

1864  2,836,606 

1865  3,373,847 

1866  4,462,676 

1867  6,001,153 

1868  7,122,360 

1869  7.353,363 

1870  8,201,685 

1871  9,463,771 

1872  13,012,120 

1873  15,639,714 

1874  16,374,053 

1875  18,499,901 

1876  19,921,054 

1877  21,390,447 

1878  21,402,219 

1879  20,382,772 

1880  23,248,314 

1881  24,945,063 

1882  27,541,212 

1883  29,336,028 

1884  30,424,101 

1885  31,305,910 

1886  32,730,745 

1887  34,483,771 

Total  Sales  in  the  Fifty-one  Years,) 

1862  to  1912  ) 

Profits  in  the  Fifty  one) 
Years,  1862  to  1912 J 


Total 


Sales. 

Ykark.  a, 

1888  37,793,903 

1889  40,674,673 

1890  43.731,669 

1.891  49,024,171 

1892  51,060,854 

1893  51,803,836 

1894  52,110,800 

1895  55,100,249 

1896  59,951,635 

1897  64,956,049 

1898 68,523,969 

1899  73,533,686 

1900  81,020,428 

1901  85,872,706 

1902  89,772,923 

1903  93,384,799 

1904  96,263,328 

1905  98,002,565 

1906  102,408,120 

1907  111,239,503 

1908  113,090,337 

1909  115,159,630 

1910  118,448,910 

1911  123,526,351 

1912  130,499,145 


£2,441,414,425 
£234,617,537 


STATISTICAL    POSITION   OF  CO-OPERATIVE 
SOCIETIES   IN  THE   UNITED   KINGDOM, 

December  31st,  1912. 

Compiled  from  Uie  Returns  made  by  Societies  to  the  Registrar  and 
Co-operative  Union. 
Number  of  Members     3,167,682  £ 


Share  Capital  . 
Loan  Capita  i 

S3,les  for  1912 

Net   Profits  for  1912 
lVv{»ted  to  Education, 


1912 


40,822,192 

23,657,247 

130,499,145 

13,372,501 

98,169 


Fifty-one  Years'  Progress  of  Co-operative  Societies 
in  the  United  Kingdom. 

YEARS  6234  5  6  7  8  9701  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9801  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9901  2  34  6  8  78  9191  2  34  fi6  789101112 


MUI- 
lons 

130 

125 
120 
116 
1110 
105 

too 

95 
90 
85 
80 
75 
70 
65 
60 
55 
50 
45 
40 
35 
30 
25 
20 
15 
10 
5 


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YEARS  62  3456789  7m9aifiR7RQRm9!lififi78Q9ni9345B7891912S456  7  8  9101112 


FIFTY  YEARS'  PROGRESS  OF  THE 
CO-OPERATIVE  WHOLESALE  SOCIETY  LIMITED. 


Years. 

1864  (w~J 

1865  

1866  ...... 

1867  (w«J 

1868  

1869  

1870  (w^,.) 

1871  

1872  

1873  

1874  

1875  

1876  U.-,J 

1877  

1878  

1879  (we^.s) 

1880  

1881  

1882  

1883  

1884  (we^^eJ 

1885  

1886  

1887  

1888  


Sales. 

£51,857 

120,754 

175,489 

331,744 

412,240 

507,217 

677,734 

758,764 

1,153,132 

1,636,950 

1,964,829 

2,247,395 

2,697,366 

2,827,052 

2,705,625 

2,645,331 

3,339,681 

3,574,095 

4,038,238 

4,546,889 

4,675,371 

4,793,151 

5,223,179 

5,713,235 

6,200,074 


Years. 

1889 

1890 

1891 

1892 

1893 

1894 

1895 

1896 

1897 

1898 

1899 

1900 

1901 

1902 

1903 

1904 

1905 

1906 

1907 

1908 

1909 

1910 

1911 

1912 

1913 


(     68 
VWeeka 


Sales. 

)  £7,028,944 

7,429,073 

8,766,430 

9,300,904 

9,526,167 

9,443,938 

(w^J  10,141,917 

11,115,056 

11,920,143 

12,574,748 

14,212,375 

16,043,889 

(wlU  17,642,082 

18,397,559 

19,333,142 

19,809,196 

20,785,469 

22,510,035 

(we^  J  24,786,568 

24,902,842 

25,675,938 

26,567,833 

27,892,990 

)  29,732,154 
31,371,976 


(weeks, 


Total  Sales  in  the  Fifty  Years,)       £}At\t\  orio  '^g^ix 
1864  TO   1913 1      ^^^^^3JiTS,l%3\3 

Total  Profits  in  the  Fifty  Yeabs.) 


1864  to  1913 


£8,455,202 


STATISTICAL   POSITION   OF  THE  CO-OPERATIVE 

WHOLESALE  SOCIETY    LIMITED, 

December  27th,  1913. 

Number  of  Societies  holding  Shares    1,168 

Number  of  Members  belonging  to  Shareholders     . .  .2,272,496 

Share  Capital  (Paid  up)    

Loans  and  Deposits 


Reserve  Fund — Trade  and  Bank 

Insurance  Fund 

Sales  for  the  Year  1913    

Net  Profits  for  Year  1913 


£ 

2,039,054 

5,082,790 

811,816 

877,479 

31,371,976 

636.119 


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»  JOINT   WITH    SCOTTISH    WHOLESALE    SOCIETY 


Foreign  and  Colonial  Depots. 


O  JOINT   WITH    SCOTTISH    WHOLESALE    SOCIETY 
■    •  CO-OPERATIVE    WHOLESALE    SOCIETY 


Map  of  the  United   Kingdom,  showing 
Depots,  &c.,  of  the  Wholesale  Societies. 


Business  Premises, 


6-c., 
OWNED  BY 


THE   CO-OPERATIVE   WHOLESALE 
SOCIETY    LIMITED. 


Central  Premises, 


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iffiii 


Original  Balloon  Street  Premises. 

TN  1869  the  Co-operative  Wholesale  Society  built  the  premises 
■*■  shown  in  the  illustration  heading  this  page,  in  which  to  carry 
on  its  fast-growing  business.  For  six  years  after  1863,  when 
the  Society's  career  began,  its  work  was  performed  in  rented 
buildings,  but  when  the  trade  reached  nearly  £300,000  per  annum 
the  Committee  felt  emboldened  to  the  extent  of  building  the 
Balloon  Street  property.  At  that  time  the  only  other  C.W.S. 
buildings  existing  were  small  depots  for  the  pmxhasing  of  butter 
at  Tipperary  and  Kilmallock,  in  Ireland. 

In  fifty  years  the  business  has  made  rapid  strides ;  almost 
every  year  has  seen  extensions,  developments,  or  new  enterprises 
launched,  and  now  all  the  premises  portrayed  on  the  following 
pages  are  the  property  of  the  C.W.S. 

In  the  second  illustration  Balloon  Street  runs  up  between  the 
two  main  blocks,  and  the  original  building  is  that  at  the  top  of 
the  street  on  the  right-hand  side  surmounted  by  a  glass  dome.  Up 
to  the  year  1885  this  warehouse  towered  above  an  environment  of 
slum  property.  At  the  rear  was  "Clock  Alley,"  a  court  lined  with 
old  cottages,  and  leading  to  Corporation  Street;  little  public-houses 
and  coal  yards,  a  cotton-waste  warehouse  and  miscellaneous  small 
buildings  were  adjacent.  All  these  have  been  supplanted  by  the 
buildings   of   the    C.W.S.      In    the    right-hand   block    the    Bank 


Si 

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CENTRAL  PREMISES-con/mae(f. 

occupies  a  considerable  portion  of  the  ground  floor;  above  this 
the  grocery  saleroom  and  buyers'  offices  are  situated,  and  the 
remainder  of  the  premises  house  part  of  the  Furnishing  and  the 
Stationery  Departments.  The  furnishing  showrooms  exhibit 
samples  of  practically  every  article  that  can  be  included  under 
that  denomination,  from  suites  for  the  drawing-room  to  flat-irons, 
literally  too  numerous  to  mention.  Societies  in  the  vicinity  of 
Manchester  are  able  to  send  prospective  customers  to  inspect 
the  stocks,  thus  enabling  the  members  of  a  small  village  Store 
to  gain  the  same  advantages  as  are  enjoyed  by  city  folk.  Carpets, 
rugs,  plate,  and  jewellery  are  all  to  be  found  here.  The  Stationery 
Department  supplies  Societies  with  wrapping  paper,  twine,  and 
paper  bags,  besides  all  kinds  of  fancy  stationery.  Recreation  is 
also  dealt  in,  for  this  department  will  provide  concerts,  or  organise 
excursions  for  holiday  makers. 

The  buildings  on  the  left  of  Balloon  Street  are  shown  on  a 
larger  scale  in  the  illustration  opposite.  Here,  again,  several 
mean  and  insanitary  courts  and  alleys  have  been  demolished  to 
give  place  to  a  fine  pile  facing  Corporation  Street.  At  the  top 
is  the  Mitchell  Memorial  Hall,  named  after  Mr.  J.  T.  ^Y.  Mitchell, 
who  died  in  1895,  having  been  Chairman  of  the  C.W.S.  for 
twenty-one  years.  The  Hall  is  107ft.  long,  G7ft.  wide,  and  33ft. 
in  height;  it  will  seat  1,200  persons.  The  first  Quarterly  Meeting 
held  here  was  in  September,  1907.  The  floors  below  the  Hall 
are  occupied  by  the  Board  and  Committee  Eooms,  the  Secretary's 
and  General  Offices,  and  the  basement  provides  a  commodious 
Dining-hall,  rendered  bright  and  attractive  by  dint  of  many  mirrors 
and  white  enamel  paint. 

The  Architect's  Department  is  located  in  this  building.  A 
large  and  efficient  staff  is  constantly  occupied  with  work  for  the 
C.W.S.  and  retail  Societies. 

Nearly  2,500  employes  are  engaged  in  earning  their  daily 
bread  at  the  Central  premises. 


Balloon  Street  and  Garden  Street* 


/^N  either  side  of  this  building  will  be  noticed  the  words 
^^  ''Co-operative  Wholesale  Society;"  these  mark  the 
limits  of  the  warehouse  acquired  in  1869.  The  Grocery 
Department  is  in  possession  of  the  major  portion  of  this 
block.  Here  are  held  stocks  of  all  goods  coming  under 
the  head  of  grocery,  in  variety  too  great  to  enumerate. 
An  extensive  trade  is  done  in  packed  goods,  and  a  small 
regiment  of  damsels  is  kept  busily  occupied  in  filling 
packets  of  convenient  size  with  rice,  tapioca,  canary-seed, 
linseed,  oatmeal,  and  self-raising  flour;  150  tons  of  this 
latter  commodity  is  the  average  weekly  output.  This 
department  will  in  the  course  of  three  or  four  months  be 
removed  to  the  new  Packing  Warehouse  at  Trafford  Park. 
Situated  on  the  upper  floors  and  basement  of  the 
building  fronting  Balloon  Street  is  the  Boot  and  Shoe 
Department.  Here  one  may  find  220,000  pairs  of 
footgear  for  men,  women,  boys,  girls,  and  infants  in 
immense  variety  of  patterns,  drawn  from  the  factories 
at  Leicester,  Heckmondwike,  Enderby,  Pushden,  and 
Leeds. 


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Drapery  Warehouses,  Balloon  Street* 


'"pHESE  warehouses  are  at  the  corner  of  Balloon  Street 
■*•  and  Federation  Street,  a  thoroughfare  created  by  the 
C.W.S.,  and  a  name  conferred  upon  it  that  has  a  deep 
significance  to  all  co-operators. 

With  the  completion  of  the  new  warehouse  on  the 
right-hand  side  of  Federation  Street,  the  C.^Y.S.  occupies 
the  whole  of  Balloon  Street  with  buildings  erected  under 
its  own  direction.  The  general  effect  of  the  smart 
modern  buildings  is  naturally  much  enhanced  by  the 
widening  of  the  street,  in  itself  a  great  improvement  to  a 
busy  thoroughfare. 

The  new  premises  will  add  83,000  square  feet  of 
accommodation  for  the  drapery  departments,  and  be 
devoted  to  fancy  drapery,  the  warehouse  opposite  being 
also  for  drapery,  but  the  heavier  descriptions  will  be 
dealt  vvith  here. 

From  the  topmost  floors  to  the  basements  they  are 
stocked  with  a  huge  variety  of  goods,  including  everything 
that  should  find  a  place  in  a  well-equipped  Drapery  Store. 

The  vagaries  of  fashion  are  kept  closely  in  view  by 
the  buyers  in  the  various  departments,  and  hard  indeed  to 
satisfy  would  be  the  customer  whose  requirements  the 
C.W.S.  failed  to  meet.  This  remark  applies  not  only  to 
the  bewildering  variety  of  materials  drawn  from  world- 
wide sources,  but  also  with  equal  force  to  the  productions 
made  in  the  C.W.S.  Factories.  There  is  also  the  added 
satisfaction  in  this  respect  that  the  C.W.S.  goods  are 
made  under  known  conditions  of  healthy  surroundings. 


Drapery,  &c.,  Departments,  Dantzic  Street* 


Original  Dantzic  Street  Premises. 


HTHE  C.W.S.  entered  into  the  drapery  trade  in  1873,  and 
with  such  success  that  a  warehouse  in  Dantzic  Street  was 
secured  in  1875.  At  this  time  the  business  in  drapery  and 
woollen  cloth  amounted  to  £114,000  annually.  Additions  were 
constantly  made  to  adapt  the  premises  to  the  growing  demands 
until  the  building  reached  its  present  dimensions.  It  was  not 
long,  however,  before  the  cry  was  again  raised  for  more  room, 
and  the  fine  drapery  w^arehouse  in  Balloon  Street  was  erected 
and  opened  in  1904. 

The  premises  are  occupied  by  the  Woollens,  Eeady-mades, 
and  Shirts  Departments.  The  ready-mades  are  all  from  the 
O.W.S.  Factories  at  Broughton  or  Leeds,  and  the  cloth  from 
various  sources,  amongst  others  the  C.W.S.  Batley  Mill  and  the 
Scottish  C.W\S.  Ettrick  Mills.  From  this  department  the  male 
co-operator  can  be  completely  supplied  with  all  the  articles 
demanded  by  necessity  or  custom. 


10 


Bacon  Factory,  Trafford  Wharf. 


"DACON  rolling  and  smoking  was  carried  on  in  the  Balloon 
■*-^  Street  warehouse  for  many  years  until  the  exigencies  of  space 
made  it  necessary  to  find  better  accommodation.  With  this  end 
in  view,  a  plot  of  land  was  secured  on  the  banks  of  the  Ship 
Canal,  adjacent  to  the  Sun  Mill,  and  here  a  factory  was  built, 
which  has  now  been  in  use  about  nine  years. 

The  Trafford  Wharf  Factory  is  not  a  curing  house.  So  far 
as  the  C.W.S.  is  concerned,  curing  is  done  at  the  C.W.S. 
Factories  in  Tralee  (Ireland)  and  Herning  (Denmark).  At  Tralee 
every  week  about  1,000  pigs  are  killed  and  twice  as  many  sides 
of  bacon  cured.  These  are  despatched  to  the  C.W.S.  at  Trafford 
Wharf,  London,  Bristol,  Cardiff,  and  Newcastle.  To  meet  the 
demand  for  smoked  bacon  there  are  eighteen  etoves  of  the  latest 
and  best  pattern. 

There  are  about  70  employes  engaged  mainly  in  the  making 
of  rolls,  and  the  weight  of  bacon  and  hams  dealt  with  weekly 
varies  from  120  tons  to  140  tons. 

THE  TRANSPORT  WAREHOUSE  AND  WHARF 

has  a  frontage  to  the  canal  of  460  feet,  the  buildings  occupying 
360ft.  by  60ft.  The  premises  and  site  were  acquired  in  July, 
1903,  and  the  warehouse  is  now  well  equipped  for  receiving, 
storing,  and  despatching  the  various  commodities.  Five  electric 
cranes  lift  the  goods  from  the  hold  of  ship  or  barge  to  the 
warehouse,  and  deposit  them  in  railway  wagons  on  the  quayside 
or  transfer  them  to  lurries.  The  permanent  staff  of  23  is 
augmented  by  casual  labour  at  busy  times,  as  in  the  dried  fruit 
season,  until  as  many  as  200  workers  may  be  employed,  and  these 
deal  with  an  average  of  15,000  tons  of  merchandise  yearly.  The 
C.W.S.  is,  we  believe,  the  only  firm  which  possesses  its  own 
accommodation  at  the  Manchester  Docks. 

THE  ENGINEERING  WORKS 

is  another  section  of  the  Trafford  Park  group.  It  was  originally 
a  repair  shop,  but  now  deals  mostly  with  new  work,  and  modern 
tools  have  been  installed  for  undertaking  general  engineering, 
electrical  work,  and  millwrighting  in  all  its  branches.  The 
Engineers'  Department  at  Balloon  Street  act  as  consulting, 
mechanical,  electrical,  and  heating  and  ventilating  engineers  for 
complete  installations,  reports  being  made  on  existing  work,  and 
plans  and  specifications  prepared  for  repairs  or  new  work. 


13 


Grocery  Packing  Warehouse, 
Trafford  Park^ 

npHIS  building  occupies  a  site  fronting  Trafford  Park 
•*•  Road,  and  lying  between  Sun  Mill  and  the  Bacon 
Warehouse.  It  has  railway  accommodation  directly 
connected  with  the  Ship  Canal  and  Trafford  Park 
Eailways.  The  building  is  six  storeys  in  height,  each  floor 
being  217ft.  Gin.  long  by  54ft.  6in.  wide.  Being  a 
detached  building,  it  has  the  advantage  of  being  well 
lighted  by  windows  all  round.  There  are  two  fireproof 
-staircases,  one  at  each  end  of  the  building,  which  give 
ample  protection  to  the  employes  in  case  of  fire,  and  two 
electric  cage  hoists  and  one  sack  hoist.  Each  department 
is  provided  with  suitable  accommodation  for  washing, 
&c.,  and  in  addition  there  are  men's  and  women's 
dining-rooms. 

It  is  expected  that  these  premises  will  be  ready  for 
occupation  about  March  or  April,  when  the  work  will 
be  removed  from  Balloon  Street.  Among  the  many 
advantages  conferred  by  the  new  building  will  be  the 
direct  transition  by  conveyor  from  the  Sun  Mill  of  the 
flour  used  in  making  the  popular  "Federation"  self-raising 
flour,  150  tons  being  the  average  weekly  output.  The 
improved  facilities  will  enable  us  to  deal  not  only  more 
expeditiously  with  goods,  but  also  with  greatly  increased 
trade,  which  we  are  confidently  anticipating. 


14 


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f 


I 


Broughton  Building,  Traffic 
Departments,  &c. 

'T'HE  Building  Department  sprang  from  the  remains  of 
■■•  the  Union  Land  and  Building  Society,  which  failed 
in  1880.  The  C.W.S.,  being  large  mortgagees,  took 
over  some  of  the  assets,  among  which  were  building 
materials,  and  a  department  was  formed  at  Balloon 
Street,  which  was  chiefly  confined  to  repair  work.  The 
first  building  of  any  magnitude  erected  by  the  department 
was  the  extension  of  the  original  Balloon  Street  premises. 
Since  then  its  achievements  have  been  numerous,  the 
chief  of  which  was  the  erection  of  the  imposing  Central 
Of&ces,  &c.,  shown  in  the  bird's-eye  view  on  another 
page.  The  department  was  removed  to  Broughton  in 
January,  1913,  and  now,  in  addition  to  C.W.S.  work,  it 
contracts  in  the  open  market  for  the  work  of  retail 
Societies.  All  equipments  are  to  be  found  at  Broughton 
for  the  making  of  shop  fronts  and  fittings,  and  many 
Societies'  new  premises  bear  testimony  to  the  artistic 
and  substantial  quality  of  the  work.  All  the  branches  of 
the  trade  are  represented — draughtsmen,  clerks,  joiners, 
plumbers,  masons,  &c. — and,  with  the  perfect  organisation 
and  centralisation  of  the  work,  many  economies  both  in 
time  and  cost  are  effected. 

The  traffic  department  is  an  essential  adjunct  to  an 
institution  of  the  magnitude  of  the  C.W.S.  Here, 
again,  beginnings  were  very  humble,  but  naturally  the 
department  has  grown  with  the  trade,  and  has  also  kept 
abreast  w^ith  the  times,  for  in  addition  to  the  numerous 
horses,  drays,  &c.,  a  large  fleet  of  motor  lurries  are  housed 
at  Broughton,  but  as  yet  the  Society  has  not  engaged  in 
air  traction.  The  department  specialises  in  quick  transit 
of  perishable  goods  and  direct  conveyance  of  fragile  goods 
to  save  handling  in  transit. 

The  description  of  the  Broughton  Factories  would  be 
incomplete  without  mention  of  the  spacious  dining-room. 
Here  accommodation  is  found  for  800  employes,  and 
meals  can  be  obtained  at  a  tariff  which  is  suited  to  the 
pockets  of  the  workers.  During  the  winter  months  social 
functions  are  frequently  held  to  promote  good  fellowship 
among  the  employes. 


17 


E*&S*C*W»S»  Joint  Insurance  Dept< 

(late  CJ.S.), 
Corporation  Street,  Manchester. 


'T'HE  history  of  the  Co-operative  Insurance  Society 
is  a  record  of  honourable  and  useful  work  for 
co-operation.  The  Society  was  registered  in  1867,  under 
the  Companies  Act,  and  both  Societies  and  individuals 
were  admitted  to  membership.  In  1872  business  first 
was  done  through  paid  agents ;  and  in  1875  the  policy  of 
re-insuring  risks  first  was  adopted.  In  1899,  following 
the  Industrial  and  Provident  Societies  Act  of  1893,  the 
company  was  converted  into  a  Co-operative  Society,  and 
all  forms  of  insurance  were  undertaken,  while  branches 
subsequently  were  opened  in  Scotland  and  in  England 
north  and  south.  The  year  1904  witnessed  the 
materialising  of  the  happy  idea  of  collective  insurance. 
From  1905  a  movement  for  the  unification  of  co-operative 
insurance  had  been  afoot,  and,  after  several  years  of 
discussion  at  conferences  and  meetings,  the  business  was 
transferred  to  the  joint  control  of  the  two  Wholesale 
Societies. 

For  the  first  four  years  the  office  was  at  the  Eochdale 
Pioneers'  store,  but  1871  saw  its  removal  to  Manchester. 
Various  premises  were  occupied  and  deserted  as  the 
demands  of  business  grew,  until  the  final  move  into  its 
present  home  took  place  in  1908. 


18 


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Newcastle  Branchy 


Newcastle  Branch,  Waterloo  Street,  in  1876. 


'T'HE  Newcastie-upon-Tyne  Branch  was  established  in 
•*■  1871,  or  exactly  eight  years  aft^r  rhe  inception  of 
the  C.W.S.  at  Manchester.  Business  was  commenced  in 
a  small  four-roomed  warehouse,  but,  with  a  rapidity 
characteristic  of  the  institution,  the  trado  outgrew  the 
accommodation,  and  it  was  thereupon  decided  to  build  the 
^Yaterloo  Street  warehouse,  the  occupation  of  which  was 
entered  into  in  1876.  That,  too,  only  sufficed  for  a  time, 
and  eventually  it  became  necessary  to  erect  the  larger 
warehouse  in  West  Blandford  Street. 


WEST  BLANDFORD  STREET. 

The  West  Blandford  Street  buildings  are  devoted  to 
the  Grocery,  Provision,  Boot  and  Shoe,  Woollens  and 
Eeady-mades,  Manchester  and  Greys,  Dress,  and  Paper 
and  Stationery  Departments,  as  well  as  the  General 
Offices,    Boardrooms,    Meeting   Hall,    and   Dining-room.. 

21 


^  Newcastle  Branch — continued. 

In  the  centre  of  the  main  buildings  is  a  spacious 
covered-in  yard,  where  the  receiving  and  despatching  of 
all  goods  is  conducted.  Further  up  the  street  will  be 
found  the  Motor  Garage  and  Stables,  and  also  a  building 
where  the  Saddlery  and  Leather  Bag-making  Departments 
are  located. 


WATERLOO  AND  THORNTON  STREETS. 

As  the  name  in  the  illustration  implies,  the  building 
on  the  left,  which  stands  in  Thornton  Street,  is  occupied 
by  the  Furnishing  and  Carpets  Department,  whilst  the 
other— the  Waterloo  Street  building — accommodates  the 
Millinery  and  Fancy  Drapery,  and  Jewellery  and  Fancy 
Hardware  Departments. 


( 


CO 


Newcastle-upon-Tyne  Quayside 
Warehouse* 

''  I  ^HE  erection  of  this  building  was  commenced  in  1900 
"*■  and  completed  in  1902.  It  originally  consisted  of 
eight  floors,  but  in  1909  an  extension  became  necessary, 
-and  the  roof,  which  had  hitherto  been  flat,  was  covered 
in.  The  building  is  90ft.  wide  by  120ft.  long,  and  the 
height  from  floor  to  ceiling  on  each  floor  is  a  little  over 
lift.  It  is  capable  of  warehousing  between  7,000  and 
■8,000  tons.  Being  conveniently  situated  to  the  river  and 
in  close  proximity  to  that  part  of  the  quay  where  the 
London,  Continental,  and  other  regular  lines  of  steamers 
•discharge  their  cargoes,  it  has  proved  to  be  a  great  boon 
to  the  departments  it  serves.  One  of  the  floors  is  used 
as  a  bonded  store  for  the  warehousing  of  dutiable  goods, 
and  it  is,  of  course,  only  open  during  regulation  hours. 
There  are  loading  and  discharging  platforms  fronting  the 
quayside,  and  also  at  the  back,  which  opens  out  into 
Sandgate.  All  goods  on  account  of  the  Grocery,  Butter, 
and  No.  1  Grain  Departments  are  dealt  with  by  the  staff 
there,  and  machinery  has  been  installed  for  cleaning 
fruit,  grain,  &c. 


Green  Fruit  and  Potato  Department, 
Stowell  Street. 

'T'HESE  premises  are  situated  in  close  proximity  to  the 
■■•  Newcastle  fruit  and  vegetable  markets.  The  building 
was  completed  in  the  year  1909,  and  comprises  basement, 
ground.  No.  1,  and  No.  2  floors.  In  the  basement  is  the 
banana-room,  specially  constructed  for  the  ripening  of 
Canary  and  Jamaica  bananas.  On  the  ground  floor  the 
work  of  receiving  and  despatching  is  transacted,  and 
special  facilities  are  provided  in  the  way  of  two  large 
dockways,  enabling  four  vehicles  to  be  attended  to  at 
the  same  time.  On  the  first  floor  are  situated  the 
manager's,  assistants',  and  general  offices,  whilst  a 
portion  of  the  flat  is  also  utilised  as  the  saleroom.  The 
second  floor  is  principally  used  for  storing  goods  of  a 
keeping  quality,  such  as  nuts,  figs,  &c. 


26 


1 

I 


Pelaw :  Bird's-eye  View* 

T^HE  policy  of  the  C.W.S.— and,  indeed,  of  the 
"*•  co-operative  movement  throughout — is  to  produce 
for  the  consumer  the  necessaries  of  Ufe  at  the  least 
possible  cost  consistent  with  the  best  possible  conditions 
for  the  workers. 

It  is  a  noticeable  fact  that  the  productive  works  of 
the  Wholesale  were  nearly  all  centred  in  and  around 
Manchester,  until,  in  pursuit  of  the  policy  above  referred 
to,  it  was  found  that  the  goods  there  produced  could  not 
be  supplied  to  the  consumers  in  the  Newcastle  district  at 
the  least  possible  cost,  consequent  upon  the  enormous 
carriage  they  had  to  bear.  As  a  remedy  the  Newcastle 
Branch  Committee  considered  that  their  duty  lay  in  the 
direction  of  establishing  productive  works  in  their  own 
district,  so  they  at  once  set  about  to  find  a  suitable  place 
wherein  to  commence  operations.  In  their  endeavours  to 
do  this  they  had  in  view  the  heavy  rates,  taxes,  &c.,  the 
factories  would  be  called  upon  to  pay  if  they  were 
established  in  Newcastle,  and  it  was  for  this  reason  partly 
that  Pelaw  was  chosen  as  the  venue  of  productive  effort 
by  the  Newcastle  Branch.  Another  reason  which 
animated  them  in  their  selection  of  Pelaw  as  the  ground 
on  which  their  victories  should  be  won  was  that  the  land 
could  be  procured  at  a  very  small  cost;  and,  again,  the 
sites  available  were  adjacent  to  the  railway,  thus  saving 
the  heavy  charges  for  cartage  to  and  from  the  station. 

Illustrations  of  the  separate  works  follow  in  due 
order,  which  comprise  Drug  and  Drysaltery  Depart- 
ment, Printing  Works,  Cabinet  Factory,  Clothmg 
Factory,  and  Engineering  Works. 

There  is  also  a  commodious  dining-room,  which  is 
found  to  be  a  great  convenience,  as  the  greater  number 
of  the  employes  come  from  considerable  distances. 


29 


Drug  and  Drysaltery  Works,  Pelaw, 


Tp'HIS  factory  began  in  1896  as  the  packing  department  of  the 

"*•     C.W.S.    with   seven   employes.      The    following   impression, 

from  the  "Wheatsheaf,"  conveys  some  idea  of  its  scope  to-day  :  — 

Many  visits  would  not  exhaust  the  interest  of  these  works. 
Standing  on  its  galleries,  overlooking  the  ordered  industry  below, 
one  has  curiously  the  impression  that  comes  when  exploring  the 
decks  or  on  the  bridge  of  a  ship,  particularly  an  ocean  liner. 
Perhaps  the  bridge-like  galleries  start  the  fancy.  Then  there  is 
the  same  cleanliness,  the  same  compactness  and  economy  of 
arrangement,  and  sufficiency  of  space  for  everything,  yet  no  waste 
of  an  article  so  valuable.  It  is  the  same  sense  of  completeness 
vvhich  makes  a  boat  at  once  the  simplest  and  most  perfect  example 
of  man's  skill  in  adapting  means  to  ends. 

The  scheme  of  the  building  is  a  great  glass-roofed  hall  with  a 
wide,  encircling  gallery,  which  is  divided  into  rooms  where  all 
the  mixing  is  done.  You  pass  in  rapid  tour  the  various  ingredients 
being  blended  for  such  diverse  things  as  Boot  Polish,  Metal  Polish, 
Emulsion  of  Cod  Liver  Oil,  Cake  Flours,  Bronchial  Mixture, 
the  various  household  remedies — but  the  list  is  endless.  In 
galleries  forming  a  St.  George's  cross  above  the  main  area  other 
goods  are  stored  in  bulk,  for  at  Pelaw  grocery  sundries  are  packed 
for  the  Newcastle  district.  Here  are  also  tins  and  bottles  stocked 
by  the  million.  And  almost  automatically  this  incongruous  host 
descends  by  its  own  weight  to  the  army  of  packers  below.  Patent 
bottling  and  weighing  machines  without  number  expedite  the 
work.  We  have  called  the  packers  an  army :  rather  they  are 
drill  sergeants  beneath  whose  marshalling  fingers  files  of  bottles, 
packages,  and  tins — tall,  squat,  thin,  broad-chested,  in  uniforms 
infinite  in  variety — form  themselves  into  companies  and  battalions. 
And  the  wonder  of  it  all  is  like  that  of  a  marvellously  intricate 
piece  of  mechanism. 

Efficiency  may  be  inhuman,  however.  Are  all  the  hundreds 
of  workers,  one  asks,  merely  cogs  in  the  machine?  Pelaw 
visited  dispels  such  an  idea.  When  the  "W^heatsheaf "  man 
arrived,  the  manager  of  the  works  was  engaged.  "If  you 
are  inclined,  just  wander  round  where  you  like;  then  ask  any 
questions  you  wish  in  twenty  mxinutes,  when  I'll  be  at 
liberty,"  he  said.  Full  use  was  made  of  the  permission,  and  the 
simile  of  machinery  gave  place  to  something  more  human. 
It  was  a  hive  of  happy  industry.  Obviously  there  was  no  driving. 
Subsequent  inquiry  proved  that  the  Congress  minimum  wage  scale 
is  in  force;  this  means  that  as  much  as  £3,000  extra  per  year  is 
paid  at  Pelaw  in  wages  compared  with  the  rates  which  rule  in 
many  competing  factories.  Only  the  continued  and  increasing 
loyalty  of  co-operators  can  overcome  so  great  a  handicap  to-day. 

30 


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V 


London :  Leman  Street. 


'T'HIS  fine  block  of  buildings  is  the  headquarters  of  the 
■'■  London  Branch.  The  older  part  of  the  building, 
with  the  clock  tower,  was  erected  in  1887,  and  the  new 
wing  for  the  accommodation  of  the  drapery  department 
was  opened  for  business  in  1910.  The  general  office, 
boardroom,  conference-hall,  dining-rooms,  and  kitchen 
are  all  in  the  older  building,  where  also  the  grocery 
saleroom  and  buyers'  offices  are  situated.  The  basement 
serves  the  purpose  of  a  storeroom  for  provisions — cheese, 
butter,  eggs,  lard,  &c. — while  the  upper  floors  are 
devoted  to  the  grocery  and  boot  and  shoe  departments, 
access  being  given  both  to  the  new  wing  and  to  a  still 
older  building  not  shown  in  the  illustration,  where 
the  furnishing,  ironmongery,  carpets,  and  stationery 
departments  are  situated. 

The  latest  wing  is  devoted  to  the  heavy  and  fancy 
drapery,  millinery,  and  ready-mades  departments,  the 
basement  being  used  for  a  joint  packing-room.  In  the 
building  is  a  telephonic  exchange,  which  connects  all  the 
departments  in  London,  Northampton,  Bristol,  Cardiff, 
Manchester,  Newcastle,  and  the  productive  works  in 
various  parts  of  the  country. 

The  building,  which  is  333  feet  in  length,  is  of 
fireproof  construction,  the  floors  being  built  of  steel  and 
concrete,  an  automatic  fire-extinguishing  apparatus  being 
mstalled  throughout.  Besides  three  stone  staircases  for 
business  purposes,  iron  stairways  provide  extra  exit  in 
case  of  fire.  There  are  two  electric  passenger  lifts, 
besides  numerous  lifts  for  the  conveyance  of  goods. 
Electric  light  is  provided  throughout,  and  the  building  is 
warmed  by  low-pressure  hot-water  pipes.  An  efficiently- 
drilled  fire  brigade  composed  of  members  of  the  staff 
affords  additional  security  against  fire. 


33 


London:  Bacon  Stoves,  &c» 

/CONSIGNMENTS  of  green  bacon  are  here  received 
^-^  from  various  pig  slaughtering  centres.  The  Enghsh, 
Irish,  and  Danish  meat  arrives  packed  in  bales,  the 
Canadian  in  boxes,  the  C.W.S.  supplies  to  Societies 
being  sent  out  in  crates.  A  large  proportion  of  the  meat 
comes  from  the  C.W.S.  bacon  factory  at  Herning, 
Denmark ;  while  supplies  are  also  received  from  the 
C.W.S.  bacon  factory  at  Tralee,  Ireland.  The  green 
bacon  is  put  into  the  stoves,  of  which  there  are  nine,  with 
a  capacity  of  2,034  sides.  The  smoking  process  takes 
three  days,  so  that  there  is  a  nominal  capacity  of  over 
4,000  sides  per  week. 

Above  the  bacon  stoves  is  a  storeroom  for  C.W.S. 
brushes  from  the  Leeds  factory ;  and  in  connection  with 
the  London  Branch  Furnishing  Department  are 
workrooms  for  French  polishing,  upholstering,  and  the 
manufacture  of  bedding.  The  leather  and  grindery 
department  occupies  a  portion  of  the  building.  Here  are 
kept  large  stocks  of  butts  and  bends  of  leather  in  the 
various  tannages  suitable  for  repairing,  besides  numerous 
requisites  for  the  boot  trade,  such  as  nails,  rivets,  rubber 
heels,  laces,  socks,  and  leggings. 


34: 


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London :  Fairclough  Street, 


npHESE  premises  occupy  a  site  bounded  by  Fairclough 
"■•  Street,  Backchurch  Lane,  and  Boyd  Street,  which 
has  an  area  of  about  4,416  square  yards. 

The  clearing  of  this  large  area  has  been  the  means  of 
demolishing  a  large  quantity  of  low-class  property,  and 
as  a  consequence  improving  the  sanitary  condition  of  the 
district. 

The  buildings  occupying  the  site  consist  of  an 
Empties  Department,  Joinery  Department,  stables  for 
forty-four  horses,  with  loft  over,  and  men's  mess-room, 
Engineers'  and  Electricians'  Department,  building 
material  storage,  laundry  and  boiler-house,  and  garage, 
with  office  and  covered  yards. 


Silvertown  Mill  and  Factories* 


'T'HIS  bird's-eye  view  is  inserted  for  the  purpose  of 
-*•  showing  the  relative  positions  of  the  Flour  Mill, 
Productive  Factory,  Soap  Works,  also  Employes'  Dining- 
rooms.  Other  plates,  which  will  be  found  in  their  places, 
give  the  separate  buildings  with  a  brief  account  of  the 
particular  work  carried  on. 


38 


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Productive  Factory,  Silvertown. 

■pXTERNALLY  the  factory  has  httle  attraction.  It  is  just  a 
^  huge  square  building  which  impresses  by  bulk  alone.  First 
it  arrests  by  its  size,  and  then  makes  its  spaciousness  seem  small 
by  comparison  with  the  multitude  of  articles  it  manufactures. 
It  is  a  Confectionery  Works,  and  Boiled  Sugars,  Fondants,  and 
Clear  Gums  are  made  in  forms,  colours,  and  flavours  innumerable. 
Should  anyone  desire  to  know  into  how  many  forms  sugar  can  be 
transmuted  in  boiled  sweets  alone,  Silvertown  can  offer  a  different 
kind  for  every  day  this  year  and  still  have  a  choice  variety  to 
select  from  on  high  days  and  holidays. 

Spice,  and  particularly  Pepper,  grinding  forms  another 
important  part  of  the  work.  The  milling  of  Mustard  is  a  new 
development  which  already  is  so  successful  that  the  plant  is  now 
being  doubled.  Other  products  range  from  Self -Raising  Flour  to 
Piccalilli,  from  Cremo  Oats  to  Beef  Extract,  from  Table  Jellies  to 
Table  Salt.  Such  is  the  scope  of  the  factory  established  onlv  in 
1904. 

"The  work  of  Silvertown  is  so  varied,  and  its  products  are 
so  dissimilar,"  said  a  writer  in  the  "Wheatsheaf"  recently,  "that 
to  convey  a  total  impression  by  one  word  is  not  easy.  If  it  could 
be  done  I  think  the  word  would  be  'specialisation.'  Despite  all 
diversity  this  is  the  abiding  idea  which  the  factory  leaves  in  the 
mind.  You  get  it  in  the  sweet  department;  there  may  be  men 
v/ho  know  more  than  its  foreman  about  boiling  sugar,  but  you 
would  hesitate  to  say  so.  There  seems  nothing  about  jellies, 
again,  that  their  maker  does  not  know.  You  are  abashed  in  the 
laboratory  and  amazed  in  the  statistical  department.  Then  the 
total  effect  comes  when  you  stand  watching  the  wooden  cases 
being  trundled  over  the  loading  way.  Only  that  morning  some 
of  these  orders  now  despatching  had  been  received.  But  each 
department  had  been  organised  to  anticipate  them.  Their 
execution  seems  as  automatic  as  the  flow  of  water  when  a  bath 
tap  is  turned.  It  is  specialisation  for  service,  for  the  service  of 
<:o-operators.  They  are  availing  themselves  of  it  increasingly, 
and  Silvertown  to-day  promises  to  be  too  small  to-morrow.'' 


41 


Bristol  Depot. 


n^HE  architectural  style  of  this  building  is  a  free 
■*■  treatment  of  English  Renaissance.  Due  attention 
has  been  given  to  the  provision  of  light  and  air  at  every 
portion  of  the  premises,  including  the  basement.  It  is 
situated  in  the  most  central  part  of  the  city,  the  Floating 
Harbour  forming  the  boundary  on  one  side,  thus  bringing 
water  communication  direct  to  the  building.  An  area 
of  about  2,231  square  yards  is  occupied,  consisting  of 
basement  and  six  floors. 

The  total  height  of  the  building  from  the  street  to 
the  ridge  of  the  roof  is  86  feet;  to  clock  tower  top,  130 
feet.  The  present  floor  space  is  about  100,000  square 
feet,  ultimately  to  be  increased  to  150,000  square  feet. 

The  building  has  a  commanding  entrance  from  the 
Quay,  surmounted  by  sculptural  figures,  illustrating  two 
of  the  local  industries — mining  and  agriculture — and  is 
fitted  with  an  electrically-driven  passenger  lift  running 
through  the  well-hole,  which  gives  rapid  means  of 
access  to  every  floor.  Similar  hoists  communicate  direct 
with  all  the  departments,  i.e.,  grocery,  drapery,  boots, 
furnishing,  ready-mades  and  woollen  cloth,  and  grocery 
sundry  packing. 

The  internal  structure  is  fire  resisting,  the  columns 
being  of  iron  and  the  floor  of  steel  girders,  filled  in  with 
cement  concrete  and  covered  with  pine  flooring. 

The  power  and  light  is  electrical.  Heat  is  by  low- 
pressure  hot  water  apparatus,  radiators  being  fixed  in  the 
various  rooms. 

Every  precaution  has  been  taken  against  fire,  the 
building  being  fitted  throughout  with  an  installation  of 
automatic  fire  sprinklers  of  the  "Grinnell"  pattern. 

A  complete  system  of  telephones  is  installed  for 
communication  between  all  departments. 


42 


'"  s-^  ■  i,^    k       k       Is  


''ito  'ifM^ 


-fT 


I 


m&m\hr'^!\^m^\  B 


i— & 


Cardiff  Depot. 


'T'  HE  building,  which  faces  Bute  Terrace  and  Mary  Ann 
•■•  Street,  was  erected  by  the  Building  Department, 
London  Branch,  from  the  designs  of  our  architect  at 
Balloon  Street.  It  consists  of  basement,  ground,  first, 
second,  third,  and  fourth  floors.  The  basement  floor  is 
7ft.  below  pavement  level,  and  up  to  the  ground  floor  is 
12ft.  high,  the  walls  being  built  with  ivory-white  glazed 
bricks.  The  ground  floor  is  about  110ft.  by  44ft.  and 
12ft.  high.  The  walls  of  this  and  the  other  floors  are 
matchboarded  all  round.  On  the  first  floor  are  the 
saleroom,  general  ofiices,  manager's  office,  and  the  usual 
lavatory  accommodation.  Part  of  the  third  floor  is  used 
for  departmental  showrooms,  and  the  fourth  floor  is 
occupied  by  the  Drapery  Department.  The  main 
staircase,  which  runs  from  the  basement  to  the  top  floor, 
is  surmounted  by  a  tower  about  14ft.  high,  and  flagstaff. 
The  building  is  fitted  up  with  electric  light,  the  supply 
being  taken  from  the  Corporation  mains.  The  heating 
arrangements  are  carried  out  by  hot-water  pipes  and 
radiators  situated  at  convenient  points. 


New  Depot,  Cardiff. 


npHE  C.W.S.  having  acquired  the  site  of  the  old  Town 
■*■  Hall,  Police  and  Fire  Brigade  Station,  and  old  Post 
Office,  is  now  erecting  new  premises  thereon. 

The  new  buildings  will  have  a  frontage  of  about  170 
feet  to  St.  Mary  Street,  and  a  depth  of  about  154  feet  to 
a  proposed  new  street  connecting  St.  Mary  Street  and 
Westgate  Street.  The  Westgate  Street  portion  of  the  site 
will,  for  the  present,  remain  unoccupied. 

There  will  be  eight  floors  including  basement. 

The  principal  entrance  will  be  in  the  centre  of  the 
elevation  to  St.  Mary  Street,  and  there  will  be  a  loading 
entrance  from  the  proposed  new  street  to  a  large  central 
covered  loading-yard. 

Accommodation  will  be  provided  for  the  grocery  and 
provision  department  on  the  basement,  ground,  and  first 
floors — the  latter  having  a  large  general  saleroom  for  the 
accommodation  of  retail  Societies'  buyers.  On  the 
second,  third,  and  fourth  floors  the  drapery,  boot  and 
shoe,  and  furnishing  departments  will  be  situated,  with 
joint  packing  and  receiving  department  on  the  ground 
floor  adjoining  the  central  loading-yard.  On  the  fifth 
and  sixth  floors  will  be  situated  an  Assembly  Hall  (73ft. 
long  by  53ft.  wide),  with  dining-room  in  conjunction 
therewith  and  subsidiary  rooms  for  various  purposes. 

Access  to  all  floors  will  be  from  an  imposing  central 
stone  staircase,  provided  with  high-speed  passenger  hoist 
in  the  well,  and  in  addition  there  will  be  a  secondary  stone 
staircase  as  an  alternative  means  of  exit.  For  warehouse 
purposes  there  will  be  three  electric  goods  hoists  running 
in  fireproof  hoist- wells,  so  that  the  safety  and  convenience 
of  all  visitors  to  the  building  will  be  amply  assured. 

Architecturally  the  building  will  have  an  imposing 
elevation  to  St.  Mary  Street,  of  a  free  classical  type,  the 
central  feature  being  surmounted  by  a  clock  tower. 

The  elevations  are  intended  to  be  formed  in  ashlar 
stonework. 


46 


tsr 


Northampton  Depot. 


THE  front  part  of  the  larger  building  was  built  in 
1897  by  the  C.W.S.'s  own  Building  Department, 
and  afterwards  extended  to  meet  the  increased  trade.  It 
is  used  for  the  distribution  of  groceries  to  the  small 
Societies  in  the  district.  (Previously  two  small  rooms 
were  occupied,  which  were  opened  in  October,  1890,  for 
use  as  a  saleroom  only.)  There  is  also  a  large  General 
Office,  some  of  the  clerks  being  engaged  wholly  in  audit 
w^ork  in  the  supervision  of  Societies'  accounts. 

The  smaller  building  is  used  as  a  bacon  warehouse, 
containing  smoke  stoves.  There  is  a  large  trade  done 
in  Danish  sides  (smoked  and  plain),  cured  in  our 
own  slaughteries,  and  smoked  on  the  premises ;  also  a 
considerable  quantity  of  iVmerican  bacon  is  sold,  consisting 
of  Cumberland  cuts,  bellies,  hams,  also  smoked  and  plain 
rolls.  The  rolling  is  done  on  the  premises,  and  the  bacon 
is  brought  principally  direct  through  our  New  York  house. 

The  Depot  is  situated  about  100  yards  from  the  Town 
Hall,  and  the  same  distance  from  the  Midland  Eailway 
Station,  and  stands  midway  between  the  two  points. 

The  district  covered  by  the  Depot  is  Northamptonshire 
and  Huntingdonshire;  also  part  of  Warwickshire, 
Bedfordshire,  Buckinghamshire,  Oxfordshire,  and 
Cambridgeshire. 


4ir 


Nottingham  Saleroom. 


T^HIS  Saleroom  is  situated  in  Friar  Lane,  a  thoroughfare 
■*■  leading  from  the  Market  Place  to  the  Castle.  It 
will  be  obvious  to  the  reader  from  the  first  glance  at  the 
illustration  that  this  ecclesiastical-looking  building  was 
not  originally  intended  for  a  saleroom.  Still,  its  interior 
provides  the  C.W.S.  with  an  ideal  sale  and  sample  room. 

The  building  was  previously  a  Congregational  Chapel, 
supported  mainly  by  well-to-do  people,  but  these 
gradually  migrated  to  the  suburbs,  leaving  the  services 
only  meagrely  attended. 

The  building  was  offered  for  sale  and  was  purchased 
by  the  C.W.S.  in  1899.  The  change  necessitated  many 
internal  alterations;  the  organ,  pulpit,  pews,  &c.,  were 
all  removed. 

On  entering,  there  is  a  clear  floor  space  of  4Sft.  by 
42ft.  The  ground  floor  is  occupied  by  the  Grocery  and 
Grocery  Productive  Departments,  and  a  representative 
display  of  samples  is  tastefully  arranged  on  counters  and 
tables,  while  handsome  showcases  are  placed  throughout. 
What  was  originally  the  vestry  is  now  the  manager's 
office. 

A  wide  staircase  leads  to  the  gallery  which  completely 
encircles  the  room.  This  is  occupied  by  the  Drapery, 
Woollens,  Boots,  Furnishing,  and  Crockery  Departments. 
The  millinery  and  mantles  have  a  special  room  on  the 
ground  floor  at  the  rear  of  the  building. 

For  the  convenience  of  Societies  in  and  near 
Nottingham  a  Furniture  Showroom  has  been  opened  in 
Wheelergate,  adjacent  to  the  Saleroom,  and  if  the  volume 
of  business  should  justify  such  action  no  doubt  further 
developments  may  be  looked  for. 


50 


Nottinghaxa  Salercx>in :  Friar  Lane. 


i 


'fii® 


fi  m 


I 


Birmingham  Saleroom :  16,  Pershore  Street. 


Birmingham  Saleroom  and  Cycle  Depot. 

nr'  HE  handsome  block  of  buildings  seen  in  the  illustration 
*  was  completed  in  1910.  Previously  the  premises  at 
Birmingham  consisted  of  only  the  two-storeyed  building 
seen  on  the  left-hand  side  of  the  illustration,  and  was  used 
solely  for  saleroom  purposes,  the  ground  floor  being 
occupied  by  the  Grocerj^  Saleroom,  the  room  above  having 
to  suffice  for  all  other  departments.  It  had  long  been 
felt  to  be  an  impossibility  to  make  a  display  in  the  limited 
room  at  the  disposal  of  the  drapery  and  allied  departments, 
so  on  the  decision  of  the  Committee  to  form  a  Cycle  Depot 
at  Birmingham  it  was  decided  to  take  in  the  two  blocks  of 
premises  adjacent,  which  were  already  in  the  possession 
of  the  C.W.S.,  and  erect  a  building  which  w^ould  give  more 
saleroom  space,  and  also  could  be  utilised  for  a  Cycle 
Depot.  Operations  were  coromenced,  and  resulted  in  the 
building  seen  on  the  opposite  page.  The  premises  have 
a  fine  frontage  on  Pershore  Street,  and  are  well  within 
five  minutes'  walk  from  New  Street  Station.  The  older 
portion  of  the  building  is  now*  used  for  Grocery  Sale  and 
Sample  Room  on  the  ground  floor,  and  the  upper  floor  is 
the  Showroom  for  the  Boots,  Furnishing,  Hardware,  and 
Crockery  Departments.  In  the  new  buildings  the  whole 
of  the  first  floor  is  occupied  by  the  drapery  and  allied 
departments,  and  gives  plenty  of  room  for  a  grand  display. 
The  Cycle  Department  occupies  the  basement  and  upper 
room  as  warehouses,  the  ground  floor  being  used  for 
offices  and  showrooms.  The  Grocery  Department  and 
Cycle  Depot  are  open  for  business  every  day. 


53 


Huddersfield  Saleroom^ 


'T'HIS  Saleroom  was  first  originated  in  1885.  Business 
^  was  commenced  in  the  boardroom  of  the  Industrial 
Society.  A  room  in  Lion  Arcade  was  taken  a  little  later, 
and  samples  of  grocery  were  first  shown;  eventually  the 
boots  and  shoes  and  drapery  representatives  commenced 
to  attend  every  two  months,  and  another  room  adjoining 
was  taken.  After  many  years  of  growing  business  it 
was  removed  to  much  larger  premises  in  1898,  at  4, 
Eailway  Street,  where  we  occupied  three  floors — the 
ground  floor  for  office,  the  first  floor  for  grocery,  drapery, 
and  boots ;  second  floor  for  crockery,  mantles,  and 
furnishing.  The  drapery  and  boots  representatives, 
owing  to  increasing  trade,  now  attended  weekly,  and 
these  premises  soon  began  to  show  signs  of  being  too 
small  for  the  business. 

In  1904  the  Huddersfield  Brush  Factory  was  taken 
over,  and  in  1906  the  business  was  transferred  to  the 
Leeds  Brush  Factory.  The  premises  were  then 
reconstructed  and  converted  into  the  present  saleroom. 
These  premises  were  open  for  business  in  October,  1907, 
and  consist  of  three  floors  and  basement. 

The  basement  is  utilised  for  washing  hams  and  storing 
empties;  on  the  ground  floor  are  the  manager's  office  and 
warehouse,  where  a  stock  of  hams,  cheese,  bacon, 
potatoes,  onions,  and  green  fruit  are  kept.  The  grocery 
saleroom  is  also  on  this  flat.  The  first  floor  is  occupied 
by  boots  and  shoes,  ready-mades,  furnishing,  crockery, 
and  brushes;  the  second  floor,  which  is  a  well-lighted 
room,  being  lighted  from  the  roof,  is  used  for  drapery, 
mantles,  and  millinery. 

There  is  a  smokeroom;  also  an  electric  hoist  and 
electric  lights  throughout.  The  trade  has  increased 
considerably  since  occupying  these  premises. 


54 


\ 


11^  m. 


^CS, 


■   «v- 


s-     •»  %. 


^'  o 


'^i^^^ 


Longton  Crockery  Depot* 

nr'HE  pottery  trade  first  engaged  the  attention  of  the 
■'■  Wholesale  Society  in  1886,  when  the  increasing 
business  in  this  class  of  goods  gave  rise  to  the  suggestion 
to  establish  a  Depot  in  the  manufacturing  district  for  the 
purpose  of  collecting  and  distributing  the  articles  suitable 
for  co-operative  trade. 

The  result  of  thus  aggregating  the  needs  of  Societies 
has  been  very  successful,  for  the  business  connections 
and  extensive  dealing  of  the  C.W.S.  with  the  local 
manufacturers  enables  them  to  supply  small  orders  with 
much  advantage  to  the  retail  Society,  and  large  ones  on 
same  t^rms  as  makers. 

At  the  commencement  premises  were  rented,  but 
growth  of  trade  justified  the  erection  of  a  building,  and 
in  1889  the  new  place  was  occupied.  Sufficient  land  was 
acquired  at  the  same  time  to  admit  of  future  developments, 
and  from  time  to  time  additions  have  been  made. 

About  1898  the  C.W.S.  decided  to  start  a  decorating 
department  and  build  a  kiln,  so  that  Societies  could  have 
the  satisfaction  of  purchasing  an  article  finished  under 
healthy  conditions.  Now  there  are  three  kilns,  and  nearly 
£1,400  per  year  is  paid  in  wages  to  this  department. 

Goods  sold  from  Longton  are  drawn  from  sources 
where  the  best  conditions  of  labour  prevail,  and  a  large 
quantity  are  dipped  in  either  low  solubility  or  leadless 
glaze. 


Fellmongering,  Fat,  and  Bones 
Department,  Pontefract^ 

''  I  ^HE  buildings  shown  on  the  opposite  page  are  where 
■*■  the  C.W.S.  conduct  their  fellmongering  business, 
and  also  their  fat  and  bone  business.  In  the  foreground 
is  the  fellmongering  department. 

Fellmongering  is  that  process  by  which  wool  is 
separated  from  the  sheep  skins.  There  are  several  ways 
of  doing  this,  and  that  employed  by  us  is  by  applying  to 
the  flesh  side  of  the  skin  a  mixture  of  lime  and  sulphide 
of  sodium;  the  skins  are  allowed  to  lie  two  days  with 
this  mixture  on  them;  they  are  then  washed,  and  the 
wool  after  the  treatment  leaves  the  skin  (or  pelt,  as  it 
is  called  in  the  trade)  readily.  It  has  to  be  pulled  off  by 
hand,  because  on  every  skin  there  are  several  qualities 
of  wool,  and  this  has  to  be  carefully  sorted  by  hand  as  it 
is  pulled  off.  The  wool  is  then  to  be  dried,  and  stored 
for  sale  in  the  large  building  shown  on  illustration. 

The  bone  department  (which  is  in  the  background) 
extracts  grease  from  bones  and  then  grinds  the  bones 
into  bone  meal,  which  is  sold  for  manure.  The  grease 
is  extracted  by  putting  the  bones,  after  being  roughly 
broken,  into  large  tanks;  the  tanks  are  then  sealed,  and 
by  means  of  a  pipe  benzine  is  run  into  these  tanks.  The 
benzine  is  driven  off  again  by  means  of  steam  and 
recovered  for  future  charges ;  the  bones  are  then  ready  for 
grinding. 

All  these  departments  are  worked  in  conjunction  with 
the  Hide  and  Skin  Department. 


58 


Limerick  Depot* 

'TpHIS  Depot  was  established  in  1869  for  the  purchase 
•■■  of  butter.  It  has  a  frontage  in  Mulgrave  Street  of 
20  yards,  comprising  the  ofl&ces,  which  consist  of  the 
manager's,  general,  typists',  and  shipping  office,  &c. 
The  total  staff  at  present  at  the  Depot  is  seven. 

The  store  is  divided,  one  portion  being  used  as  a 
butter  store,  where  all  butter  is  received,  graded,  coopered, 
&c.  Another  part  of  the  store  is  occupied  by  the  cold 
storage  chambers,  the  inner  chamber  being  reserved  for 
the  C.W.S.  Societies.  The  outer  chamber  is  utilised  in 
a  general  way  in  connection  with  the  butter  arriving  at 
the  Depot  during  the  warm  weather,  and  placed  therein 
before  being  shipped.  The  capacity  of  both  chambers 
is  250  tons.  The  dimension  of  store  and  chambers 
together  is  40  yards  by  20  yards. 

All  butters  received  are  tested  from  time  to  time  to 
see  that  they  comply  with  the  standard  of  moisture,  and 
any  not  so  doing  are  returned  to  the  makers. 

At  the  rear  of  the  stores  is  the  engine-room,  where  a 
12-liorse  power  gas  engine  is  erected,  the  gas  for  same 
being  supplied  by  our  own  gas  suction  plant. 

Here  is  also  a  refrigerating  machine  (Halls')  in 
connection  with  the  cold  chamber.  A  dynamo  is  also 
erected,  and  the  offices  and  stores  are  lighted  with  our 
own  electric  light. 


&i 


Armagh  Depots 

CITUATED  in  the  midst  of  the  finest  agricultural 
^  district  in  Ireland,  it  is  also  the  largest  egg 
distributing  centre  in  the  movement.  On  the  premises 
eighty  concrete  tanks  have  been  laid  down  for  the  purpose 
of  preserving  eggs  in  pickle  for  the  winter  requirements 
of  Societies,  the  accommodation  providing  for  over 
4,000,000  eggs. 

There  are  also  box-making  departments,  in  which  all 
the  packages  required  for  butter  and  eggs  are  made. 

Large  quantities  of  butter  are  manufactured  at  the 
Depot,  which  is  fitted  up  with  refrigerating  plant  and 
cold  stores  in  connection  with  the  extensive  butter  trade 
carried  on. 

The  Depot  occupies  a  unique  position  for  the  shipment 
of  fruit,  the  district  being  the  largest  fruit-raising  centre 
in  Ireland. 

It  also  supplies  Societies  with  large  quantities  of 
poultry  for  their  Christmas  requirements. 

The  operations  of  the  Depot  extend  all  over  the  North 
and  West  of  Ireland,  where,  in  order  to  secure  the  large 
quantity  of  eggs  required  in  the  freshest  possible  state 
from  the  farmers,  over  twenty  collecting  stations  have 
been  established. 

The  premises  are  very  extensive,  covering  an  area  of 
25,000  square  feet,  of  which  two-thirds  are  under  cover, 
and  are  lighted  with  electricity  throughout. 


62 


Tralee  Egg  and  Butter  Depot. 

T^HE  buildings  in  the  foreground  of  plate  comprise 
•■■  ofi&ces  and  boxmaking  departments.  At  the  left  are 
the  Creamery  and  Butter  Blending  Factory.  The  long 
building  at  the  rear  is  occupied  by  power  house,  fitter's 
shop,  &c.  The  building  in  the  centre  of  the  block  contains 
butter  cellars  and  roll  room,  with  timber  drying,  &c., 
lofts  overhead.  The  vacant  space  between  these  two  latter 
groups  is  now  mainly  occupied  by  new  cold  stores  and 
suction  gas  plant  recently  erected.  The  larger  group  of 
buildings  at  right  of  illustration  comprises  cooperage  at 
rear,  store  lofts  in  centre,  and  egg  pickling  department. 
There  is  also  land  available  for  purposes  of  extension, 
&c.,  at  the  rear  of  the  buildings  shown  of  at  least  equal 
area  to  that  already  built  on.  ^lost  of  the  erections  are 
fairly  recent,  as  the  property  was  purchased  in  1896. 
The  original  Depot  opened  in  1874,  now  exclusively  used 
for  the  purchase  and  packing  of  eggs,  is  at  the  other  side 
of  Pembroke  Street  fronting  the  premises  illustrated,  and 
is  not  shown  in  plate.  In  the  background  of  illustration 
the  position-  of  Tralee  Bacon  Factory  is  indicated,  and 
the  boundaries  of  both  premises  are  practically  contiguous. 


65 


Tralee  Bacon  Factory^ 

'T'HIS  factory,  which  is  about  two  minutes'  walk  from 
■*■  the  railway  station,  is  mainly  constructed  of  local 
sandstone,  and  in  design  is  practically  a  one-storeyed 
building. 

It  was  originally  equipped  to  handle  about  500  pigs 
weekly,  but,  as  this  quantity  proved  totally  inadequate  to 
supply  the  requirements  of  Societies,  who  were  quick  to 
recognise  the  excellence  of  the  Wheatsheaf  brand  of 
Tralee  bacon,  lard,  and  sausages,  some  slight  structural 
alterations  had  to  be  made  in  the  year  19U7,  and  1,000 
pigs  weekly  can  now  be  dealt  with  by  the  various 
departments. 

The  pigs,  which  are  mostly  procured  in  the  Kerry 
district,  are  driven  in  batches  into  the  sticking-pen.  They 
are  there  shackled  by  one  of  the  hind  legs,  hoisted  on  to 
a  running  bar,  and  killed.  They  are  next  plunged  into 
the  scalding  tank,  and  pass  on  from  that  to  the  scuttling 
table,  where  most  of  the  hair  is  removed,  the  balance 
disappearing  during  the  short  time  they  are  exposed  to 
the  extreme  heat  of  the  singeing  furnace.  They  next  get 
a  cold  bath,  and  are  again  raised  to  the  running  bars, 
where  they  are  scraped  quite  clean,  disembowelled, 
weighed,  removed  to  chill-room,  and  finally  to  the 
curing-cellars,  where  they  remain  for  about  twelve  days. 
They  next  reach  the  packing  department,  and  are  shipped 
from  there  in  four,  five,  and  six-side  bales  to  suit  the 
requirements  of  the  various  districts. 

The  lard,  sausage  meat,  &c.,  are  all  dealt  with  in 
their  respective  departments,  and  from  this,  and  the 
short  foregoing  description  of  .  the  factory,  the  careful 
reader  will  observe  that  the  ** squeal"  is  the  only  item 
which,  up  to  the  time  of  going  to  press,  has  not  proved 
of  marketable  value. 


fr\ 


.       P 


W 


Esbjerg  Butter  Depot. 


nr'HE  land  is  freehold,  and  covers  a  total  area  of  2,500 
■*■  square  yards.  Situated  in  a  twenty  years'  old  garden 
stands  the  house  occupied  by  the  manager,  adjacent  to  cool 
butter  cellars  of  about  100  square  yards. 

In  conjunction  with  these  cellars,  on  the  right  side  of 
the  yard  is  the  principal  butter  warehouse — two  large 
working-rooms  of  about  450  square  yards,  connected  with 
three  large  storing-rooms  of  225  square  yards,  all  fitted 
with  very  effective  cold  air  refriger:\tion  pi  ant  and 
facilities  for  handling  the  butter  properly.  Through 
these  cellars  about  3,000  casks  of  Danish  butter  pass 
weekly. 

Opposite  to  the  cellars  stands  the  office  building, 
containing  three  light  and  spacious  office-rooms,  in  which 
the  clerks  are  employed.  On  this  side  is  also  the  motor 
garage. 

^Yith  electric  power  and  light  all  over  the 
establishment,  and  well  paved  and  otherwise  kept  in  good 
order,  and  with  flowers  and  trees  espaliered  along  the 
railings  and  the  whitewashed  walls,  the  establishment  is 
a  model  specimen  and  an  attractive  advertisement  for 
the  C.W.S.  in  Denmark. 


Odense  Depot* 


T^HIS  Depot  for  butter,  eggs,  and  bacon  conirnenced 
■*■  business  on  June  26th,  1898.  The  butter  warehouse 
is  built  at  the  harbour  on  leasehold  land  belonging  to 
the  Odense  Town  Council,  and  covers  an  area  of  800 
square  yards. 

A  railway  siding,  connected  with  the  main  line,  runs 
along  in  close  proximity  to  the  western  side  of  the 
building,  giving  the  best  facilities  for  the  receiving  and 
despatching  of  goods  by  rail.  The  east  side  of  the 
building  faces  the  quay,  and  the  berth  of  the  steamers 
to  Great  Britain  is  exactly  opposite  and  only  a  few  yards 
distant  from  the  warehouse. 

"  The  premises  in  every  way  satisfy  modern 
requirements,  the  butter  cellars  being  equipped  with 
refrigerating  plant,  and  the  offices  with  hot-water 
heating  installation,  with  electric  light  over  the  whole 
building. 

The  whole  arrangement  is  ideal,  and  a  further 
testimony  to  the  endeavours  of  the  C.W.S.  to  supply 
co-operators  with  articles  made  and  distributed  under 
the  most  perfect  conditions. 


70 


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Herning  Bacon  Factory^ 

'Hr'HIS  factory,  built  on  freehold  land,  was  purchased 
■■•  in  1900,  and  business  commenced  immediately  after 
reconstruction  and  additions  to  the  buildings  were 
completed.  In  1912  the  premises  were  enlarged  and 
the  machinery  renewed,  so  that  the  factory  now  appears 
as  a  modern,  practical,  and  hygienic  establishment. 

The  front  building  on  the  right  comprises  the 
manager's  and  clerks'  offices.  On  the  left  of  this  building 
is  the  main  entrance,  w^here  the  farmers  drive  in  with 
their  hogs,  afterw^ards  making  their  exit  at  the  gate  on 
the  right.  The  building  on  the  left  of  the  entrance 
contains  the  weighing-room  for  live  hogs,  and  sties 
or  piggeries,  while  further  on  is  the  sticking-pen. 
Continuing  and  turning  to  the  right  is  the  slaughter-house, 
containing  scalding-tank,  singeing-stove,  destruction- 
room,  and  other  accessories.  In  the  same  building,  but 
on  the  right,  is  the  sausage-room,  smoking  stove,  and 
lard  melting-room. 

Close  behind  the  large  shaft  are  the  engine-room, 
boiler-house,  and  refrigerating  machinery;  the  condenser 
belonging  to  the  latter  can  be  seen  on  the  top  of  the  roof. 

The  very  large  building  consists  of  a  well-ventilated 
-chilling-room,  also  used  for  cutting-up,  baling,  and 
packing.  In  the  same  building  are  the  offal  delivery-room 
and  storeroom  for  lard,  &c. 

Adjoining  the  large  building  on  the  left  are  the  cooling- 
room  and  curing  cellar. 

On  the  right  will  be  seen  a  fence  which  runs  along 
the  passage  where  the  pigs  are  unloaded  from  the  railway 
trucks,  the  railway  line  running  close  alongside,  thus 
giving  easy  access  for  loading  and  unloading  goods. 


78 


Sydney  Tallow  Works* 

nr'HESE  works,  for  the  production  of  tallow  for  use 
■*■  in  our  various  soap  works,  are  erected  on  a  suitable 
and  excellent  site  in  Sydney,  the  position  having  been 
specially  selected  as  being  particularly  adapted  to  the 
receiving  of  the  raw  material-  and  despatch  of  the- 
manufactured  product.  They  were  specially  designed  and 
built  for  this  particular  m.anufacture,  all  the  machinery 
being  of  the  latest  and  up-to-date  description. 


74 


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o 
o. 


Fruit  Packing  Depot,  Denia^ 

'T'HIS  substantially-built  warehouse  is  the  C.W.S. 
•^  Depot  for  the  packing  and  exportation  of  Spanish 
produce.  Denia  is  situated  about  seventy  miles  south  of 
Valencia  on  the  Mediterranean  coast,  and  is  the  principal 
port  of  shipment  of  Valencia  raisins.  Co-operators' 
requirements  of  the  latter  commodity  having  greatly 
increased  in  recent  years,  the  old  rented  property  was 
found  inadequate,  and  it  became  necessary  to  make  other 
provision  for  carrying  on  the  business  efficiently.  Land 
was  bought  in  a  central  position  near  to  rail  and  quay,  and 
a  large  handsome  building  erected,  75  yards  by  45  yards. 
This  is  looked  upon  by  the  natives  as  doing  credit  to  the 
town,  and  without  doubt  is  second  to  none  in  that  part 
of  Spain. 

The  interior  is  light  and  airy,  and,  with  ample  sanitary 
accommodation  on  the  very  best  hygienic  principles,  the 
C.W.S.  is  keeping  up  its  reputation  for  looking  after  the 
interest  of  its  workers.  No  one  arriving  in  Denia  can 
fail  to  notice  the  words  "Co-operative  Wholesale  Society 
Ltd.,"  as  the  warehouse  abuts  on  a  square  adjacent  to 
the  station. 

The  walls  are  of  thick  rubble,  and  the  columns, 
girders,  and  roof  principals  of  iron.  The  bottom  floor, 
which  is  used  for  making  up,  is  tiled,  and  the  upper 
storey,  which  serves  as  the  picking  department,  is 
concreted. 

During  the  excavations  much  blasting  had  to  be  done, 
remains  of  old  Moorish  foundations  being  discovered — 
probably  those  of  buildings  connected  with  the  ancient 
castle  or  convent  close  by. 

In  the  season  upwards  of  800  persons  are  employed 
in  picking,  packing,  and  shipping  co-operators' 
requirements. 


77 


London :  Tea  Department* 

''  I  ''HE  Tea,  Coffee,  and  Cocoa  Departments  are  worked 
"*■  as  a  joint  business  by  the  English  and  Scottish 
^A'llolesale  Societies.  The  premises  are  immediately 
opposite  those  of  the  C.W.S.  in  Leman  Street,  and  are 
also  conveniently  near  the  bonded  warehouses.  It  was  in 
1882  that  the  two  great  federations  decided  to  join  in  the 
supplying  of  tea.  The  first  warehouse  was  a  small  one, 
close  to  Leman  Street — how  small  may  be  guessed  by  the 
fact  that  it  employed  only  four  warehousemen  and  half 
a  dozen  boys.  By  the  end  of  1885,  however,  the  business 
was  so  important  that  when  a  disastrous  fire  occurred 
on  December  30th  it  was  sufficient  to  cause  a  loss  of 
£35,000.  No  further  calamity  marred  the  steady  growth 
of  the  business  in  the  succeeding  years.  In  1897  the 
present  large  premises  in  Leman  Street  were  opened,  but 
within  a  short  time  it  was  found  that  much  more  space 
would  be  required,  and  extensions  have  recently  been 
completed  that  will  afford  much  greater  facilities  for  the 
business.  The  factory  is  splendidly  equipped  with 
numerous  labour-saving  appliances,  and  the  most 
up-to-date  weighing  and  packing  machinery  is  installed, 
which  arouses  wonder  and  admiration  from  everyone  who 
is  privileged  to  see  it.  The  latest  figures  published  at 
the  time  of  writing  give  the  total  annual  sales  of  tea  to 
be  29,000,0001bs. 


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Luton  Cocoa  and  Chocolate  Works, 


TN  September,  1902,  this  new  industry  was  established 
^  in  Luton  by  the  opening  of  a  factory  by  the  Joint 
Committee  of  the  Enghsh  and  Scottish  Wholesale 
Societies.  The  manufacture  of  cocoa  and  chocolate, 
however,  had  been  carried  on  by  the  two  Societies  in 
connection  with  the  Tea  Department  at  Leman  Street, 
London,  since  November,  1887.  Thus  at  the  time  it  was 
taken  from  Whitechapel  into  the  country  the  business  was 
in  its  fifteenth  year.  The  reasons  of  removal  will  be 
easily  understood.  On  one  hand,  in  London,  a  congested 
district  with  high  rates  and  high  values  generally ;  on  the 
other,  at  the  edge  of  Luton,  open  country,  a  dry,  chalk 
subsoil,  and  economies  all  round.  Hence  the  present 
factory  at  Luton. 

The  building  stands  nearly  400  feet  above  the  sea  level, 
and  commands  a  view  of  the  greater  part  of  the  town  and 
the  Chilteru  Hills  beyond.  It  is  of  two  storeys,  with  a 
basement  cut  in  the  chalk.  At  the  back  runs  the  Great 
Northern  branch  line  from  the  main  line  at  Hatfield  to 
Dunstable. 

Here  one  finds  all  the  essentials  for  a  pure  food 
product  in  a  light,  spacious  factory,  equipped  with  the 
best  machinery  for  making  a  range  of  cocoas  equal  to 
any  other  make,  British  or  foreign. 

All  the  girls,  and  there  are  a  great  number,  are  attired 
in  scrupulously  clean  dresses  and  caps  provided  by  the 
C.W.S.  Considerable  extensions  have  been  made,  but 
there  is  still  room  for  additional  buildings  when  the 
loyalty  of  co-operators  to  their  own  cocoas  shall  warrant 
their  erection. 


81 


Biscuits,  Cakes,  Jellies,  and  Sweets  Works, 
Crumpsall,  Manchester^ 

'T'HESE  works  enjoy  the  distinction  of  being  the  first  productive 
■■•  enterprise  of  the  C.W.S.  The  works  had  been  the  property 
of  private  manufacturers,  but  were  purchased  by  the  Wholesale 
Society  in  January,  1873. 

It  was  proposed  to  produce  biscuits,  sweets,  jam,  soap,  and 
tobacco,  but  the  latter  commodity  had  to  wait  for  many  years. 
The  total  value  of  the  productions  for  the  vear  ending  October, 
1874,  was  £12,632,  with  a  profit  of  £252.  Not  twenty  employes 
were  then  occupied,  and  for  the  sake  of  comparison  we  note  that 
in  1913  the  output  reached  £200,000,  with  profits  £16,000  and 
employes  600. 

Scarcely  a  corner  remains  of  the  original  buildings ;  additional 
ground  has  been  purchased  from  time  to  time  and  covered  with 
substantial  buildings,  spacious  and  airy,  in  every  respect 
constituting  a  model  factory. 

At  the  present  time  the  works  are  manufacturing  biscuits, 
sweets,  cakes,  and  jellies.  Jam  and  soap  have  demanded  separate 
premises  for  several  years.  In  the  course  of  time  certain 
departments  have  been  transferred  to  other  centres,  as  for  instance 
drugs  and  sundries. 

About  250  varieties  of  biscuits  are  made  at  Crumpsall,  and 
fresh  designs  and  flavours  are  constantly  being  introduced.  It  is 
almost  needless  to  say  that  scrupulous  care  is  exercised  in  the 
selection  of  ingredients,  in  the  manufacture,  and  in  every  process 
mvolved.     The  girls  are  provided  with  overalls  and  caps. 

In  the  cake  bakery  fifteen  large  ovens  are  occupied  in  turning 
out  huge  quantities  of  toothsome  cakes,  from  the  plain  cake  to 
bridecakes  of  highest  quality. 

Boiled  sweets  have  a  department  to  themselves.  Here,  again, 
a  visitor  would  be  convinced  of  the  purity  of  Crumpsall  products. 
He  would  see  kegs  of  pure  butter,  cans  of  new  milk,  gallons  of 
cream,  bags  of  cane  sugar,  essences  of  flavour  harmless  and  of  the 
best  quality. 

Crumpsall  is  second  to  none  in  the  social  welfare  of  the 
employes.  Besides  the  bowling  green,  croquet  lawn,  tennis  courts, 
cricket  and  football  grounds,  there  are  a  harriers'  club,  swimming 
clubs,  physical  culture  classes,  and  also  tents  pitched  in  a  beautiful 
part  of  Derbyshire  for  week-end  camping. 

Last,  but  not  least,  we  have  at  Crumpsall  the  only  biscuit 
factory  in  England  working  an  eight-hour  day. 


I 


L 


Middleton  Junction  Preserve  Works* 

HTHE  C.W.S.  first  began  to  make  jams  and  marmalade 
■*■  at  Crumpsall  Works  in  1888.  The  department 
succeeded  so  well  that  it  was  formed  into  a  separate 
branch  of  manufacture,  and  was  housed  in  the  factory 
which  the  C.W.S.  built  on  ground  acquired  at  Middleton 
Junction.  In  June,  1896,  with  the  fruit  season  of  that 
year  in  view,  work  was  commenced,  and  some  3,000  tons 
of  jam  were  made  in  the  first  twelve  months.  Several 
extensions  have  been  added,  and  in  1909  the  removal  of 
the  pickle  and  sauce  department  to  the  adjacent  vinegar 
brewery  secured  the  whole  of  the  original  building  to 
the  manufacture  of  jams  and  marmalade,  mincemeat,  and 
peel.  There  is  also  a  good  trade  in  tinned  fruits  and 
potted  fish  and  meats.  At  the  present  time  the  yearly 
output  of  jams  and  marmalade  exceeds  10,000  tons.  The 
permanent  staff  here  consists  of  600  employes,  but  this 
is  increased  during  the  season  by  four  or  five  hundred 
workers  engaged  in  picking  and  sorting  fruit. 

The  works  are  admirably  placed  for  dealing 
expeditiously  with  the  traffic,  being  close  to  the  main  line 
of  the  Lancashire  and  Yorkshire  Railway,  to  which  there 
is  direct  communication  by  sidings.  In  July  and  August 
it  is  no  uncommon  event  for  two  or  three  train  loads  of 
twenty  wagons  each  to  arrive  at  the  works.  Considerable 
quantities  of  the  fruit  come  from  the  C.W.S.  fruit  farms 
at  Roden  and  Harden  and  their  Depot  at  Wisbech. 

The  marmalade  trade  consumes  five  or  six  hundred 
tons  of  Seville  oranges,  which  are  bought  direct  by  the 
C.W.S. 

In  the  other  departments  of  the  factory,  i.e.,  those 
devoted  to  the  production  of  candied  peel,  mincemeat, 
tinned  fruit,  and  potted  meat,  there  is  the  same  careful 
supervision  of  detail  that  ensures  the  purity  and  excellence 
of  the  comestibles  sold  by  the  C.W.S. 


Vinegar  Brewery  and  Pickle  Factory, 
Middleton  Junction* 

"CXTEEMES  met  in  the  C.W.S.  Jam  Works  at 
■"^  Middleton  Junction  for  many  years,  as  both  preserves 
and  pickles  were  there  manufactured.  When,  however, 
the  Committee  decided  to  erect  a  vinegar  brewery,  it  was 
obvious  that  pickles  would  properly  form  an  adjunct 
thereto.  The  brewery  is  of  the  very  latest  type,  and 
contains  a  complete  equipment  of  plant  of  the  most 
approved  type  for  the  production  of  a  high-class  vinegar. 
The  provision  made  for  storage  is  convincing  proof  that 
the  brewery  will  prove  equal  to  the  demand  for  some  years 
to  come. 


86 


¥:#?'    ' 


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& 


^ 


Wheatsheaf  Boot  and  Shoe  Works,  Leicester* 


/^O-OPERATORS  should  be  proud  to  own  this,  the  largest  shoe 
^  factory  in  the  United  Kingdom.  The  C.W.S.  commenced 
the  manufacture  of  boots  and  shoes  in  1873,  when  they  purchased 
a  small  factory  in  Duns  Lane,  Leicester,  but  this  was  soon  found 
to  be  too  small,  and  extensions  were  made  in  1876  and  again  in 
1884. 

On  November  4th,  1891,  the  Wheatsheaf  works  were  opened. 
Covering  something  like  two  acres  of  ground,  the  building,  viewed 
from  the  Midland  Railway  main  line,  presents  a  striking  appearance, 
and  is  by  far  the  largest  in  the  kingdom.  A  glance  at  the  illustration 
will  show  the  general  plan  of  construction,  the  principal  feature 
of  which  is  the  main  room  occupying  the  centre  of  the  building, 
roofed  with  iron  and  glass,  the  actual  area  of  which  is  6,600 
square  yards  . 

In  every  department  may  be  seen  the  most  ingenious  and 
modern  machines  invented  for  the  boot  and  shoe  trade,  and  the 
management  is  constantly  on  the  alert  for  any  improvement  in 
this  direction  that  can  possibly  add  to  the  efficiency  of  the  works. 
How  extensively  machinery  enters  into  boot  production  may  be 
gathered  from  the  fact  that  there  is  not  a  department  into  which 
it  has  not  been  introduced.  As  a  hint  to  co-operators  who  do 
not  insist  on  getting  Wheatsheaf  boots  or  shoes,  it  may  be 
mentioned  that  the  factory  is  capable  of  turning  out  50,000  pairs 
weekly,  instead  of  35,000,  which  quantity  represents  the  present 
normal  average  demand. 

The  following  figures  speak  for  themselves :  — 

Pairs.  Value. 

Supplies,  1874   —           ...  ^629,456 

June,    1913,   to   June,    1914    1,742,966     ...  £445,453 

Paid  in   Wages,   1874   £9,678 

June,  1913,  to  June,  1914  £122,244 

The  total  profit  reahsed  up  to  and  inclusive  of  June,  1914,  was 
£181,077,  and  the  sum  devoted  to  interest  and  depreciation 
£231,428.  The  whole  cost  of  the  machinery — as  well  as  the 
building — has  been  "wiped  out"  by  depreciation. 

The  output  for  June,  1913,  to  June,  1914,  as  shown  above, 
heats  all  records,  the  pairs  sent  out  for  the  half  year  ended  June 
last  being  1,045,237.     Never  before  has  it  reached  the  million. 

The  factory  is  devoted  to  the  manufacture  of  all  kinds  of 
footwear — men's,  women's,  boys',  girls',  and  nurseries — for  all 
•co-operators. 

In  April,  1913,  a  Closing  Factory  was  estabhshed  at 
Wellingborough  in  order  to  do,  under  our  own  control,  closing 
previously  given  out  to  be  done,  and  in  conjunction  with  the  same 
we  have  commenced  the  manufacture  of  leggings  and  gaiters, 
so  that  we  are  now  in  a  position  to  supply  co-operators  with  our 
own  productions,  and  trust  this  department  will  receive  full 
support. 


Leicester  (Duns  Lane)  Boot  and  Shoe 
Works* 

npHIS  is  the  factory  in  which  the  C.W.S.  commenced 
■'"  its  shoe  manufacturing  in  1873.  The  present  factors- 
is  very  different  from  the  original  one,  which  was 
purchased  and  opened  in  1873,  because  in  the  extensions 
in  1876  and  1884  the  original  building  was  entirely 
demolished.  The  present  building  is  triangular  in  shape, 
with  one  of  the  long  sides  of  the  triangle  fronting  Duns 
Lane,  and  one  side  to  the  river  Soar. 

The  factory  is  lit  by  electricity  and  driven  by  motors, 
thus  making  it  in  every  way  a  modern  factory. 


90 


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Enderby  Boot  and  Shoe  Works. 

pNDEKBY  is  some  four  and  a  half  miles  from 
■"^  Leicester,  and  rather  less  across  country  from  the 
Wheatsheaf  Works.  The  route  is  across  the  green  vale 
of  the  Soar,  past  the  pretty  Aylestone  Church,  where 
Dorothy  Vernon  was  married  after  the  famous  elopement 
from  Haddon  Hall,  in  Derbyshire,  and  thence  up  gently- 
sloping  ground  to  the  large,  but  clean  and  quiet,  village 
of  Enderby.  There  are  thatched  cottages  and  a  thirteenth- 
century  church,  recently  restored,  and  at  least  one  little 
street  of  red-brick  houses,  wherein  is  the  C.W.S.  factory. 

In  the  appearance  of  the  building  outside  there  is 
nothing  remarkable,  and  inside  one  finds  the  most  modern 
plant  for  boot  and  shoe  manufacture. 

It  is  considered  the  best  fitted-up  factory  outside  the 
town,  and  is  driven  with  suction  gas  engines  and 
dynamos  generating  electricity  for  lighting  and  for  the 
motors  which  drive  the  machinery,  all  being  now  driven 
by  motors.  The  factory  is  devoted  to  the  manufacture 
of  women's  and  girls'  strong  boots. 


93 


I 


Heckmondwike  Boot,  Shoe,  and 
Currying  Works* 

TN  the  West  Eiding  of  Yorkshire,  in  the  heart  of  the 
•*■  industrial  area  of  broad  acres,  hes  the  small  factory 
centre  of  Heckmondwike,  and  here  is  situated  the 
substantial  structure  above  named.  The  factory  is  in  two 
portions,  the  older— acquired  in  1880 — forming  one-half 
of  a  square,  and  the  newer — erected  in  1896 — making  a 
square  within  the  angle  of  the  old. 

Currying,  first  began  by  the  C.W.S.  in  1887,  is  done 
in  the  older  portion.  Before  being  exported  the  hides  are 
sun  dried,  shorn  of  hair,  purified,  softened,  and  partially 
tanned.  On  reaching  the  Heckmondwike  Works  the  hides 
undergo  a  long  series  of  operations — trimming,  soaking, 
softening,  shaving,  splitting,  tanning,  scouring,  graining, 
&c.,  &c.^all  performed  with  characteristic  thoroughness. 

The  newer  building  is  devoted  to  boot  making,  heavy 
work  being  the  speciality.  Without  pursuing  our 
"leather  hunting"  through  the  various  processes  in 
which  fifty  different  machines  perform  as  many  different 
operations,  a  visit  to  the  sample  showroom  reveals  a 
remarkable  collection  of  footwear.  Newcastle  colliers, 
Welsh  miners,  farmers,  policemen,  carters,  quarrymen, 
and  navvies  are  all  catered  for,  and  the  lighter  but  none 
the  less  wear-resisting  boots  for  healthy  and  restless 
school  children  are  turned  out. 

Some  400  persons  are  normally  employed,  and  these 
enjoy,  in  addition  to  the  trade  union  standard  of  hours, 
rates  of  pay  that  are  slightly  above  those  paid  in  the 
district. 


»4 


1^  \  vOC^  "^3r\  v=Sr\ 


^/W     ■'^"::^^  ^^^  ^'^  ^^ 

•f^\  n\  r^  ^% 


8 


i 


Rushden  Boot  and  Shoe  Works* 


TVTORTHAMPTONSHIRE.'  The  mention  of  the 
•*-^  word  immediately  brings  to  one's  mind  boot 
manufacture.  The  county  town  and  district  have  a 
world-wide  reputation  for  the  production  of  gents'  high- 
class  boots.  Eushden — fifteen  miles  from  Northampton 
— ^has  developed  into  a  very  important  centre  for  the 
production  of  footwear. 

Up  to  the  year  1900  we  had  been  drawing  supplies 
from  this  district  to  such  an  extent  that  it  was 
thought  advisable  to  purchase  a  factory  and  commence 
manufacturing  our  own  goods.  This  was  done  in  March 
of  that  year,  the  venture  proving  a  success  by  the  flow 
of  trade  to  the  works.  Buildings  and  extensions  have 
taken  place  until  we  have  these  large  and  extensive 
premises,  each  of  the  two  floors  containing  some  600  to 
700  square  yards.  A  large  and  well  fitted  up  stockroom 
has  been  added  so  that  a  supply  of  boots  may  be  kept  in 
stock  ready  for  despatch,  thus  obviating,  as  far  as 
possible,  any  inconvenience  to  Societies  who  require 
urgent  dehveries. 

Each  department  is  replete  with  the  most  modern 
machinery,  including  a  large  plant  for  the  production  of 
welted  goods,  which  trade  has  grown  very  rapidly,  and 
the  Societies  can  now  get  supplies  of  every  description 
in  medium  and  high-class  gents'  and  boys'  footwear. 


97 


Leeds  Boot  and  Shoe  Works* 


nr'HE  continued  and  ever  increasing  demand  for 
^  Heckmondwike  goods  rendered  it  imperative  for  the 
Directors  to  provide  additional  producing  accommodation. 
It  was  impossible  to  extend  the  works  at  Heckmondwike 
for  various  reasons,  and  Leeds  was  chosen  as  the  most 
likely  for  two  reasons,  viz.,  its  commercial  importance 
and  its  abundant  supply  of  trained  labour. 

The  Buslingthorpe  district  of  the  city  of  Leeds  has 
long  been  noted  for  its  leather  and  tanning  industries, 
and  the  Directors  secured  a  suitable  site  in  the  heart  of 
this  district,  within  one  mile  of  the  railwa}^  stations.  The 
selected  site  was  formerly  known  as  the  Sheepscar  United 
Leather  Workers'  Cricket  Ground,  familiar  to  all  liCeds 
people  as  the  former  property  of  Lord  Allerton. 

It  is  on  two  main  tramway  routes  (Meanwood  Eoad 
cars  pass  the  factory),  and  is  immediately  adjoining  two 
fine  blocks  of  buildings,  the  Council  Schools  and  the 
Public  Baths. 

As  will  be  observed  from  the  illustration,  there  is  the 
minimum  amount  of  brickwork  and  the  maximum  area  of 
glass,  while  inside  it  contains  four  large  well-lighted  and 
commodious  rooms  fully  equipped  with  the  latest  and 
most  modern  boot-making  machinery. 

The  building  has  been  constructed  on  the  most 
hygienic  principles,  and  every  provision  is  made  for  the 
comfort  and  welfare  of  the  employes.  Thus  it  may  be 
claimed,  without  exaggeration,  that  this  Leeds  Factory 
is  the  most  up-to-date  building  of  its  kind  in  the  country. 

In  the  centre  of  the  plot  is  the  power-house, 
containing  plant,  &c.,  for  the  production  of  necessary 
energy  for  all  lighting  and  motor-driving  purposes. 

It  is  estimated  that  there  is  sufficient  factory 
accommodation  to  produce  4,000  pairs  of  boots  weekly, 
and,  if  the  demand  justifies,  there  is  ample  space  for  any 
iuecessarv  extension. 


98 


Soap,  Candle,  Glycerine,  Lard,  and 
Starch  Works,  Irlam* 

'np  HE  group  of  factories  at  Irlani  have  not  come  together 
■*•  in  any  haphazard  way,  but  because  of  certain  features 
whicli  distinguish  them  from  most  of  the  other  G.W.S. 
productive  enterprises.  Here  the  soap,  candle,  starch, 
and  lard  factories  are  distinctly  branches  of  chemical 
industry,  in  which  the  highest  degree  of  specialised 
knowledge  is  required. 

Thirty-nine  years  ago  the  C.W.S.  bought  a  small 
factory  at  Durham,  originally  occupied  by  candle  factors, 
and  began  to  make  soap.  Progress  was  slow  owing  to 
prejudice  on  the  part  of  Societies.  For  thg  first  complete 
year  of  working,  1875,  the  sales  were  only  £8,900,  and 
in  ten  years  after  this  amount  was  not  even  doubled. 

The  construction  of  the  Manchester  Ship  Canal 
afforded  a  unique  opportunity  for  the  erection  of  a  soap 
factory  upon  its  banks,  and  the  C.W.S.  acquired  thirteen 
acres  of  land  at  Irlam,  eight  miles  from  Manchester,  and 
started  erecting  the  works  which  were  opened  in  October, 
1895.  A  lay-by  or  quay  was  also  constructed,  thus 
enabling  vessels  to  bring  their  cargoes  direct  to  the  doors 
of  the  factory. 

Every  kind  of  soap  is  made  at  Irlam,  for  domestic 
and  toilet  purposes,  disinfectant  soaps,  polishing  soaps, 
and  all  under  the  constant  supervision  of  practical 
chemists. 

The  increased  space  available  at  Irlam  offered 
sufficient  accommodation  for  the  additional  manufacture 
of  candles,  starch,  and  lard  refining,  all  of  which 
products  enjoy  a  constantly  growing  popularity  among  the 
constituent  Societies. 


101 


Soap  Works,  Silvertown* 

TT  is  to  the  soap  combine  of  1906  that  the  co-operative 
world  owes  the  existence  of  the  Silvertown  and  Dunston 
works.  Successful  at  that  period  in  meeting  demands 
which  increased  from  250  tons  to  750  tons  per  week,  the 
Co-operative  Wholesale  Society  is  now  equipped  for  much 
larger  demands  than  have  hitherto  been  made.  Though 
after  the  breaking  of  the  combine  the  demand — owing  to 
the  short-lived  public  memory — fell  considerably,  we 
were  able  to  report  that  the  total  trade  for  the  half  year 
ended  June,  1912,  averaged  660  tons  per  week.  Since 
then  labour  troubles  and  increased  prices  of  soap  have 
again  opened  the  eyes  of  co-operators  to  the  fact  that  it 
is  through  their  own  sources  that  the  surest  and  cheapest 
supplies  are  to  be  obtained.  This  recognition  has 
resulted  in  the  satisfactory  fact  that  for  the  half  year 
ended  June,  1914,  the  total  output  of  the  soap  works  has 
averaged  900  tons  per  week,  whilst  Silvertown  portion  of 
this  amount  has  been  177  tons  per  week.  It  is  to  be 
hoped  that  co-operators  will  soon  fully  recognise  that  it 
is  to  their  benefit  to  utihse  their  works  to  the  utmost. 

Standing  on  the  Thames  side,  and  with  direct 
facilities  to  the  Great  Eastern  Eailway,  these  works  offer 
every  advantage  for  the  expeditious  handling  of  both  raw 
material  and  finished  soap.  The  works  are  constructed  on 
the  most  scientific  lines,  all  machinery  being  driven  by 
electricity,  whilst  all  workrooms  are  light  and  airy. 


102 


-r-W 


i^     ^ 


o 

CO 


Soap  Works,  Dunston< 


/^RIGINALLY  it  was  intended  to  build  the  Newcastle 
^^  District  soap  works  on  a  larger  stretch  of  ground  at 
Pelaw,  but  eventually  it  became  necessary  to  fall  back 
upon  the  Dunston  site.  At  Dunston,  however, 
considerably  less  than  an  acre  of  land  was  available.  The 
river,  a  road,  and  a  railway,  the  C.\V.S.'s  own  flour  mill, 
and  a  ferry  pier  formed  on  all  sides  irremovable 
boundaries;  but,  in  the  end,  a  works  has  resulted  which 
is  extremely  compact,  and  yet  is  light  and  roomy  and 
pleasing  within  and  without. 

The  basement  of  the  works — a  kind  of  m.odern  crypt 
under  the  frame-room — is  level  with  the  wharf.  On  the 
latter  is  an  electric  crane  for  hoisting  out  barrels  of  tallow 
or  other  materials  coming  by  water.  Liquids,  such  as 
tallow,  after  being  melted  in  the  basement,  or  the  caustic 
solution,  are  pumped  up  from  below  to  the  pan-room  (on 
the  highest  floor  of  the  works),  to  which  solid  materials 
are  taken  by  lifts.  From  there  the  materials  descend  in 
the  course  of  manufacture  to  the  ground  floor,  level  with 
the  trucks  that  run  on  a  railway  siding  into  the 
loading-way.  It  will  be  seen  from  this  that  neither  time, 
space,  nor  power  is  wasted. 


105 


Batley  Woollen  Mill. 


npHE  Batley  Woollen  Mill  was  originally  owned  by 
a  Workers'  Productive  Society,  which  commenced 
business  in  1871,  but  after  twelve  years'  adventures  in 
the  troublous  realms  of  commercial  enterprise,  the  results, 
achieved  not  encouraging  further  effort,  the  concern  went 
voluntarily  into  liquidation,  and  the  C.W.S.,  being  large 
mortgagees,  acquired  the  property.  In  1886  the  Society 
began  to  manufacture  woollen  goods  on  its  own  account. 
Early  financial  results  were  not  promising,  but  in  1890 
the  mill  was  placed  under  its  present  management,  and 
since  that  time  good  progress  has  been  made,  many 
extensions  having  been  added  to  meet  the  increasing  trade,, 
which  last  year  amounted  to  over  £60,000. 

The  co-operative  demand  is  of  a  complex  character, 
and  naturally  the  policy  of  the  management  is  to  meet 
to  the  full  extent  their  responsibilities  to  the  organised 
consumers;  therefore  the  production  ranges  from  the- 
highest  to  the  lower  grades  of  cloth.  Of  the  former  it 
is  claimed  that  the  quality  is  equal  to  any  manufactured 
in  Yorkshire  or  elsewhere.  A  speciality  is  blue  serge, 
but  the  better  class  fancy  tweeds  are  also  woven,  and 
compare  favourably  with  any  on  the  market.  Of  the- 
lower  grades  it  must  be  stated  that  they  wear  well  and 
are  of  excellent  finish,  and  place  comfortable  clothing- 
of  co-operative  manufacture  within  the  reach  of  the- 
humblest  co-operator. 

The  wool  used  for  the  purposes  of  manufacture  has. 
originally  come  from  Australia,  and,  to  some  extent,  from 
the  home  counties. 

It  is  impossible  here  to  detail  the  various  stages  of 
manufacture,  but  it  may  be  said  that  all  the  operations- 
necessary  for  transforming  the  wool  into  the  finished 
cloth  are  carried  on  with  the  exception  of  spinning  the- 
worsted  yarn  used  in  serges,  &c.  The  machinery  is  of 
the  best  and  latest  type,  and  the  general  appearance  of 
the  rooms  is  much  in  advance  of  the  majority  of  mills- 
of  this  class.  The  number  of  employes  exceeds  "250, 
trade  union  rates  of  wages  being  paid,  and  the  hours- 
worked  per  week  are  53,  against  56^  in  the  trade. 
Designers  are  constantly  engaged  in  creating  new  patterns 
and  colour  combinations,  and  the  co-operator  buying  his 
new  suit,  if  he  desires  satisfaction,  can  rely  upon  Batley 
productions. 


106 


-  ^- 


1 


» 


o 

"o 
U 


Clothing  Factory,  Leeds* 


TEEDS  is  the  natural  centre  of  the  ready-made  clothing 
■*-'  trade,  and  in  1890  tlie  C.W.S.  transferred  this 
branch  of  industry  from  Batley  Mill  to  Leeds  (Harper 
Place),  then  to  the  factory  known  as  the  Mint,  at 
Holbeck. 

During  the  past  few  years  very  many  alterations  and 
extensions  have  been  made,  and  the  factory  is  one  of 
the  most  up-to-date  of  its  kind. 

On  the  left  foreground  is  the  receiving-room,  where 
large  quantities  of  cloth  arrive,  and  is  stored  in  the  three- 
storeyed  warehouse  here  shown.  In  the  cutting-room 
adjoining  a  staff  of  60  men  and  youths  are  continually 
employed.  Immediately  behind  there  is  i\  spacious  room 
wherein  are  situated  600  electrically  driven  sewing 
machines.  From  800  to  900  females  are  employed,  and  in 
the  busy  season  this  number  is  considerably  augmented. 
The  next  room  is  occupied  by  the  finishers,  and  many 
ingenious  machines  are  here  found. 

On  the  extreme  background  (right)  is  the  pressing- 
room,  where  about  40  men  are  occupied,  and  adjoining 
IS  the  room  where  the  final  process — that  of  "passing" — 
takes  place  before  the  garments  are  taken  into  the 
despatch-room.  The  lower  floor  of  this  warehouse  is  used 
exclusively  for  dii'ect  orders  to  north-country  Societies. 

Thus  we  have  an  entirely  modern  factory,  where  the 
whole  operations,  from  cloth  to  finished  garment,  are 
carried  out  on  the  one  level. 

These  works,  when  extensions  are  completed,  will 
provide  accommodation  for  2,000  employes,  about  double 
the  number  of  the  present  staff.  A  fine  dining-room  is  in 
course  of  erection,  which  will  also  be  used  by  employes 
for  social  and  recreative  purposes. 


109 


Broughton  Tailoring  Factory^ 


TDESPOKE  tailoring  "was  first  made  in  a  small  building 
'^^  in  the  vicinity  of  Balloon  Street.  The  department 
was  worked  in  connection  with  the  Distributive 
Department,  and  only  one  or  two  cutters  and  a  few 
machinists  were  employed. 

In  1905  the  removal  to  Broughton  occurred,  and  the 
value  of  supplies  for  the  first  six  months  totalled  £7,561. 
In  1897  the  trade  amounted  to  £27,010,  and  new 
premises,  shown  in  the  block  opposite,  were  built.  In 
1901  the  figures  had  increased  to  £40,180,  whilst  in  1913 
the  total  trade  amounted  to  £58,150. 

The  whole  of  the  machining  and  finishing  work  is 
done  by  female  labour,  the  cutting  and  pressing  by  men, 
and  the  employes  number  700.  Trade  union  rates  of 
wages  are  paid,  and  the  arrangements  for  the  lighting 
and  ventilating  of  the  whole  of  the  factory  are  excellent. 
Another  feature  is  that  no  attempt  is  made  to  obtain  cheap 
labour  by  taking  on  learners  and  dismissing  them  when 
they  are  fit  to  go  on  full  piecework  wages. 

The  larger  part  of  the  trade  is,  of  course,  bespoke 
work,  and  from  March  to  August  the  resources  of  the 
management  are  taxed  to  the  utmost  in  meeting  the 
demand,  but  after  this  busy  period  comes  the  "off  season" 
— September  or  October  until  February — when,  in  order 
to  mitigate  slackness,  the  work  is  supplemented  by  the 
making  of  ready-mades. 


110 


o 

.S 

H 


« 


L 


Clothing  Factory,  Pelaw. 


npHE  building  bearing  the  name  of  "Tailoring 
■*•  Factory'  contains  four  departments;  on  the  ground 
floor  the  kersey  department,  wherein  is  manufactured 
miners'  and  artisans'  clothing;  the  tailoring  department, 
for  the  production  of  bespoke  clothing;  the  top  floor  is 
devoted  to  the  manufacture  of  men's  woollen  shirts  and 
ladies'  underclothing;  the  first  floor  is  the  cutting-room 
for  tailoring,  shirts,  and  underclothing,  and  stockroom  for 
the  above  departments. 

All  machines  are  of  the  high-speed  type  and  electrically 
driven,  like  all  the  machinery  at  Pelaw.  The  girls  use 
patent  adjustable  seats,  which  add  much  to  their  comfort; 
the  workrooms  are  light  and  airy,  and  labour  is  lightened 
by  the  use  of  machinery  in  every  direction.  Wages  are 
fixed  by  piece  work,  and  also  hour  work,  the  rates  being 
above  the  average  in  the  district. 

Shirtmaking  was  started  at  Pelaw,  twelve  years  ago, 
in  a  small  way,  but  now  270  machines  are  employed  in 
the  four  departments. 


IIH 


London:  Clothing  Factory ♦ 

T^HE  Clothing  Factory,  situated  in  Grove  Street, 
•*•  London,  E.,  is  five  minutes'  walk  from  the  central 
premises  of  the  London  Branch,  and  caters  for  the 
bespoke  and  ready-made  clothing  trade  of  the  Societies 
in  the  London  district,  including  the  West  of  England  and 
South  Wales.  It  gives  employment  to  fourteen  expert 
cutters,  whose  labours  are  assisted  by  a  power-driven 
band-knife.  There  are  also  fifty  power-driven  sewing  and 
buttonhole  machines.  The  pressing  is  done  by  men,  using 
self-heating  gas-irons.  The  cutting-room  occupies  the 
ground  floor,  and  the  trousers  and  vests  are  machined  on 
the  floor  above.  On  the  second  floor  is  the  sorting  and 
examining  room,  while  the  machines  in  the  room  above 
are  devoted  to  coat  making.  The  factory  employs  a  staff 
of  132  hands.  Two  stone  staircases,  one  at  each  end  of 
the  building,  give  adequate  means  of  exit  in  case  of  fire ; 
the  air  space  is  ample,  and  the  sanitary  arrangement  all 
that  can  be  desired.  The  wages  paid  are  the  best  London 
rates,  and  a  general  air  of  contentment  pervades  the 
factory,  while  the  workers,  the  pick  of  their  class,  all  look 
the  picture  of  health. 

The  smaller  building,  conveniently  situated  next  to 
the  tailoring  factory,  is  used  as  a  woollen  cloth  warehouse, 
where  the  productions  of  Batley  Mill  are  to  be  found. 


114 


h 


M 


Leeds  Brush  and  Mat  Works* 

HTHE  C.W.S.  first  began  to  make  brushes  in  connection  with 
■*•  the  Furnishing  Department  at  the  London  Branch.  In 
1904  the  industry,  for  various  reasons,  was  removed  to  Leeds 
and  reorganised.  About  the  same  time  the  Co-operative  Brush 
Society  in  Huddersfield  was  taken  over,  and  later  was  incorporated 
with  the  Leeds  factory.  First  situated  at  the  Mint,  Holbeck,  the 
works  were  afterwards  removed  to  Hunslet,  on  the  south  side  of 
the  city,  where  there  is  plenty  of  room  for  expansion.  Fostered 
under  careful  management,  the  factory  has  made  rapid  headway, 
and  it  now  claims  to  be  the  most  up-to-date  of  its  kind  in  the 
country. 

The  housewife's  brush,  though  not  an  aid  to  the  highest 
artistic  expression,  is  a  homely  and  useful  article,  and  all  the 
quarters  of  the  globe  are  under  contribution  to  the  manufacturers 
of  the  various  kinds.  Beech  is  the  chief  wood,  but  chestnut,  lime, 
alder,  sycamore,  and  Swedish  silver  birch  are  also  used.  Bristle, 
in  addition  to  the  home  supply,  comes  to  us  from  France, 
Germany,  Poland,  Eoumania,  Eussia,  Siberia,  and  China;  bass 
is  produced  chiefly  in  Brazil  and  Africa,  and  bassine  in  Ceylon. 
Besides  these  two  materials  other  fibres  are  used — Mexican 
whisk,  French  whisk,  Italian  sedge,  and  cocoanut  fibre.  Both 
by  hand  and  machine  these  materials  are  manipulated  until  they 
assume  the  various  forms  of  bass  brooms,  banisters,  shoe, 
blacklead,  and  other  brush  shapes. 

Mats  are  also  made  here.  Woven  of  cocoanut  fibre  or  yarn, 
the  manufacture  has  hitherto  been  done  by  hand,  but  after  eighteen 
months'  experimenting  a  practical  loom  has  been  installed  which 
will  enable  the  factory  the  better  to  compete  with  the  Belgian 
gaol-made  article.  Whilst  having  the  virtual  monopoly  of  this 
contrivance,  it  is  necessary  to  remember  that  the  aims  and  results 
of  collective  ownership  are  altogether  different  to  those  of  individual 
proprietorship. 

Notwithstanding  Continental  competition,  made  severe  by 
means  of  cheap  labour,  the  230  employes  are  paid  union  wages — 
indeed,  the  women  machine  workers  are  remunerated  at  higher 
rates  than  are  paid  in  the  outside  trade. 


11< 


Brislington  Butter  Factory^ 

'T'HIS  factory  has  been  erected  at  Brislington, 
■*■  Somersetshire,  with  the  primary  object,  not  of 
producing  butter  itself,  but  to  blend  and  pack  butter 
obtained  from  various  sources,  to  meet  the  requirements 
of  numerous  Societies.  We  distinguish  such  blending 
places  as  "factories"  as  against  "creameries,"  where 
butter  is  actually  produced  straight'  from  the  cream.  It 
is  a  distinction  worth  noting,  as  the  two  terms  are  often 
confused,  but  are  not  in  any  way  synonymous. 

Business  commenced  in  June,  1904,  and  the  trade  for 
the  half  year  was  £12,000.  Sales  have  steadily  increased, 
and  now  the  total  trade  done  in  twelve  months  exceeds 
£300,000. 

The  productions  have  met  with  the  approval  of 
Societies  to  such  an  extent  that  the  factory  and  plant 
have  been  duplicated.  The  factory  has  now  greater 
facilities  to  cope  with  the  steadily  increasing  demand  for 
its  products.  The  motive  power  is  different  to  that 
usually  employed  in  butter  factories,  the  various  machines 
being  driven  by  electric  motors.  The  present  capacity  is 
from  60  to  70  tons  per  week.  The  greatest  proportion 
of  the  output  is  in  lib.  and  ^Ib.  tablets  and  prints. 
Butter  is  also  packed  in  Icwt.  casks  and  561b.  and  281b. 
pyramids.  Supplies  of  cream  can  be  obtained  throughout 
the  year,  packed  in  attractive  jars  for  counter  trade, 
and  in  bulk  for  confectionery  departments.  The  factory 
has  taken  up  the  manufacture  of  Lactic  Cheese,  put  up 
in  dainty  packages.  There  is  an  increasing  demand  for 
this  delicacy,  and  trade  is  rapidly  developing. 


118 


o 


3 

a 
PQ 


Flour  Mills,  Dunston. 


nr'HE  question  of  flour  milling  by  the  CAY.S.  was  first 
■*•  discussed  in  1883,  as  the  quantity  of  flour  consumed 
in  the  Newcastle  district  was  then  held  to  justify  such  a 
venture.  Finally,  it  was  decided  in  1886  to  proceed,  and 
the  site  purchased  at  Dunston-on-Tyne.  Although  many 
obstacles  hindered  the  progress  of  the  work,  it  went 
steadily  forward,  and  on  April  18th,  1891,  the  mills  were 
opened. 

The  building  containing  the  flour  milling  machinery 
is  situate  in  the  background  of  the  view,  and  the  new 
circular  grain  silos  are  close  to  the  river  front,  while  to 
the  immediate  right  is  to  be  seen  the  building  containing 
the  wheat  cleaning,  &c.,  machinery.  The  mills  are 
divided  into  three  distinct  plants,  giving  a  total  milling 
capacity  of  about  90  sacks  of  flour  per  hour.  The 
circular  grain  silos  have  a  storage  capacity  of  15,000 
tons  of  wheat,  and  vessels  come  direct  alongside  the 
premises  where  the  wheat  is  discharged  by  means  of 
powerful  ship-elevators.  Along  the  side  of  the  premises 
opposite  to  the  river  is  the  railway  siding  with  three  sets 
of  railway  lines,  giving  facilities  for  loading  a  train 
consisting  of  35  wagons.  The  whole  of  the  machinery 
is  driven  by  electric  power. 


121 


Flour  Mill,  Silvertown^ 

TYTHEN  the  demand  arose  for  a  flour  mill  in  the  South 
'^  it  was  this  position,  full  on  the  Thames,  with 
railway  and  road  in  the  rear,  that  induced  the  C.W.S. 
Committee  to  purchase  five  acres  of  freehold  land  at 
Silvertown,  If  we  remember  how  many  of  the  large 
Societies  in  the  South  of  England  are  in  towns  situated 
on  tidal  waters,  we  shall  see  that,  apart  from  the  facilities 
for  receiving  sea-borne  wheat,  the  water  communication 
has  for  the  Silvertown  Mill  an  especial  value.  To  build, 
however,  on  the  light  gravel  of  the  river  bank  was  not 
a  simple  matter.  Sixty  five-foot  cylinders,  in  300  six-foot 
sections,  had  to  be  sunk  through  the  surface  drift  and 
filled  in  with  concrete.  On  this  solid  foundation  the  mill 
was  erected  by  the  C.W.S.  Building  Department,  London. 
The  Great  Eastern  Eailway  added  a  siding  communicating 
vid  Stratford  with  the  great  main  lines,  and  on  June  20th, 
1900,  the  mill  was  formally  opened. 

At  the  start  the  capacity  of  the  machinery  w^as  12 
sacks  of  280lbs.  each  per  hour.  It  is  now  50  sacks  per 
hour. 

The  provender  mill  is  now  in  full  work  for  the  supply 
of  cattle  feeding-meals,  poultry  mixtures,   &c. 


122 


J^  ??■  / 


9x     "^^      ■^-/        t]^ 


The  Sun  Mills,  Manchester. 


"VY7HEN  the  Sun  Mill  was  bought  eight  years  ago  it  had  a 
'^  capacity  of  between  thirty  and  forty  sacks  per  liour.  This, 
being  quite  unequal  to  the  demand,  had  to  be  increased.  A  new 
screen-room,  where  the  wheat  is  washed  and  dried,  replaced  the 
old  small  one.  Then  came  the  problem  of  storage  room  for  the 
wheat.  To  solve  it  the  original  warehouse  and  provender  mill 
were  turned  into  silos.  The  old  office,  a  small  chop  warehouse, 
and  a  cottage  were  pulled  down,  and  in  their  place  a  new  warehouse 
and  provender  mill  erected.  Meanwhile  the  plant  of  the  flour 
mill  had  been  increased  until  it  was  equal  to  an  output  of  seventy 
sacks  per  hour.  All  this  took  place  in  the  first  three  years  of 
C.W.S.  ownership. 

Trade  for  a  short  time  was  hardly  sufficient,  but  as  the  quality 
of  the  flour  became  better  known  it  grew  to  the  normal  power  of 
the  mill.  For  twelve  months,  perhaps,  demand  balanced  fairly 
with  supply.  Then  difficulties  again  began.  The  demand  for  the 
flour  gradually  increased  out  of  all  proportion  to  the  mill's  power 
of  supply.  A  new  mill  has  therefore  been  erected.  It  provides 
ample  storage  for  wheat  by  means  of  ferro-concrete  silos,  which, 
together  with  the  old  ones,  have  a  capacity  of  20,000  tons.  There 
is  a  washing  and  drying  plant  for  dealing  with  this  great  quantity. 
Then  there  is  the  mill  proper,  with  two  complete  plants  each 
capable  of  35  sacks  per  hour. 

Except  through  such  a  federation  as  the  C.W.S. ,  no  body  of 
consumers  could  possess  so  stupendous  a  mill.  The  capacity  of 
the  old  and  new  plant  together  is  an  output  of  140  sacks  an  hour. 
For  three  years  the  old  mill  has  worked  over  160  hours  a  week  to 
keep  pace  with  orders.  Now,  with  double  the  capacity,  the  mill 
can  meet  every  demand  immediately.  Thousands  of  pounds  of 
co-operative  capital  have  gone  to  its  erection.  To  keep  it  idle  a 
day  would  be  equivalent  to  flinging  250  golden  sovereigns  into 
the  Ship  Canal.  To  withhold  orders  is  as  foolish  as,  after  building 
such  a  mill,  to  refuse  it  wheat.  There  was  far-sighted  wisdom  in 
its  erection,  but  its  ultimate  justification  and  the  final  responsibility 
for  its  success  rests  with  the  co-operative  purchaser  and  her 
demand  for  C.W.S.  flour. 


L 


12.5 


The  Star  Mill,  Oldham. 

nr^HTS  mill,  founded  in  1868,  was  originally  started  by 
the  two  Societies  in  the  town  to  provide  for  their 
own  needs  and  those  of  the  neighbouring  Societies. 
When  first  started  the  flour  was  made  by  the  old-fashioned 
millstones,  but  the  directors  were  amongst  the  earliest 
to  put  in  a  roller  plant  when  rolls  for  flour  grinding  were 
introduced. 

In  1889,  w^ien  one-half  the  mill  had  just  been 
remodelled  and  brought  up  to  date,  a  disastrous  fire 
occurred,  which  totally  destroyed  the  mill  and  warehouse. 
The  insurance  did  not  wholly  cover  the  contents  of  the 
mill  and  stocks  of  flour,  and  there  was  a  loss  of  £3,500 
as  a  result  of  the  fire. 

Notwithstanding  this  loss,  the  fire  was  not  altogether 
a  disaster.  The  directors  of  the  mill  were  enabled  to 
erect  new  buildings,  which  were  altogether  more  suitable 
for  a  modern  flour  mill  roller  plant  than  the  old  buildings 
had  been,  they  having  been  built  for  the  millstone  plant. 

The  present  buildings  were  erected  in  1890,  and  the 
new  mill  was  fitted  up  by  Messrs.  Thomas  Robinson  and 
Son,  of  Rochdale,  with  thoroughly  efficient  and  up-to-date 
plant.  From  time  to  time  as  improvements  in  corn  mill 
machinery  have  been  made  they  have  been  introduced  into 
the  Star  Mill.  The  whole  plant  has  been  kept  in  a  highly 
efficient  state,  and  down  to  the  present  time  the  results, 
both  as  regards  quality  of  the  flour  and  the  profits,  have 
been  most  satisfactory.  The  capacity  of  the  mill  is  32 
sacks  of  2801bs.  each  per  hour. 

Although  an  inland  mill,  the  cost  of  getting  the 
wheat  from  the  Manchester  Docks  is  very  low.  The  bulk 
wheat  is  loaded  into  motors  specially  adapted  for  carrying 
wheat  in  bulk,  and  discharged  into  elevators  in  the  mill 
yard.  Although  not  enjoying  the  exceptional  advantages 
of  the  Sun  Mill  in  regard  to  dock  accommodation,  the 
Star  Mill  has  all  the  best  facilities  which  an  inland  mill 
can  possess,  and  there  are  a  number  of  large  Societies  in 
close  proximity  to  the  mill  who  take  the  largest  percentage 
of  the  flour.  The  quality  is  well  known  and  highly 
appreciated,  and  since  this  mill  was  taken  over  from  the 
Star  Mill  Flour  Society  by  the  C.W.S.  it  has  in  every 
possible  way  been  a  most  satisfactory  concern,  and  for 
every  sack  of  flour  that  could  be  made  there  has  been  a 
good  demand. 


126 


k 


^#* 


jiS'  £    I'rtZ    rr-    ^l^:- 
^SSg    iSSg'   «g5   ^^   \S        -"^, 

IBBB     sBtic     iir«.   Usm     ^ect- 

1    fsss.  $ss5  r.£%  (i;s  lii^ 


Flour  and  Provender  Mills, 
Avonmouth* 

A  FEW  minutes'  walk  from  the  modest  railway 
•^^  terminus  brings  the  visitor  to  the  mill,  and  the 
value  of  its  situation  is  almost  immediately  obvious.  A 
network  of  Midland  and  Great  Western  lines  surround 
it;  the  grey  ferro-concrete  granary  stands  beside  it;  and 
the  deep  dock  is  at  hand  from  which  the  great  Australian 
wheat  ships,  laden  with  their  thousands  of  quarters,  can 
discharge  direct  into  the  mill  silos. 

The  fresh,  clean  aspect  of  the  mill  outside  is  not 
belied  within.  Modern  milling  machinery  is  largely 
boxed  in,  and  floor  after  floor  shows  nothing  but  smartly- 
varnished  cases,  in  which  panes  of  glass  are  set  to  show 
the  fine  stream  of  flour  smoothly  and  swiftly  running 
like  water  over  a  weir.  Much  of  the  machinery,  too, 
is  connected  from  floor  to  floor,  so  that  a  main  part 
of  the  mill  resolves  itself  simply  into  one  huge  machine, 
the  separate  floors  being  mierely  platforms  by  which  to 
reach  its  parts. 

The  Provender  Department  forms  a  well-equipped 
part  of  the  mill.  Here  English  barley,  maize,  and  various 
cereals  are  cleaned,  mixed,  split,  and  ground,  and  bird 
food,  chicken  food,  pigeon  corn,  &c.,  are  prepared. 

At  present  there  is  difficulty  in  coping  with  the  great 
demand  for  flour,  but  arrangements  have  been  made  for 
doubling  the  milling  plant  in  order  to  relieve  the  situation. 


129 


Broughton  Shirt  and  Cabinet  Factories^ 

A  WALK  of  ten  minutes  from  Balloon  Street,  through  a 
■^^  neighbourhood  where  the  chief  features  are  the  Assize 
Courts,  Strangeways  Gaol,  and  a  Jewish  population  whose  labour 
is  largely  exploited  by  capitalistic  enterprise,  brings  us  to 
Trafalgar  Street,  Lower  Broughton,  in  which  the  Shirt  Factory 
is  situate.  This  factory  began  operations  in  1896,  but  owing  to 
increasing  trade  demanding  alterations  and  extensions  the  original 
building  is  hardly  recognisable  in  the  block  opposite. 

Space  does  not  permit  of  a  description  of  the  various 
operations  of  cutting  machinery,  folding,  &c.,  but  an  idea  of  the 
extent  of  the  business  carried  on  may  be  gathered  from  the  fact 
that  over  600  employes  are  busily  engaged,  hundreds  of 
thousands  of  yards  of  shirting  are  held  in  stock,  and  the  output 
is  36,000  garments  per  week.  Mention  must  be  made  here  that, 
in  addition  to  the  making  of  shirts,  duck  jackets,  overalls, 
artisans'  jackets,  &c.,  are  among  the  garments  produced.  The 
business  has  grown  from  a  turnover  in  the  first  year  of  £13,822 
to  £150,000  in  1913. 

Visitors  to  the  works  are  impressed  by  the  up-to-date 
machinery,  the  systematic  manner  in  which  so  large  an  output 
is  dealt  with,  the  light,  airy,  and  spacious  workrooms,  and  the 
spirit  of  contentment  prevailing  among  the  workers.  The  normal 
hours  worked  are  forty-eight  per  week,  no  stoppages  are  made  for 
needle  and  thread,  and  piecework  wages  are  paid  considerably 
in  advance  of  the  rate  outside. 

Cabinet  making  by  the  C.W.S.  commenced  in  1893.  Prior 
to  this  date  furniture  was  bought  "in  the  white,"  polishing, 
&c.,  being  done  at  Balloon  Street.  In  compliance  with  the 
demand  of  the  delegates  the  present  factory  was  erected,  the 
first  of  the  Broughton  group.  It  is  not  intended  to  detail  here 
the  various  vicissitudes  to  which  this  enterprise  has  been  subject; 
suffice  it  to  say  that  the  factory  experienced  a  lean  period  extending 
from  the  commencement  to  1905,  but  since  this  date  progress 
has  been  made,  other  branches  of  trade  added — viz.,  chair-making, 
upholstering,  bedding  manufacture,  and  down  quilt  making — and 
the  outlook  at  the  present  time  is  much  brighter  than  at  any 
other  period  in  the  history  of  the  factory.  The  goods  are  second 
to  none,  and  are  made  of  sound  materials  by  well-paid  trade  union 
labour  and  under  the  best  conditions.  When  co-operators  overcome 
the  present-day  tendency  (which  should  be  repugnant  to  them) 
of  purchasing  goods  in  the  cheapest  market,  no  matter  how  and 
where  they  are  made,  and  give  their  practical  support  to  the 
factories  worked  for  the  mutual  benefit  of  themselves  and  the 
workers,  there  will  be  an  increase  in  trade  at  Broughton  to  which 
the  management  is  thoroughly  entitled. 

130 


_   'iM.1      If 


<T 


*■ 


k 


Cabinet  Factory,  Pelaw. 


'T'HE  arrangement  of  these  ])uildings  has  been  made 
■■■  with  the  greatest  care  and  forethought.  Economy  in 
transit,  unloading,  and  storage  are  followed  by  a  carefully- 
planned  system  of  putting  the  work  through  inside  the 
factory ;  from  the  rough  log  to  the  finished  article  no 
point  is  missed.  At  the  back  of  the  factory  one  looks 
down  from  the  level  of  the  yard  on  to  the  railway  siding, 
into  which  the  wagons  of  timber  are  shunted.  A 
travelling  electric  crane  here  renders  great  service  by 
directly  transporting  the  logs  from  the  railway  to  the 
timber  store  and  saw  shed. 

Every  possible  precaution  is  taken  to  ensure  the 
proper  drying  of  the  wood,  and  the  heat  from  the  boilers 
of  the  power-house  is  utilised  for  this  purpose.  The 
factory  is  replete  with  the  most  recent  inventions  in  the 
way  of  machinery,  and  in  addition  is  fitted  with  a  system 
of  exhaust  pipes  which  suck  the  dust  and  shavings  from 
the  machines  and  deposit  them  in  the  boiler-house.  There 
has  lately  been  added  some  new  machinery  for  the 
washing,  pulling,  and  sterilising  of  flock,  and  also  two 
machines  for  the  purifying  and  sorting  of  featheis,  thereby 
ensuring  complete  cleanliness  and  purity  in  the  making 
of  mattresses  and  beds,  &c.,  for  which  there  is  now  a 
very  great  demand  in  the  district.  There  are  no 
productions  of  the  C.W.S.  more  worthy  the  support  of 
the  Societies,  as  an  inspection  of  the  showrooms  at 
Newcastle  would  prove. 


133 


Broughton  Mantle  and  Underclothing 
Factories^ 

TADIES'  mantle  and  costume  making  by  the  C.W.S. 
■■^  began  in  1896.  Six  employes  were  then  engaged, 
and  the  work  was  carried  on  in  a  corner  of  the  Shirt 
Factory.  In  accordance  with  the  rule  associated  with 
C.W.S.  enterprise,  the  trade  grew  until  the  present 
up-to-date  factory  was  erected,  in  which  over  300  hands 
are  employed,  and  a  glance  at  the  pattern  and  design 
books  issued  by  this  factory  will  bring  conviction  that 
the  costumes,  &c.,  turned  out  should  satisfy  even  the 
most  fastidious  of  the  fair  sex.  Considering  the  fickleness 
of  the  English  climate  it  is  not  a  matter  for  wonder  that 
the  factory  should  also  specialise  in  rainproof s.  The  same 
remarks  as  to  conditions,  &c.,  applying  to  other  C.W.S. 
factories,  are  also  relevant  here.  From  the  first  operation 
of  cutting  the  cloth  by  the  band-knife  to  the  pressing  of 
the  garments  by  irons,  heated  with  hot  air  and  gas, 
the  dropping  and  lifting  being  controlled  by  the  foot, 
numerous  labour-saving  machines  are  at  work.  We  see 
the  braiding,  button-holing,  two-needle,  overlocking 
machines  all  electrically  driven,  and  one  is  amazed  at 
the  ingenuity  of  these  machines,  but  in  the  case  of  the 
C.W.S.  that  ingenuity  has  been  applied  not  for  the 
destruction,  but  for  the  construction  of  a  system  for  the 
uplifting  of  humanity. 

The  same  block  of  buildings  houses  the  Underclothing 
Factory,  and  here  again  we  have  the  light,  airy,  and 
lofty  workrooms.  A  multiplicity  of  articles  of  women's 
and  girls'  attire  come  under  the  category  of  "under- 
clothing," but  to  the  masculine  mind  the  machinery  in 
this  factory  again  appeals  in  preference  to  their  delicate 
productions.  Here  again  are  the  overlocking  machine 
for  stitching  on  elegant  borders,  hemstitching  and  tuckiug 
machines,  and  electric  irons  for  the  finishing  process. 
A  speciality  is  the  making  of  overalls  or  magyars — a 
useful  article  which  has  found  much  feminine  favour. 

The  two  factories  described  produce  all  the  necessary 
articles,  except  head  and  footgear,  the  completeness  of 
which  is  a  tribute  to  the  method  and  efficiency  of  the 
management. 


184 


^f" 


^^ 


Desborough  Corset  Factory* 

^T'HE  Corset  Factory  was  originally  a  meraber  of  the 
■*■  Broughton  group,  and  it  began  operations  on  October 
20th,  1898.  A  few  years  sufficed  to  prov^e  that  at  some 
time  in  the  future  larger  premises  would  be  required, 
and  the  attention  of  the  Wholesale  Committee  was 
■drawn  to  Desborough.  The  Northamptonshire  township 
had  a  claim  to  be  considered  as  a  corset-making  centre, 
and  it  also  made  a  strong  co-operative  appeal.  The 
distributive  Co-operative  Society  at  Desborough,  besides 
enrolling  the  greater  number  of  the  inhabitants,  had 
attained  a  unique  position.  With  the  help  of  a  loan 
secured  from  the  C.W\S.  it  had  purchased  (in  1898)  a 
freehold  estate  of  over  400  acres,  carrying  with  it  the 
local  Manor  House.  Under  80  acres  of  this  land  a  bed 
of  iron  ore,  sufficiently  valuable  to  recoup  the  Society 
for  the  whole  first  cost,  was  afterwards  found.  The 
Desborough  co-operators  decided  to  work  this  themselves ; 
and,  under  the  circumstances,  to  find  employment  for 
the  girls  and  women  of  the  village,  they  were  ready  to 
offer  the  C.W\S.  special  terms.  At  the  Quarterly 
Meetings  in  December,  1904,  the  Wholesale  Committee 
obtained  approval  for  a  purchase  of  7,556  square  yards 
of  building  land,  fronting  on  the  Eothwell  Eoad, 
Desborough;  500  square  yards  adjoining  were  afterwards 
bought.  Meanwhile  the  existing  Desborough  Corset 
Manufacturing  Society  was  taken  over,  and  finally  on 
July  3rd,  1905,  the  whole  of  the  business  was  transferred 
to  the  fine  new  factory  which  by  that  time  had  been 
erected  on  the  Eothwell  Eoad  site. 


IS*: 


Longsight  Printing  Works* 

TYTHEN  the  annual  sales  of  the  C.W.S.  approached 
^^  £10,000,000  the  question  presented  itself  whether 
the  demand  for  printing,  books,  and  stationery  consequent 
upon  such  a  huge  business  could  not  be  met  by  the 
Society  itself.  The  question  received  an  affirmative 
answer,  and  in  1895  work  was  begun  in  a  small  way  in 
a  warehouse  that  stood  upon  part  of  the  site  now 
covered  by  the  Bank.  The  venture  proved  successful 
in  so  many  ways  that  it  was  realised  that  the 
available  accommodation  would  speedily  prove  inadequate. 
Building  operations  were  then  begun  on  a  plot  of  land 
at  Longsight,  already  owned  by  the  C.W.S. ,  and  close 
to  the  tram  route.  The  new  works  were  ready  in  1898, 
and  the  100  employes  then  engaged  had  ample  space  for 
the  performance  of  their  duties.  Now,  in  1914,  the  stafT 
is  nearly  1,200,  a  fact  that  testifies  eloquently  to 
the  progress  of  the  works.  In  1902  an  extension  to  the 
works  was  made,  and  in  1906  another  wing  of  five  storeys, 
was  opened,  and  now  the  capacity  of  the  works  is  tested 
to  its  full  extent. 

The  whole  of  the  allied  trades  connected  with  the 
printing  business  are  engaged  in  these  works,  and  thus 
the  diversity  of  work  carried  on  is  too  great  to  specify 
in  detail.  Besides  the  production  of  account  books  for 
the  C.W.S.  and  its  constituent  Societies,  and  balance 
sheets,  the  works  have  dealt  with  many  jubilee  histories 
for  a  large  number  of  Societies,  in  quantities  ranging 
from  30,000  books  of  700  pages  each  to  small  orders  of 
one  or  two  thousand.  Here  also  is  produced  the 
** Wheatsheaf,"  a  monthly  journal  published  for  about 
500  Societies,  who  contribute  pages  of  local  interest  to 
their  special  editions.  A  total  circulation  of  nearly 
550,000  monthly  has  now  been  reached.  A  fine  range 
of  lithographic  machinery  is  always  busy  with  box 
labels,  &c.,  and  towards  Christmas  with  many  thousands- 
of  almanacs.  Box-making  is  also  an  important  feature; 
of  the  works,  as  the  extent  and  variety  of  the  C.W.S. 
industries  call  for  an  incessant  supply  of  boxes  literally 
by  millions. 


138 


a 
o 


f^ 


Printing  Works,  Pelaw* 


npHIS  department  commenced  at  West  Blandford  Street 
■■■  in  the  spring  of  1898,  in  connection  with  the  paper 
department  whicli  had  been  started  previously,  and  in 
July,  1902,  a  removal  took  place  to  the  new  works  at 
Pelaw,  where  the  paper  and  printing  departments  were 
carried  on  jointly  up  to  June,  1908,  when,  consequent 
on  the  necessity  for  a  greater  development  of  the  two 
branches  of  business,  it  was  deemed  advisable  to  separate 
the  two  departments,  and  leave  the  printing  and  allied 
trades  the  full  use  of  the  Pelaw  Works. 

As  in  most  of  the  C.W.S.  factories,  white  glazed 
bricks  are  used  to  line  the  walls  inside.  The  lighting  of 
the  rooms  is  thus  very  much  improved,  while  cleaning 
is  a  matter  of  the  greatest  ease.  Not  merely  is  dirt  less 
liable  to  lodge  on  the  porcelain  surface,  but  it  shows 
itself  to  the  eye  at  once  when  there.  The  rooms  are  all 
heated  and  ventilated  by  the  Sirocco  system.  Large  air 
ducts  lead  from  the  heating  apparatus,  which  is  in  a 
small  separate  building,  to  each  room.  A  powerful  fan 
drives  the  warm  air  through  these  pipes  into  each  room. 
The  air  supplied  has  the  normal  amount  of  moisture  in  it, 
and  is  much  more  healthy  to  breathe  and  work  in  than 
the  dry  heat  of  a  room  warmed  by  radiation  from  hot 
pipes  or  metal  surfaces. 

The  equipment  of  the  works  is  of  the  most  modern 
character,  a  large  addition  having  been  made  to  the  plant 
during  the  past  three  years.  The  works,  which  are  lighted 
and  machinery  driven  by  electricity,  cater  for  the  full 
requirements  of  the  C.W.S.  works  and  departments,  as 
well  as  Societies  in  the  North,  for  every  description  of 
printing,  bookbinding,  cardboard  box-making,  &c.,  and 
the  trade  is  a  constantly  increasing  one. 


141 


Leicester  Printing  Works* 


^TpHESE  premises  were  originally  occupied  as  the 
■'■  hosiery  factory,  but  when  the  new  factory  at 
Huthwaite  was  completed  and  the  business  transferred  it 
was  decided  to  utilise  the  building  as  an  auxiliary  printing 
w^orks.  To  this  end  certain  necessary  alterations  were 
made  and  modern  machinery  installed,  and  a  start  was 
made  in  March,  1909.  In  1912  a  further  plot  of  land  was 
secured  and  a  large  extension  to  buildings  made,  and  the 
capacity  of  the  works  doubled.  New  machinery  has  been 
installed  to  deal  with  the  growing  trade.  The  works  can 
execute  orders  for  all  kinds  of  printing,  bookbinding, 
ruling,  and  box-making.  In  the  last-named  industry  over 
50,000  boxes  are  turned  out  weekly  for  our  own  boot 
works,  and  millions  of  cartons  of  all  sizes  for  various 
packed  goods. 


142 


-4 


mi 


'^-^u .  '/T 


I . 


p. 


A- 


^\ 


■:n 


^ 


West  Hartlepool  Lard  Refinery,  &c* 

'TT'HESE  modern  premises  (which  are  situated  at  the 
■■■  corner  of  Oxford  and  Baltic  Streets,  the  main 
entrance  being  from  Oxford  Street)  were  specially  erected 
for  the  process  of  lard  refining,  and  are  equipped  with 
the  most  up-to-date  appliances  for  this  business,  capable 
of  a  weekly  output  of  100  tons.  They  are  fitted 
throughout  with  electric  lights,  motors,  &c.,  and  among 
other  advantages  there  are  cold  storage  chambers  in 
which  all  refined  lard  is  warehoused.  The  refinery  is 
within  easy  access  of  the  docks,  there  being  a  continuous 
line  of  railway  up  to  the  works,  running  into  a  large 
covered  shed  at  the  back  of  the  premises,  so  that  goods 
can  be  both  despatched  from  and  received  at  the  works 
in  trucks,  all  loading  and  discharging  being  done  under 
cover. 


145 


Flannel  Factory,  Littleborough, 


npHE  manufacture  of  flannel  in  Lancashire  dates  back 
■^  to  the  reign  of  Edward  III.,  when  certain  Flemish 
weavers,  exiled  by  troubles  at  home,  settled  down  in  the 
wild  and  lofty  moorland  between  Lancashire  and 
Yorkshire.  From  them  in  part  were  descended  the  famous 
handloom  flannel  weavers  of  Eochdale  who  began  the 
co-operative  movement. 

In  1872  co-operators  in  the  neighbourhood  formed 
the  Lancashire  and  Yorkshire  Productive  Society,  and 
began  to  make  flannel  at  Hare  Hill  Mill.  The  venture, 
however,  was  not  a  success,  and  in  1878  it  went  into 
voluntary  liquidation.  In  1898  the  business  was 
purchased  by  the  C.W.S.,  and  has  since  taken  its  place 
as  a  profit-earning  department. 


146 


Tobacco  Factory,  Manchester^ 

pOE  many  years  the  demand  for  tobacco  had  been 
■*■  steadily  growing,  and  about  1896  the  Directors  of  the 
C.W.S.  felt  that  the  time  was  opportune  for  embarking 
on  the  manufacture  of  the  fragrant  weed.  A  factory  was 
bought  in  Sharp  Street,  a  few  minutes'  walk  from  Balloon 
Street,  and  a  start  was  made  in  1898.  Instant  success 
attended  the  enterprise,  and  within  four  years  a  trade  of 
£300,000  per  annum  was  reached.  Alterations  and 
additions  proceeded  rapidly,  until  the  buildings  now  cover 
the  ground  to  the  extent  shown  in  the  illustration,  the 
total  floor  space  being  well  over  10,000  square  yards.  As 
an  indication  of  the  strenuous  efforts  made  to  meet  the 
varied  tastes  of  the  consumers,  it  may  be  mentioned  that 
the  factory  turns  out  480  separate  kinds  of  roll,  flake, 
mixture,  shag,  honeydew,  cigars,  and  cigarettes.  The 
annual  production  amounts  to  1,500  tons  tobacco, 
4,140,000  cigars,  and  53,000,000  cigarettes. 


149 


Hosiery  Factory,  Huthwaite* 

npHE  connection  of  the  CAY.S.  with  hosiery  began  in 
■■•  1903,  when  the  Leicester  Hosiery  Factory,  which  had 
previously  been  run  as  a  copartnership  works,  was  taken 
over  as  a  going  concern.  For  about  five  years  operations 
were  carried  on  in  the  old  building,  but  in  1908  the 
business  was  transferred  to  a  new  and  commodious  factory 
designed  and  erected  by  the  C.W.S.  at  Hucknall 
Huthwaite,   fourteen  miles  from  Nottingham. 

The  building,  which  lies  just  behind  the  main  road 
from  Sutton  to  Huthwaite,  is  of  two  storeys  without  a 
basement.  It  takes  the  shape  of  an  L,  with  the 
engine-house  and  other  incidental  buildings  grouped  in 
an  angle.  From  one  extreme  of  the  L  to  the  other  it  is 
one  lofty  hall,  lit  from  roof  and  sides. 

The  factory  produces  all  kinds  of  hosiery,  such  as 
stockings  suitable  for  all  varieties  of  extremities;  socks 
also,   and  underclothing,  cardigans,  &c. 

All  that  modern  machinery  can  do,  guided  by  expert 
management,  is  brought  to  bear  upon  the  work,  with 
the  result  that  the  C.W.S.  hosiery  is  second  to  none. 


160 


^^^^^^^^ 


* 


Bury  Weaving  Shed* 

nr^HIS  factory,  opened  in  February,  1905,  is  situated  at 
*■  Springs,  Bury,  about  ten  miles  from  Manchester, 
and,  being  directly  connected  with  the  Lancashire  and 
Yorkshire  Eailway,  is  conveniently  placed  with  regard  to 
traffic  facilities.  As  may  be  seen  from  the  illustration, 
ample  provision  is  made  for  a  full  volume  of  light,  and  the 
floor  space  gives  ample  room  for  each  branch  of  the  work. 
There  are  about  900  looms  at  work  making  domestics, 
Wigans,  sheetings,  &c.  The  material  woven  here  is  dyed 
and  finished  elsewhere,  these  operations  being  distinct  and 
separate  trades.  The  bulk  of  it  reappears  as  lining  or 
pocketing,  the  "Sataline"  fabric  being  in  considerable 
favour  amongst  the  Societies. 


k 


153 


Radcliffe  Weaving  Shed* 

npHIS  is  the  latest  C.W.S.  development  on  the 
•■■  productive  side.  The  site  for  the  shed  has  been 
admirably  chosen  just  on  the  borders  between  Eadcliffe 
and  Bury  (Lancashire).  Only  coloured  goods  are  woven, 
principally  shirtings,  and  the  other  mills  required  for 
the  various  finishing  processes  are  close  at  hand.  The 
building  is  worthy  of  the  G.W.S.  Distinctive  features 
are  individual  electric  drive  for  each  loom  and  machine, 
the  current  being  supplied  by  the  Bury  Corporation. 
There  are  no  humidifiers,  so  the  health  of  the  employes 
stands  to  gain.  All  "conditioning,"  therefore,  is  done 
to  the  yarn,  and  for  this  purpose  there  is  a  good  cellar. 
Automatic  looms  are  being  used,  which  m.ean  better  and 
more  reliable  cloth.  The  productions  have  given  every 
satisfaction,  and  with  the  foundations  of  success  so 
securely  laid,  firm  hopes  for  the  future  may  be  entertained. 


154 


a: 

c 

ci 


Pi 


1 


Keighley  Ironworks. 

'T'HE  inception  of  these  works  was  due  to  the  local 
•^  co-operators,  who  in  1885  had  under  consideration 
a  proposition  to  enter  into  a  local  industry.  Eventually 
a  Society  was  formed  and  registered,  premises  taken,  and 
work  commenced. 

In  1907  negotiations  were  promoted  with  a  view  to 
the  acquirement  of  the  Society  by  the  C.W.S.,  and  in 
1908  the  transfer  was  an  accomplished  fact. 

In  1909  the  foundry  was  extended  and  more 
commodious  buildings  erected  for  the  machine  depart- 
ment, and  altogether  the  buildings  are  very  substantial 
and  well  adapted  to  the  demands  of  the  work.  The  works 
are  thoroughly  equipped  with  machinery  for  economical 
production,  and  for  both  driving  and  lighting  electricity 
is  the  motive  power. 

As  regards  conditions  of  labour  and  wages  paid,  there 
is  no  hesitation  in  declaring  them  to  be  in  harmony  with 
the  aims  and  desires  of  co-operators. 

The  principal  articles  of  manufacture  are  washing 
machines  and  wringers,  bedsteads  of  iron  and  brass,  and 
wire  mattresses. 


157 


Dudley  Bucket  and  Fender  Works, 


n^HESE  works  were  established  in  1888  as  an 
"■•  independent  Productive  Society,  and  after  twenty 
years  of  steady  progress  the  works  were  taken  over  by 
the  C.W.S.  at  the  same  time  as  the  Keighley  Ironworks. 
The  main  products  of  the  factory  are  fenders, 
fire-irons  (curb,  brass,  and  antique),  and  fire  brasses. 
These  are  of  a  great  variety  in  design,  as  new  patterns 
are  constantly  in  demand.  Iron,  steel,  brass,  and  copper 
are  all  brought  into  requisition,  singly  or  in  combination, 
to  produce  attractive  articles  of  furniture.  The  less 
ornamental  but  often  more  useful  bucket  is  also  made  in 
large  quantities  and  many  sizes.  Galvanised  goods,  such 
as  buckets,  baths,  waterloos,  &c.,  also  constitute  a  large 
proportion  of  the  trade. 


1D8 


3 


Birtley  Tinplate  Works^ 


nr  HESE  are  the  largest  works  of  the  kind  in  the  North 
•■■  of  England  devoted  to  the  production  of  tinware, 
steel,  and  sheet  metal  goods  of  every  description. 

The  'vsorks  are  situated  in  the  south-west  of  Birtley, 
adjoining  the  main  line  of  the  North-Eastern  Eailway, 
six  miles  south  of  Newcastle-on-Tyne. 

The  building  is  a  brick  structure,  composed  of  single 
and  two-storey  buildings,  and,  with  the  various 
outbuildings,  covers  close  on  an  acre  of  land. 

The  machine  and  general  workshop  is  fitted  up  with 
modern  machinery,  with  power  presses  for  all  classes  of 
work,  and  automatic  machinery  for  the  production  of 
sheet  metal  goods.  Domestic  tinware  is  here  made  in 
large  quantities  and  of  great  variety,  over  500  various 
articles  being  made  in  this  department. 

Special  flour  bins  and  shoots  are  made  for  the  storage 
of  all  kinds  of  flour,  meal,  and  grain.  In  this  department 
are  also  manufactured  the  noted  steel  panel  trunks. 
There  are  also  manufactured  ventilators,  flour  mill  spouts 
and  hoppers,  &c.,  to  suit  the  requirements  of  the  various 
productive  departments. 

All  the  machinery  is  worked  by  electric  motors,  and 
the  conditions  of  labour  are  all  that  could  be  desired. 


M  161 


Paint,  Colour,  and  Varnish  Works, 
Rochdale. 

npHESE  premises  were  opened  in  November,  1911, 
■*■  and  are  completely  equipped  for  the  manufacture  of 
paints,  colours,  varnishes,  distempers,  enamels,  &c.  A 
large  and  increasing  trade  is  being  done,  and  the 
productions  are  giving  every  satisfaction. 

A  speciality  is  made  of  high-class  paints,  colours,  and 
varnish  for  building  and  painting  departments. 


162 


.# 


I 


Steamships  Department* 

npHE  Garston  and  Eouen  service  was  started  by  the 
■■■  Society  with  a  fortnightly  steamer  in  the  early  part  of 
1879,  and  in  1894,  on  the  opening  of  the  Manchester  Ship 
Canal,  a  separate  fortnightly  service  was  commenced 
between  Manchester  and  Eouen,  the  s.s  "Pioneer" 
being  the  first  boat  to  land  inward  foreign  cargo  direct 
on  to  the  Manchester  Quay. 

In  1905  the  service  was  rendered  more  efficient  by 
making  it  weekly  from  each  port,  instead  of  fortnightly. 

The  boats  call  at  Swansea  on  the  outward  voyage  to 
load  tinplates  and  other  general  goods. 

The  sailing  days  are  from  Manchester  every  Tuesday ; 
from  Garston,  Wednesday;  and  from  Swansea,  Friday, 
arriving  at  Eouen  Sunday.  The  homeward  sailings  are 
from  Eouen  every  Wednesday,  arriving  at  Manchester  on 
Sunday.  Two  steamers  are  at  present  engaged  in  the 
service,  viz.,  the  s.s.  "Fraternity"  and  "New  Pioneer." 


S.S.  *^  FRATERNITY/' 

The  "Fraternity"  was  built  at  Glasgow  in  1903. 
Dimensions,  180ft.  2in.  x  28ft.  lin.  x  15ft.  Gin. ;  net 
tonnage,  281.  She  carries  650  tons  cargo  and  100  tons 
bunkers.  The  crew  consists  of  15  hands ;  master,  Captain 
E.  Bell. 


165 


S.S.  "New  Pioneer." 


npHE  "New  Pioneer"  was  built  at  Walker-on-Tyne, 
■*■  December,  1905,  to  replace  the  original  "Pioneer," 
sold  in  1906.  Dimensions,  193ft.  x  29ft..  6in.  x  12ft. 
4in. ;  net  tonnage,  320.  She  carries  750  tons  cargo  and 
100  tons  bunkers.  The  crew  consists  of  15  hands; 
master,  Captain  J.  T.  Gemmell. 


IG6 


Roden  Convalescent  Home* 


THE  Eoden  Estate,  purchased  by  the  C.W.S.  in  1896, 
included  the  Roden  Hall,  a  small  modern  country 
house  standing  in  its  own  grounds.  After  alterations  and 
enlargements  the  house  was  opened  in  July,  1901,  as  a 
Convalescent  Home.  It  has  accommodation  for  fifty 
persons.  The  house  includes  a  men's  sitting-room,  a 
billiard-room,  a  library,  a  handsome  dining-room,  which 
is  used  also  for  concerts  and  dances,  a  ladies'  sitting-room, 
a  conservatory,  separate  bedrooms,  and  also  bedrooms 
for  married  couples  as  well  as  the  matron's  apartments, 
kitchens,  &c.  The  Home  has  its  own  kitchen  garden  and 
tennis  courts.  A  bowling  green  and  cricket  ground 
adjacent  is  used  jointly  by  visitors  and  the  employes  of 
the  estate.  The  Home  is  open,  first,  for  convalescents, 
who,  being  recommended  by  a  Co-operative  Society 
federated  with  the  C.W.S. ,  and  not  suffering  from 
infectious  disease,  are  received  at  a  charge  of  12s.  6d.  per 
week.  AYhen  there  is  room  visitors  are  also  received  at 
■25s.  per  week,  or  for  a  week-end  for  12s.  The  official 
receiving  day  for  convalescents  is  Tuesday,  when  a 
physician  attends  at  the  Home. 


Roden  Estate. 


'T'HE  C.W.S.  Eoden  Estate,  in  Shropshire,  consists  of 
■*■  742  acres  on  the  banks  of  the  Httle  river  Eoden,  and 
is  situated  six  miles  north-east  of  Shrewsbury.  Of  this 
land  208  acres  are  farmed  by  the  C.W.S. ,  the  remainder 
being  mainly  let  to  farmers.  Fifty  acres  are  (summer, 
1914)  under  fruit,  seventy  acres  are  mov/ing  and  grazing 
land,  and  the  rest  is  planted  with  peas,  roots,  and  cereals. 
Besides  the  fruit  farm  there  are  the  glasshouses,  the  total 
length  of  which  amounts  to  over  a  mile  and  a  half. 
Tomatoes,  cucumbers,  and  grapes  are  chiefly  grown. 
Thirty-four  men  are  employed  on  the  farm,  and  thirty- 
two  men  and  five  women  in  the  glasshouses ;  while  in  the 
fruit-picking  season  a  large  temporary  staff  is  recruited 
from  the  Wellington  and  Oakengates  districts.  The  fruit 
picked  is  taken  daily  four  miles  to  Crudgington  Station, 
on  the  Wellington  and  Market  Drayton  line,  by  steam 
lurry.  The  lurry  does  the  work  of  seven  horses,  and  there 
are  fourteen  horses  kept  on  the  farm.  Modern  cottages- 
have  been  built  for  employes,  fitted  with  electric  light, 
and  are  let  at  a  rent  of  3s.  weekly.  An  institute,  with 
lending  library  and  reading  and  billiard  i'"Ooms,  has  also 
been  provided  by  the  C.W.S.,  and  in  this  building 
religious  services  are  held  every  Sunday.  The  estate  has 
its  own  water  supply  by  means  of  a  pumping  station,  and 
its  own  plant  for  electric  lighting;  also  an  organised 
fire  brigade.     The  estate  was  acquired  in  1896. 


170 


ii 
w 


««.i«*  " 


Hf 


o 


^ 


Wisbech  Fruit  Depot. 

HTHE  Wisbech  Fruit  Depot  is  an  unpretentious 
■*■  building,  but  forms  an  important  link  between  the 
agricultural  industry  of  the  Eastern  Counties  and  the 
C.W.S.,  acting  as  a  collecting  and  distributing  station  for 
fruit  and  vegetables  grown  so  abundantly  in  this  locality. 
The  Depot  was  first  started  in  connection  with  the 
purchase  of  potatoes,  in  which  a  large  business  is  done, 
while  vegetables  for  pickling  are  despatched  to  Middleton, 
Silvertown,  and  Pelaw  factories.  In  the  winter  months 
employment  is  given  to  some  seventy  women  at  pea 
picking  in  connection  with  the  dried-pea  trade.  During 
the  summer,  daily  consignments  of  fruit  are  received  from 
the  fruit  growers  in  the  neighbourhood,  the  bulk  of  this 
being  immediately  despatched  to  the  Middleton  Preserve 
\Yorks  for  jam.  An  increasing  trade  with  the  C.W.S. 
is  that  of  canned  fruits,  and  in  order  to  preserve  the 
strawberries,  raspberries,  &c.,  while  absolutely  fresh,  the 
fruit  is  heated  in  retorts  and  canned  the  same  day  that  it 
arrives  from  the  farmers,  and  is  afterwards  sent  by  rail  to 
Middleton,  where  it  is  labelled  and  distributed.  Green 
fruit  is  also  collected  and  despatched  to  the  various 
warehouses  of  the  C.W.S. ,  and  also  to  the  Scottish 
Wholesale  Society. 

The  building  is  133  feet  long  by  30  feet  wide,  but  the 
site  provides  ample  room  for  extension  as  the  business 
develops.  The  Depot  is  well  situated  for  the  ready 
despatch  of  produce,  the  railway  siding  in  connection  with 
the  Great  Eastern  Railway  giving  convenient  access  to 
all  the  distributive  centres  and  productive  works. 


178 


Coldham  Estate,  near  Wisbech* 


LJEKE  the  C.W.S.  has  an  estate  in  one  of  the  best 
•*■  ■*■  farming  districts  of  the  country.  The  acreage  is 
about  802,  and  consists  in  the  main  of  four  farms — 
Percival  House,  Fen,  Lilypool,  and  Jew  House.  The 
first  and  chief  of  these  adjoins  the  Coldham  railway 
station,  the  farmhouse  being  but  a  couple  of  minutes 
distant.  The  other  lands  also  adjoin  side  by  side  at 
different  points.  Peas,  potatoes,  and  fruit  will  be  the 
main  supplies  from  the  land.  The  co-operative  store 
movement,  as  brought  into  touch  with  the  land  through 
the  C.W.S.  salerooms  and  factories,  can  absorb  huge 
quantities  of  all  kinds  of  produce,  and  the  only  problem  is 
to  grow  it  in  sufficient  quantities  at  any  two  or  three 
places  to  make  the  handling  economical  and  the  business 
worth  while. 


174 


-m 


Marden  Estate. 


npHE  Marden  Fruit  Farm,  which  hes  about  five  miles 
■^  from  the  city  of  Hereford,  was  purchased  by  the 
C.W.S.  in  1904  as  an  extension  of  the  "back-to-the-land" 
pohcy  initiated  at  Eoden,  The  county  of  Hereford  is 
famous  for  its  orchards,  the  rich  soil  being  eminently 
suited  for  fruit  growing.  The  Marden  Estate  has  nearly 
120  acres  devoted  to  fruit  culture,  of  which  plums,  apples, 
strawberries,  gooseberries,  and  black  currants  are  chiefly 
in  favour. 

Whilst  tomato  growing  is  on  a  smaller  scale  than  at 
Eoden,  there  is  a  goodly  extent  of  glasshouses  at  Marden, 
where  this  popular  fruit- vegetable  is  reared,  and,  in  spite 
of  every  effort  to  keep  pace,  the  demand  from  retail 
Societies  exceeds  the  supply.  The  co-operative  taste  has 
learned  to  distinguish  the  superior  excellence  of  "our  own 
grown"  tomatoes. 

A  sure  market  for  fruit  is  not  only  found  in  the  same 
direction,  but  the  requirements  of  Middleton  Jam  Works 
are  in  themselves  enormous. 


177 


Withgill  Farm  and  Chaigeley  Estate, 


WITHGILL  FARM. 

'T'HIS  farm,  situate  in  the  parish  of  Mytton,  is  three 
■*■  miles  from  the  town  of  Clitheroe,  and  comprises  an 
area  of  293  acres,  1  rood,  17  perches  of  freehold  land. 
It  was  purchased  for  the  purposes  of  a  dairy  farm,  cattle 
grazing,  and  pig  feeding  and  rearing.  The  farm  buildings 
have  been  modernised  and  brought  thoroughly  up  to  date 
as  regards  sanitation,  &c.,  whilst  the  piggeries  now 
nearing  completion  will,  when  finished,  accommodate 
about  1,800  pigs. 

CHAIGELEY  ESTATE. 

The  estate,  which  practically  adjoins  Withgill,  contains 
an  area  of  477  acres,  16  perches  of  freehold  land, 
and  comprises  eight  farms,  three  cottages,  and  a  large 
manor  house,  the  latter  at  the  present  time  (November) 
being  occupied,  on  the  recommendation  of  the  delegates 
assembled  at  the  September,  1914,  quarterly  meeting, 
by  some  fifty-seven  Belgian  refugees.  Auxiliary  piggeries 
to  Withgill  are  also  being  erected  on  one  of  the  small 
farms  to  accommodate  200  pigs. 

It  is  not  the  intention  of  the  C.W.S.  to  dispossess  the 
present  tenants,  but  to  take  over  the  farms  as  and  when 
they  become  vacant. 


178 


iMnSmMi  ''^?BiiiiiiiiT''^ 


Tea  Estates,  Ceylon, 

TI  was  in  1882  the  English  and  Scottish  Wholesale 
"■■  Societies  combined  to  establish  a  joint  Tea  Department 
in  London,  adjacent  to  the  dock  warehouses  and  brokers' 
offices  that  constitute  the  great  tea  market  of  the  country. 
At  the  same  time  tea  planting  was  beginning  in  the  central 
mountainous  districts  of  Ceylon.  The  superbly  beautiful, 
winterless  island,  with  .its  warm  steamy  atmosphere  in 
the  mountain  regions  round  Kandy,  is  now  one  of  the 
chief  sources  of  supply,  and  when  the  ^Yholesale  Societies 
decided  to  follow  the  trade  outside  the  bounds  of  this 
country,  and  to  become  tea  planters  themselves,  it  was 
to  Ceylon  they  went.  In  1902  the  Nugawella  and 
Weliganga  estates  were  bought,  and  to  these  properties 
the  Mahavilla,  Dambagalla,  Denmark,  AVesthall,  Lower 
Barcaple,  and  Nagastenne  estates  have  since  been  added. 
Altogether,  through  their  ^Yholesales,  English  and 
Scottish  Co-operators  own  3,366  acres  of  Chigalese 
ground. 


181 


I 

C 
(£3 


The  Co-operative 
Wholesale  Society  Limited 


ENROLLED  AUGUST  1 1th,  1863, 

under  the  provisions  of  the  Industrial  and  Provident  Societies 
Act,  25  and  26  Vict.,  cap.  87,  sec.  15,  1862. 


BUSINESS  COMMENCED  MARCH  14th,  1864. 


SHARES,  £5  EACH,  TRANSFERABLE. 


Wholesale  General  Dealers,  Manufacturers,  Bankers,  insurers. 
Millers,  Printers,  Bookbinders,  Boxmakers,  Lithographers, 
Architects,  Engineers,  Builders,  Shipov^ners,  Butter  Factors, 
Lard  Refiners,  Bacon  Curers,  Fruit  Growers,  Drysalters,  Spice 
Grinders,  Saddlers,  Curriers,  Iron  Founders  and  Tinplate 
Workers,  Tea  Growers,  Blenders,  Packers,  Farmers,  and 
Importers,  Fellmongers,  Dealers  in  Grocery  and  Provisions, 
Drapery,  Woollens,  Ready-made  Clothing,  Boots  and 
Shoes,  Brushes,  Crockery,  Carpets,  Furniture,  Coal,  Hides, 
Skins,  Bones,  ^c,  ^c. 

Manufacturers  of  Flour,  Butter,  Biscuits,  Sweets,  Preserves, 
Pickles,Vinegar,  Candied  Peels,  Cocoa,  Chocolate,  Tobacco, 
Cigars,  Cigarettes,  Snuff,  Soap,  Candles,  Glycerine,  Starch, 
Blue,  Paints,  Varnish,  and  Colours,  Boots  and  Shoes, 
Saddlery,  Woollens,  Clothing,  Flannels,  Shirts,  Mantles, 
Underclothing,  Overalls,  Umbrellas,  Leather  Bags,  Corsets, 
Millinery,  Hosiery,  Silesias,  Shirtings,  Coloured  Cotton 
Goods,  Pants,  Ladies'  Underwear,  Cardigans,  Furniture, 
Brushes,  General  Hardware,  Bedsteads,  Wire  Mattresses, 
Mats,  Fats,  &-c. 
0  185 


CENTRAL  OFFICES, 

BANK,  SHIPPING,  AND  COAL  DEPARTMENT,  GROCERY  AND  PROVISION  AND 

BOOT  AND  SHOE  WAREHOUSES: 

Balloon  Street,  Manchester. 

BRANCHES: 

West  Blandford  Street,  Newcastle-on-Tyne, 

AND 

Leman  Street,  London,  E. 

INSURANCE. 
JOINT  INSURANCE  DEPARTMENT  (C.W.S.  €r  S.C.W.S.): 

Corporation  Street,  Manchester. 

GROCERY  SALEROOM,  FURNISHING  AND  STATIONERY 
WAREHOUSES: 

Corporation  Street,  Manchester. 

DRAPERY  WAREHOUSES: 

Balloon  Street  and  Dantzic  Street, 
Manchester, 

WOOLLEN  CLOTH  AND  READY-MADES  WAREHOUSE: 

Dantzic  Street,  Manchester. 

SADDLERY  AND  UMBRELLA  REPAIRING  DEPARTMENTS: 

Thorniley  Brow,  Manchester. 

HIDE  AND  SKIN  WAREHOUSES: 

Elm  Street,  Manchester ;  Copley  Hill,  Leeds ; 

Beeston,  Nottingham;  Rotherham, 
Newcastle-on-Tyne,  and  Stockton-on-Tees. 

FELLMONGERING  AND  FAT  AND  BONES  DEPARTMENTS: 

Pontefract. 

186 


SALEROOMS: 

LEEDS,  HUDDERSFIELD,  NOTTINGHAM,   BLACKBURN, 
AND   BIRMINGHAM. 


PURCHASfNG  AND  FORWARDING  DEPOTS. 

England : 

LIVERPOOL,  MANCHESTER,  BRISTOL,  LONGTON,  GOOLE,  GARSTON, 

CARDIFF,  AND  NORTHAMPTON. 

Ireland : 
CORK,  LIMERICK,   TRALEE,  and  ARMAGH. 


IRISH  CREAMERIES: 

BUNKAY  BRIDGE,  KILCOMMON,  TRALEE. 
And  6  Auxiliaries. 


FOREIGN   AND   COLONIAL. 

America :  j  France : 

NEW    YORK.  i  ROUEN. 

Canada :  i  Spain : 

MONTREAL.  DENIA. 

Denmark : 

COPENHAGEN,  AARHUS,  ODENSE,  ESBJERG,  and  HERNING. 

Sweden : 
GOTHENBURG. 

Ceylon  : 
COLOMBO. 

West  Africa : 
MAKENE,  FREETOWN,  and  ACCRA. 

Southern  India  : 

WYNAAD. 
I8T 


PRODUCTIVE  WORKS  AND  DEPARTMENTS. 


Biscuits,  Cakes,  Table  Jellies,  and  Sweets  Works : 
ORUMPSALL,  NEAR  MANCHESTER. 

Boot  and  Shoe  Works  : 
LEICESTER,  HECKMONDWIKE,  RUSHDEN,  and  LEEDS. 

Soap,  Candle,  Clycerine,  Lard,  Starch,  and  Blue  Works : 

IRLAM,  NEAR  MANCHESTER, 
SILVERTOWN    (LONDON),   and   DUNSTON-ON-TYNE. 

Tallow  Works : 

SYDNEY   (Australia). 

Woollen  Cloth  Works: 

LIVINGSTONE  MILL,  BATLEY. 

Clothing  Factories: 

HOLBECK  (LEEDS),  BROUGHTON  (MANCHESTER), 
LONDON,  AND  PELAW-ON-TYNE. 

Cocoa  and  Chocolate  Works : 
DALLOW  ROAD,  LUTON. 

Flour  Mills: 

DUNSTON-ON-TYNE,    SILVERTOWN    (LONDON),    OLDHAM, 
MANCHESTER,   and   AVONMOUTH   (BRISTOL). 

Furniture,  Bedding,  and  Cartwrighting  Factories: 
BROUGHTON   (MANCHESTER)  and  PELAW-ON-TYNE. 

Printing,  Bookbinding,  Boxmaking,  and 

Lithographic  Works : 

LONGSIGHT  (MANCHESTER),  PELAW-ON-TYNE,  and  LEICESTER. 

Preserve,  Candied  Peel,  and  Pickle  Works, 

also  Vinegar  Brewery  : 
MIDDLETON  JUNCTION,  near  MANCHESTER. 

Preserve,  6-c.,  Works: 
READING. 

Shirts,  Mantles,  and  Underclothing,  Building  and  Traffic: 
BROUGHTON  (MANCHESTER). 

Umbrella  Making  and  Repairing :     Men's  Overalls  and  Shirts 
MANCHESTER.  SHEFFIELD. 

188 


PRODUCTIVE  WORKS  AND  DE?ARTMENTS-conti7tued, 

Tailoring,  Shirts,  Kerseys,  Drugs,  €rc.: 
PELAW-ON-TYNE. 

Leather  Bag  Making:  Tailoring  and  Bedding: 

NEWCASTLE-ON-TYNE.  LONDON. 

Bacon  Factories: 
TRALEE  (Ireland)  and  HERNING  (Denmark). 

Lard  Refineries: 
WEST  HARTLEPOOL  and  IRLAM. 

Tobacco,  Cigar,  Cigarette,  and  Snuff  Factory: 

SHARP  STREET,  MANCHESTER. 

Flannel  and  Blanket  Factories: 
HARE  HILL  MILLS,  LITTLEBORO'. 

Corset  Factories:  Hosiery,  drc.  Factory: 

DESBOROUGH  and  KETTERING.  HUTHWAITE,  NOTTS. 

Tea  Gardens: 
CEYLON  AND  SOUTHERN  INDIA. 

Weaving  Sheds:  Brush  and  Mat  Works: 

BURY  AND  RADCLIFFE.  HUNSLET,  LEEDS. 

Fruit,  drc.  Farms: 

RODEN  (Sheopshire),  HARDEN  (Hereford),  WISBECH  (Cambs.), 

and  WITHGILL  (Lancs.). 

General  Hardware,  Bedstead,  Wire  Mattress,  and 
Tinplate  Works : 
DUDLEY,  BIRTLEY,  and  KEIGHLEY. 

Butter  Factory : 
BRISLINGTON,  BRISTOL. 

Paint,  Varnish,  and  Colour  Works: 

ROCHDALE. 

Scales  Departments: 

MANCHESTER,  NEWCASTLE,  LONDON,  BRISTOL,  BIR^HNGHAM, 

LIVERPOOL,  LEICESTER,  NOTTINGHAM,  and  I^EEDS. 

Engineering  and  Power  Station: 

TRAEFORD  park,  MANCHESTER. 
189 


SHIPOWNERS  AND  SHIPPERS 

BETWEEN 

GARSTON  AND  ROUEN;  MANCHESTER  AND  ROUEN. 


STEAMSHIPS  OWNED  BY  THE  SOCIETY 

"FRATERNITY,"     "NEW  PIONEER,"     "DINAH," 
AND     "BRITON." 


BANKING  DEPARTMENT. 

Agencies : 

THE  LONDON  COUNTY  AND  WESTMINSTER  BANK  LIMITED, 

LONDON,  AND  BRANCHES. 

THE   MANCHESTER  AND   COUNTY   BANK  LIMITED,   CORN 
EXCHANGE,   MANCHESTER,  AND  BRANCHES. 

THE   NATIONAL  PROVINCIAL  BANK  OF  ENGLAND  LIMITED, 
MANCHESTER,   AND    BRANCHES. 

THE   MANCHESTER  AND  LIVERPOOL  DISTRICT   BANK  LIMITED, 
WITHY    GROVE,    MANCHESTER,    AND    BRANCHES. 

THE   LANCASHIRE   AND   YORKSHIRE   BANK  LIMITED, 
MANCHESTER,    AND    BRANCHES. 

THE  UNION  BANK  OF  MANCHESTER  LIMITED,  MANCHESTER, 
AND    BRANCHES. 

THE  LONDON  CITY  AND  MIDLAND  BANK  LIMITED,  CORNHILL, 
LONDON,  AND    BRANCHES. 

WILLIAMS  DEACON'S  BANK  LIMITED,  MANCHESTER,  AND 
BRANCHES. 

BARCLAY  AND  CO.  LIMITED,  LONDON,  AND  BRANCHES. 

LLOYD'S  BANK  LIMITED,  GREY  STREET,  NEWCASTLE-ON-TYNE, 
AND  BRANCHES. 

UNITED  COUNTIES  BANK  LIMITED,  BARNSLEY,  AND  BRANCHES. 

LONDON  JOINT  STOCK  BANK  LIMITED  (Late  York  City  and  County 
Bank  Limited),  YORK,   AND  BRANCHES. 

UNION  OF  LONDON  AND  SMITH'S  BANK   LIMITED,  BARNSLEY, 
AND  BRANCHES. 

CAPITAL   AND   COUNTIES   BANK   LIMITED,   LONDON, 

AND   BRANCHES. 

PARRS  BANK  LIMITED,  MANCHESTER,  AND  BRANCHES. 

NORTHAIVJPTONSHIRE   UNION   BANK  LIMITED,  RUSHDEN, 

AND  BRANCHES. 

WEST  YORKSHIRE  BANK  LIMITED,  HALIFAX,  AND  BRANCHES. 

LONDON  AND  SOUTH-WESTERN  BANK  LIMITED  AND  BRANCHES. 

100 


THE  COMMITTEE: 

ADAMS,  Mr.  THOMAS,  12,  Park  View,  Stockton-on-Tees. 
ALLEN,  Mr.  THOMAS  W.,  Edward  VII.  Avenue,  Newport,   Mon. 
COLEY,  Mr.  PHILIP,  22,  Stansfield  Street,  Sunderland. 
DEANS,  Mr.  ADAM,  "The  Limes,"  Belle  Grove,  Welling,  Kent. 
DUDLEY,  Mr.  WILLIAM  E.,  Highlands  Road,  Runcorn. 
ELSEY,  Mr.  HENRY,  "  Bickleigh,"  Testing  Grove,  Testing  Road,  Southsea. 
ENGLISH,  Mr.  JOSEPH,  "Tynehohne,"  Birtley,  R.S.O.,  Co.  Durham. 
GRAHAM,  Mr.  EDWARD  J.,  65,  Crown  Street,  Newcastle-on-Tyne. 
GRAHAM,  Mr.  WILLIAM  D.,  123,  Bede  Burn  Road,  Jarrow-on-Tyne. 
GRINDROD,  Mr.  EMMANUEL,  15,  Holker  Street,  Keighlsy. 
HAYHURST,  Mr.  GEORGE,  "  Hamelddn,"  Manchester  Road,  Accrington. 
HEMINGWAY,  Mr.  WASHINGTON,  108,  Bolton  Road,  Pendleton, 

Manchester. 
HENSON,  Mr.  THOMAS  J.,  "  Burrington,"  11,  Weatheroak  Road,  Sparkhill, 

Birmingham. 
HOLT,  Mr.  ROBERT,  "Brier  Crest,"  Deeplish  Road,  Rochdale. 
JOHNS,  Mr.  JOHN  E.,  "Glen  Aber,"  3,  Brunswick  Hill,  Reading. 
KILLON,  Mr.  THOMAS,  7,  Tenterden  Street,  Bury. 
KING,  Mr.  JOHN  W.,  15.  Petteril  Street,  Carlisle. 

LANDER,  Mr.  WILLIAM,  "  Homeside,"  Lake  Road,  Ansdell,  Lytham. 
MARSHALL,  Mr.  CHARLES,  33,  Wentworth  Road,  York. 
Mc.INNES,  Mr.  DUNCAN,  Hamilton  Road,  Lincoln. 
MOORHOUSE,  Mr.  THOMAS  E.,   Reporter  Office,  Delph. 
MORT,  Mr.  ISAAC,  233,  High  Road,  Leyton,  Essex. 
PARKES,  Mr.  MILES,  16,  Heathfield  Avenue,  Crewe. 
PINGSTONE,  Mr.  HENRY  C,  "Yew  Bank,"  Brook  Road,  Heaton  Chapel, 

Manchester. 
SHILLITO,  Mr.  JOHN  (President),  4,  Park  View,  Hopwood  Lane,  Halifax. 
SHOTTON,  Mr.  THOMAS  E.,  28,  Grosvenor  Drive,  Whitley  Bay. 
THORPE,  Mr.  GEORGE,  6,  Northfield,  Highroyd,  Dewsbury. 
THREADGILL,  Mr.  ARTHUR  E.,  4,  Sherfield  Road,  Grays,  Essex. 
TWEDDELL,  Mr.  TJIO^lASf  Vice-President),  "  Lyndenhurst,"  Hutton  Avenue, 

West  Hartlepool. 
WILKINS,  Mr.  HENRY  J.  A.,  35,  Hamilton  Gardens,  Mutley,  Plymouth. 
WOODHOUSE,  Mr.  GEORGE,  "  The  Laurels,"  27,  Renals  Street,  Derby. 
YOUNGS,  Mr.  HENRY  J.,  6,  Portland  Place,  Old  Palace  Road,  Norwich. 


SCRUTINEERS  : 

Mr.  J.  J.  BARSTOW,  Dewsbury. 

Mr.  E.  PROCTER  (Moorside),  Swinton. 


AUDITORS : 

Mr.  THOS.  J.  BAYLIS,  Masborough.  I     Mr.  C.  J.  BECKETT,  Darwen. 
Mr.  THOMAS   WOOD,  Manchester.     I     Mr.  B.  TETLOW,  Newcastle-on-Tyne. 
Mr.  JOHN  SMITH,  Middlesbrough.    . 

191 


OFFICERS  OF  THE  SOCIETY. 


Secretary  and  Accountant: 
Mr.  T.  BBODRICK. 

Joint  Insurance  (late  C.I.S 

Mr.  J.  ODGERS. 


Bank  Manager  and  Cashier : 
Mr.  T.  GOODWIN. 


BUYERS,  SALESMEN,  £rc. 

Manchester — Grocery  and  Provisions: 

Mr.  J.  MARTIN.                             i  Mr.  L.  WILSON. 

Mr.  A.  W.  LOBB.                           |  Mr.  J.  HOLDEN. 
Mr.  R.  TURNER. 

Manchester — Paper,  Twine,  &-c. 

Mr.  H.  WIGGINS. 

Manchester — Drapery : 


Mr.  J.  C.  FODEN. 
Mr.  G.  TOMLINSON. 
Mr.  J.  BLOMELEY. 
Mr.  J.  BOWDEN. 
Mr.  E.  LEES. 
Mr.  E.  C.  REVETT. 
Mr.  J.  D.  BALL. 
Mr.  W.  SWINDALE. 


Mr.  J.  EDE. 
Mr.  H.  MOORE  S. 
Mr.  R.  H.  FOGG. 
Mr.  J.  LOGAN. 
Mr.  J.  E.  KNIGHT. 
Mr.  F.  LOCKWOOD. 
Mr.  S.  BOLTON. 


Manchester — Woollens,  Boots,  and  Furniture : 

WooUens,  Ready-mades,  and  Outfitting   Mr.  W.  GIBSON. 

Woollens Mr.  G.  WOODALL. 

Men's  and  Youths'  Ready-mades Mr.  W.  BOOTH. 

Juvenile  Clothing Mr.  R.  C.  PEARSON. 

Gent's  Outfitting    Mr.  T.  LEWTY. 

Gent's  Bespoke  Tailoring Mr.  J.  A.  HOLLAND. 

Boots  and  Shoes  and  Saddlery    Mr.  H.  JACKSON. 

General  Furnishing Mr.  T.  R.  ALLEN. 

Furniture  and  Hardware Mr.  F.  E.  HOWARTH. 

Shipping  Department:  Export  Department: 

Mr.  A.  E.  MENZIES.  Mr.  C.  BOOTH. 

Coal  Department: 

Mr.  S.  ALLEN. 

Manchester,  Leeds,  Newcastle,  Stockton,  Beeston,  and  Rotherham 
Hides  and  Skins Mr.  G.  TURNER. 

Pontefract : 

Fellmongering  Mr.  G.  TURNER. 

Fat  and  Bones  .^ Mr.  P.  S.  WILSON. 

Shipping  and  Forwarding  Depots: 

Rouen  (France) Mr.  J.  MARQUIS. 

Goole Mr.  E.  W.  RAPER. 

192 


BUYERS,  SALESMEN,  ^c. -continued. 

London : 
Tea  and  Coffee   Mr.  W.  B.  PRICE. 

Luton : 
Cocoa  and  Chocolate    Mr.  E.  J.  STAFFORD. 

Liverpool : 
Grocery  and  Provisions    Mr.  W.  L.  KEWLEY. 

Salerooms : 

Leeds    Mr.  W.  POLLARD. 

Nottingham    Mr.  A.  DELVES. 

Huddersfield  Mr.  J.  O'BRIEN. 

Birmingham Mr.  J.  BARLOW. 

Blackburn   Mr.  H.  SHELMERDINE. 

Longton : 

Crockery  Depot Mr.  J.  RHODES. 

Birmingham : 
Cycle  Depot    ' Mr.  H.  H.  BAILEY. 

Newcastle : 

Chief  Clerk Mr.  H.  R.  BAILEY. 

Grocery  and  Provisions   Mr.  R.  WILKINSON. 

Mr.  T.  WEATHERSON. 

Greengrocery Mr.  J.  ATKINSON. 

Drugs,  Drysaltery,  &c Mr.  R.  A.  WALLIS. 

Paper,  Twine,  &c Mr.  H.  GLENNY. 

Dress    Mr.  J.  LEE. 

Manchester  and  Greys Mr.  W.  STODDART. 

Hosiery,    Haberdashery,    Mercery,   Millinery,    Fancy,)   ,,■     ^    mrw^T^ic 

and  Mantles [  ^^-  ^-  -L^WWb. 

WooUens  and  Ready-mades     Mr.  J.  THOMPSON. 

Boots  and  Shoes    Mr.  0.  JACKSON. 

Furniture,  Carpets,  and  Hardware    Mr.  J.  W.  TAYLOR. 

Jewellery,  Fancy  Goods,  and  Saddlery    Mr.  H.  H.  BAILEY. 

Coal Mr.  E.  NELSON. 

Cattle Mr.  E.  JONES. 

London : 

Chief  Clerk Mr.  W.  E.  S.  COCK. 

Grocery  and  Provisions Mr.  W.  OPENSHAW. 

Manchester,  Greys,  Mercery,  Haberdashery,  and  Hosiery  Mr.  F.  G.  WADDINGTON. 

Millinery,  Dress,  Fancy,  and  Mantles Mr.  J.  W.  FORSTER. 

WooUens  and  Ready-mades    Mr.  G.  HAY. 

Boots  and  Shoes    Mr.  A.  PARTRIDGE. 

Furnishing Mr.  F.  LING. 

Coal Mr.  J.  BURGESS. 

193 


BUYERS,  SALESMEN,  ^c— continued. 


Chief  Clerk 

Grocery  and  Provisions   . . . 

Fancy  Drapery 

Heavy  Drapery 

Woollens  and  Ready-mades 

Boots  and  Shoes    

Furnishing 

Brislington  Factory 


Bristol  Depot 


Grocery  and  Provisions 

Fancy  Drapery . . . . 

Heavy  Drapery 


Grocery  and  Provisions 
Drapery 


Cardiff  Depot: 
Northampton  Depot 


Mr.  J.  WHITE. 
Mr.  J.  W.  JUSTHAM. 
Mr.  E.  H.  FLUDE. 
Mr.  W.  F.  JAMES. 
Mr.  G.  H.  BARNES. 
Mr.  W.  WALFORD. 
Mr.  C.  HOULGATE. 
Mr.  0.  THOMAS. 


Mr.  J.  F.  JAMES. 
Mr.  E.  H.  FLUDE. 
Mr.  W.  P.  JAMES. 


Mr,  A.  BAKER. 
Mr.  G.  PEARSON. 


IRISH  DEPOTS: 

BUTTER  AND  EGGS,  ALSO  BACON  FACTORY. 

Tralee : 
Mr.  J.  J.  McCarthy. 


Limerick: 
Mr.  P.  HURLEY 


Cork: 

Mr.  J.  TURNBULL. 


Armagh: 
Mr.  P.  O'NEILL. 


Tralee  Bacon  Factory: 

Mr.  J.  ROBINSON. 

COLONIAL  AND  FOREIGN  DEPOTS 


New  York  (America) : 

Mr.  J.  GLEDHILL. 

Copenhagen  (Denmark): 
Mr.  W.  DILWORTH,  June. 

Aarhus  (Denmark) : 

Mr.   H.   J.   W.   MADSEN. 

Gothenburg  (Sweden) : 

Mr.  W.  JOHNSON. 

Montreal  (Canada): 

Mr.  A.  C.  WIELAND. 

Odense  (Denmark) : 

Mr.    C.    W.    KIRCHHOFF. 

Esbjerg  (Denmark) : 
Mr.    H.   C.   KONGSTAD. 


Herning  (Denmark): 
Mr.  A.  MADSEN. 

Denia  (Spain) : 
Mr.  W.  J.  PIPER. 

Ceylon : 

Colombo  (Joint  C.W.S.  and  S.C.W.S.), 

Mr.  G.  PRICE. 

Southern  India: 

Wynaad,  near  Madras  (Joint  C.W.S. 
and  S.C.W.S.),  Mr.  G.  BENZIE. 

West  Africa: 
Makene,  Mr.  A.  R    RICHARDS. 
Freetown,  Mr.  J.  R.  COCKSEY. 
Accra  (Joint  C.W.S.  and  S.C.W.S.), 

Mr.  H.  A.  PEARCE. 


194 


MANAGERS,   PRODUCTIVE,  Src,  WORKS. 


Architect Mr.  P.  E.  L.  HABRIS,  aji.i.b.a. 

AvoNMOUTH  Flour  Mill Mr.  A.  H.  HOBLEY. 

Batley  Woollen  Cloth  Works. Mr.  S.  BOOTHROYD. 

BiRTLEY  TiNPLATE   WORKS Mr.  A.  THORP. 

Brodqhton  Cabinet  Factory Mr.  F.  E.  HOWARTH. 

Broughton  Clothing  Factory Mr.  A.  GRIERSON. 

Brodghton  Mantle  Factory Mr.  J.  G.  HARRI-SON.    ' 

Broughton  Shirt  Factory Mr.  J.  EDE. 

Broughton  Underclothing  Factory   Mr.  R.  KERSHAW. 

Building  Department    Mr.  H.  TOWNLEY.     -..jc, 

Bury  Weaving  Shed Mr.  H.  BLACKBURN,  ., 

Crumpsall  Biscuit,  &c.,  Works Mr.  G.  BRILL. 

Desborough  Corset  Factory Mr.  P.  THOMAS. 

Dudley  General  Hardware  Works    Mr.  J.  ROUND. 

DuNSTON  Flour  Mill Mr.  T.  PARKINSON. 

DuNSTON  Soap  Works Mr.  R.  BRODRIGK. 

Engineer )^     t,    j    pacc 

Engineering  and  Power  Station,  Trafford  Park.  J  ^lAbfa. 

Heckmondwike  Boot  and  Shoe  Works Mr.  J.  HAIGH. 

Huthwaite  Hosiery  Factory Mr.  H.  FRANCE. 

Irlam  Soap,Candle,  Glycerine,  Lard,  &  Starch  Wks.  Mr.  J.  E.  GREEN. 

Keighley  Ironworks Mr.  H.  WHALLEY.:  ..  ; 

Leeds  Brush  and  Mat  Factory Mr.  A.  W.  SAUNDERS.' 

Leeds  Clothing  Factory Mr.  T.  UTTLEY. 

Leeds  Boot  Factory Mr.  J.  HAIGH. 

Leicester  Boot  and  Shoe  Works    Mr.  T.  E.  HUBBARD. 

Leicester  Printing  and  Boxmaking  Works   Mr.  G.  SPEAK. 

LiTTLEBORo'  Flannel  Factory   Mr.  W.  H.  GREENWOOD. 

London  Clothing  F.-'  ctory Mr.  G.  BRYANT. 

Manchester  Printing,   Bookbinding,   Boxmaking,]  ,,     ^    -dx>-c  atst-c-o- 
and  Lithographic  Works  f^'-  ^-  brearley. 

Manchester  Tobacco,  Cigar,  Cigarette,  and  Snuff]  ,^     t  n  n-o  *r«/^ 
Factory }  Mr.  J.  C.  CRAGG. 

Manchester  (Trafford  Park)  Provender  Mill..  Mr.  W.  H.  SLAWSON. 

Manchester  (Trafford  Park)  Sun  Flour  Mill..  I  ,,     „.    at  a  mm-o-ciTTiTa 

Oldham  Star  Flour  Mill ^  Mr.  W.  MATTHEWS. 

Middleton  Junction  Preserve  and  Candied  Peel)  ^     ^^    j   TrrkWA-Rn 
Works,  ALSO  Pickle  Works  and  Vinegar  Brewery  j-^^"  ^^'  ''■  -ti*-'>'VA±cu. 

Pelaw  Drug  and  Sundries  Works Mr.  R.  A.  WALLIS. 

Pelaw  Cabinet  and  Cart  weighting  Works    Mr.  W.  KERSHAW. 

Pelaw  Engineering  Works    Mr.  W.  FLETCHER. 

Pelaw  Printing  Works Mr.  C.  GILHESPIE. 

Pelaw  Tailoring  Factory   Mr.  J.  THOMPSON. 

Pelaw  Kersey  and  Shirt  Factory Mr.  T.  TOWNS. 

Radcliffe  Weaving  Sbed    Mr.  J.  T.  ROSTERN. 

Reading  Preserve  Works Mr.  S.  M.  WEBSTER. 

Rochdale  Paint,  Varnish,  and  Colour  Works   ..  Mr.  P.  KNOWLES. 

Rushden  Boot  and  Shoe  Works  Mr.  L.  TYSOE. 

Scales   Departments  :     Manchester,   Newcastle,  ] 
London,      Bristol,      Birmingham,      Liverpool,  -  Mr.  A.  SHORE, 
Leicester,  Nottingham,  and  Leeds    j 

Sheffield  Overall  Factory Mr.  J.  EDE. 

SiLVERTOWN  Flour  Mill  Mr.  G.  V.  CHAPMAN. 

SiLVERTowN  Packing  Factory     Mr.  R.  A.  WALLIS. 

Sil\t:rtown  Soap  Works Mr.  J.  R.  COWBURN. 

Sydney  (Australia)  Tallow  Works Mr.  L.  MEGGITT. 

West  Hartlepool  Lard  Factory Mr.  W.  HOLLAND. 

195 


EMPLOYES. 


NUMBER   OF  EMPLOYES,  OCTOBER,  1914. 

Distributive  Departments. 

General,  Drapery,   Woollens,  Boot  and  Shoe,  and  Fur- 
nishing Offices Manchester 

Bank 

Architect's  Office     

Grocery  Department 

Old  Trafford  Wharf,  Bacon  and  Coffee  

Paper,  Twine,  and  Stationery  Department  Warehouse 

Drapery  Department 

Woollen  Cloth  Department 

Boot  and  Shoe,  and  Saddlery  Department    

Furnishing  Department   

Coal 

Hides  and  Skins 

Building 

Dining-room 

Engineers' 

Scales 

Traffic 

Other  Departments 


Collective 
Totals. 


728 
60 
36 

389 
84 
24 

237 

163 
83 

127 

9 

10 

013 
62 
57 
46 
63 
83 


3.264 


Branches. 


Newcastle  Offices 147 

Boot  and  Shoe  Department    30 

Drapery  Department    209 


Furnishing       „  

Jewellery,  &c.,  Department 

Provision  Department 

Traffic  „  

Paper,  &c.,        „  

Coal  „  

Dining-room     „  

Laundry  „  

Building  Department 

Woollens,  &c.,  ,,  

Architect's  '      ,,  

Dentistry  „  

Saddlery  „  

Cattle  „  

Grocery  ,,  

Green  Fruit      „  

Pelaw  Drug        „  


90 
82 
39 
106 
32 

1 
21 

5 
62 
33 

8 

9 
34 

3 

43 

20 

490 


Carried  forward 1,464 

Carried  forward 3,264 


196 


NUMBER   OF   EMPLOYES,   OCTOBER,    1914. 

CoUeotiye 
Totals. 

Brought  forward 3,964 

Branches — continued. 

Brought  forward 1,464 

Newcastle — Pelaw  Cabinet  Department  277 

„                „       Printing          „             189 

„                ,,      Engineering    „             92 

„       Clothing          „             183 

„                „       Dining-room  „             6 

2,211 

London  Ofl&ces 165 

„         Grocery  Department    63 

„        Bacon             „              20 

„        Drapery          „              77 

Woollens         „               23 

„        Boot  and  Shoe  Department    20 

„        Furnishing                „ 30 

„         Coal  Department 6 

„        Dining-room  Department 27 

Building                 „               239 

„         Engineers'              „               40 

Traffic                     „               37 

Tailoring                „               125 

„        Joint  Packing        „               36 

Other                      „               ' 23 

„         Silvertown  Factory 450 

1,381 

Joint  English  and  Scottish  C.W.S. 

London  Tea  and  Coffee  Department 436 

LutoQ  Cocoa  Factory  271 

Tea  Estates 1,031 

Lisurance  Department  (late  C.I.S.) 250 

West  Africa — Accra 2 

1.990 

Depots. 

Bristol 302 

Cardiff 107 

Northampton 36 

445 

PuBCHASiNG  Depots. 

Goole    7 

Hull  Bacon    5 

Liverpool  Branch — Grocery  and  Shipping    96 

Longton  Crockery 64 

Irish  Branches  and  Creameries 107 

Tralee  Bacon  Factory 80 

Carried  forward 359 

Carried  forward 9,291 

197 


NUMBEE   OF  EMPLOYES,   OCTOBEE,   1914. 

.  .  >  ..<■ ,  Collective 

.  .  ;  'i'  Totals. 

.;;/;:                       Brought  forward 9,291 

Purchasing  Depots  -  continued. 

Brought  forward    359 

Leeds  Hides  and  Skins    11 

Beeston   „            „ 8 

Stockton,,           „             .... 4 

Newcastle  Hides  and  Skins 14 

Birmingham  Cycle 10 

406 

Foreign  and  Colonial  Purchasing  Depots. 

New  York   7 

Montreal 4 

Copenhagen     21 

Aarhus 15 

Gothenburg     12 

Odense 11 

Denia   3 

Herning 33 

Esbjerg    15 

West  Africa — Freetown  4 

„          „         Makene 1 

126 

Salerooms. 

Leeds   5 

Nottingham    3 

Birmingham   2 

Huddersfield  4 

Blackburn 1 

15 

Shipping  Offices. 

Garston    1 

Rouen 23 

24 

Steamships. 

"  New  Pioneer  " 15 

"  Fraternity" 15 

"Dinah" 3 

"  Briton  "    3 

36 

Productive  Works. 

Avonmouth  Flour  Mill     107 

Batley  WooUen  Mill    260 

Birtley  Tinplate  Works    40 

Brislington  Butter  Factory 76 

Broughton  Cabinet  Factory   219 

„  o       Mantle          „ 308 

„'.0.      Shirt              „         740 

„;.  ;       Tailoring      „        700 

Carried  forward 2,450 

Carried  forward 9,898 

198 


NUMBEK    OF  EMPLOYES,   OCTOBEE,    1914. 

Collective 
Totals. 

Brought  forward    ^        9,898 

Productive  Works— con^inwed. 

Brought  forward    2,460 

Broughton  Underclothing  Factory   135 

Bury  Weaving  Shed 343 

Orumpsall  Biscuit  Works 640 

Desboro'  and  Kettering  Corset  Factories 350 

Dudley  Bucket* and  Fender  Works    157 

Dunston  Corn  Mill 177 

„         Soap  W' orks  185 

Enderby  Boot  and  Shoe  Works 316 

Heckmondwike  Currying  Department 22 

Shoe  Works 358 

Huthwaite  Hosiery  Factory    674 

Irlam  Soap  Works    965 

Keighley  Ironworks 137 

Leeds  Ready-Mades 1,236 

„      Brush  Factory  242 

„      Shoe  Works    203 

Leicester  Shoe  Works,  Knighton  Fields 1,308 

„                 „               Duns  Lane   477 

Printing  Works   190 

Littleborough  Flannel  Factory 95 

Longsight  Printing  Works 1,180 

Manchester  Millinery   35 

„           Tobacco  Factory 738 

Sun  Corn  Mill 289 

„             „     Provender  Mill    15 

Middleton  Junction  Preserve,  Pickle,  and  Vinegar  Works 686 

Oldham  Star  Corn  Mill    98 

Pontefract  Fellmongering   57 

Radclifie  Weaving  Shed 194 

Rochdale  Paint,  &c.,  W^orks    19 

Rushden  Boot  Factory   466 

Sheffield  Shirt  Factory 135 

Silvertown  Corn  Mill 112 

Soap  Works   221 

Sydney  Tallow  Factory    53 

Wellingborough  Closing  and  Legging  Factory  135 

West  Hartlepool  Lard  Refinery 25 

Wisbech  Fruit  Depot 24 

15,142 

Clitheroe  Estate 7 

Coldham  Farm,  Wisbech 45 

Marden  Fruit  Farm 29 

Roden  Estate 68 

„       Convalescent  Home 12 

Total 25,201 

190 


MEETINGS  AND  OTHER  COMING  EVENTS 

IN  CONNECTION  WITH  THE  SOCIETY  IN  1915 


^*^ 

Feb.    6 — Saturday Nomination  Lists:    Last  day  for  receiving. 

Mar.  9 — Tuesday Voting  Lists:    Last  day  for  receiving. 

„     13 — Saturday  ....  Divisional  Quarterly  Meetings. 

„     20 — Saturday General  Quarterly  Meeting — Manchester. 

May    8 — Saturday Nomination  Lists:    Last  day  for  receiving. 

June     8 — Tuesday  ....Voting  Lists:  Last  day  for  receiving. 

„     12 — Saturday Divisional  Quarterly  Meetings. 

„     19 — Saturday  ....  General  Quarterly  Meeting — Manchester. 

„     26 — Saturday Half-yearly  Stocktaking. 

Aug.   7 — Saturday  ....  Nomination  Lists :    Last  day  for  receiving. 
Sept.  7 — Tuesday  Voting  Lists  :    Last  day  for  receiving. 

„     11 — Saturday Divisional  Quarterly  Meetings. 

„     18  — Saturday General  Quarterly  Meeting — Manchester. 

Nov.  6 — Saturday.  ,.  .Nomination  Lists:    Last  day  for  receiving. 
Dec.  7 — Tuesday Voting  Lists:    Last  day  for  receiving. 

„     11 — Saturday Divisional  Quarterly  Meetings. 

„     18 — Saturday General  Quarterly  Meeting — Manchester. 

„    25— Saturday Half-yearly  Stocktaking. 


200 


RECORD  OF  EVENTS  IN  C.W.S.  HISTORY. 


Date.  Events. 

1860  (Aug.  12) Tea  Party  and  Discussion  at  Lowbands  Farm,  Jumbo, 

Committee     appointed     to     prepare     the     way     for 

federation. 

,,     Conference  at  Oldham. 

,,     (Oct.  7)    Conference  at  Rochdale. 

,,     (Dec.  25) The  Committee  formed  at  Jumbo  reporfs  to  a  Conference 

at  Manchester.     Further  steps  taken  to  alter  the  law. 

1861  (Mar.  29)     Further  Conference  at  Oldham. 

,,     (June) The  Co-operators'  Bill  introduced,  but  abandoned  for  the 

Session. 
,,     (Dec.  25) Further  Conference  at  Rochdale. 

1862  Industrial  and  Provident  Societies  Act  passed. 

, ,     Midland  Counties  Co-operative  Wholesale  Industrial  and 

Provident  Society  Limited  established  at  Northampton. 

, ,  (Good  Friday) . .  "  Northern  Uni£)n  of  Co-operative  Stores  ' '  projected  at 
Newcastle. 

1863  (April  3)  Special  Conference  in  Ancoats,  Manchester.        C.W.S. 

resolved  upon. 
,,     (June  8  and  July  25)  C.W.S.  Rules  drafted. 

,,     (Aug.  11) C.W.S.  legally  enrolled. 

,,     (Oct.  10) First  Meeting  after  enrolment. 

,,     (Nov.  21)     First   General   Meeting  of   the   C.W.S.       Officers  and 

Committee  appointed. 

1864  (Mar.  14) C.W.S.    commenced    business,  at     3,     Cooper     Street, 

Manchester. 
,,     (May  21) C.W\S.  Half-yearly   Meeting  in  the  Temperance   Hall, 

^lanchester.     Thirty-two  Societies  represented. 
,,     (Nov.) C.W.S.    removes    to    28,    Cannon    Street,    Manchester. 

Dividend  of  IJd.  in  the  £  declared  on  purchases. 

1865  C.W.S.  occupies  premises  at  53,  Dantzic  Street. 

1866  (April  24)    Butter  Buyer  appointed,  and  Tipperary  Depot  opened. 

,,     (April) Establishment  of  Newcastle  Branch  mooted. 

1867  (April  19)    Insurance  Conference  at  Downing  Street,  Manchester. 

,,     Industrial    and    Provident    Societies    Act    annuls    the 

limitation  of  Societies'  Investments. 
,,     (June  8)  Glasgow  Conference  to  found  Scottish  C.W.S.      English 

C.W.S.  represented. 

,,     (Aug.  29) Co-operative  Insurance  Company  (Society)  registered. 

,,     (Nov.  16) Rules  altered.       Quarterly  Meetings  and  Balance  Sheets 

decided  upon.     Depreciation  on  Buildings  commenced. 

Committee   enlarged   from   seven   to   nine    Members. 

Membership  restricted  to  Retail  Societies. 
,,     The  Grocer  attempts  to  organise  a  boycott. 

1868  (June  1)  Kilmallock  Purchasing  Depot  opened. 

1869  (Mar.  1)  First  Balloon  Street  Warehouse  opened. 

P  201 


Record  of  Events  in  C.W.S.  History. 

Date.  Events. 

1869  (May  81) First     Co-operative     Congress      (present     series)      and 

Co-operative  Exhibition  held  in  London. 
,,     (July  12) Limerick  Depot  opened. 

1870  (Good  Friday)..  Conference  on  Banking  at  Bury. 

,,     (Aug.) Abraham  Greenwood  resigns  the  Chairmanship  to  become 

Cashier.       Mr.  James  Crabtree  elected  Chairman. 
.,,     Midland  Counties  Wholesale  Society  wound  up. 

1871  A  Southern  C.W.S.  proposed. 

, ,  Extension  of  Balloon  Street  Premises. 

,,  Industrial  and  Provident  Societies  Act  amended. 

,,  (Feb.  18) Rules  altered  to  allow  of  INIanufacturing. 

,,  (Aug.  19) Newcastle  Branch  authorised. 

,,  (Sept.  2) Co-operative  Neivs  commenced  publication. 

1872  (May)  Pudding  Chare  (Newcastle)  Premises  opened. 

,,  Congress  Discusses  Banking. 

,,     (May  18) First  Steps  towards  Banking  Department  taken. 

,,     (July  8)    Industrial  Bank  (Newcastle)  commenced. 

,,     (Aug.)  Manchester  Boot  and  Shoe  Department  constituted. 

,,     (Oct.  14) "  Deposit  and  Loan  Department  "  commenced. 

,,     (Oct.  26) Conference  at  Banbury  urges  Wholesale  to  manufacture 

Boots. 
,,     (Nov.  16) C.W.S.  authorised   to   commence    Production    (Biscuits 

and  Sweets  and  Boots  and  Shoes). 

,,     (Nov.  16) "North  of  England"  dropped  from  the  Society's  Title. 

,,     (Nov.  16) C.W.S.  adopts  Profit-sharing. 

1873  Wreck  of  S.S.   St.  ColumBa  leads  to  C.W.S.  forming  an 

Insurance  Fund, 

,, Coal  "Famine." 

,,     (Jan.  13) Crumpsall  Works  purchased. 

,,     (Feb.  11) Aberdare  Society  agitate  for  C.W.S.  Depot  at  Cardiff  or 

Bristol. 

,,     (Feb.  15) London  Branch  discussed. 

,,     (April  14)     Armagh  Depot  opened. 

,,     (May  17) Committee  authorised  to  establish  a  London  Branch. 

,,     (June  2)  Manchester  Drapery  Department  commenced. 

,,     (July  14) Waterford  Dep6t  opened. 

,,     (Aug.  2)  "  United  Coal  Mining  Society  "  formed. 

,,     (Sept.  15)    Leicester  Boot  and  Shoe  Works  (Duns  Lane)  commenced. 

1874  (Jan.  22) Waterloo  Street  Warehouse  (Newcastle)  opened. 

,,     (Feb.  2)  Tralee  Dep6t  opened. 

,,     (Mar.  9)  London  Branch  opened  in  the  Minories. 

,,     (Mar.) Joint  Action  with  Scottish  C.W.S.  begun. 

,,     (May)  Mr.    James   Crabtree   retires  from    the    Chairmanship. 

J.  T.  W.  Mitchell  succeeds. 

,,     (Sept.  20)    Durham  Soap  Works  purchased. 

,,     (Sept.  24)    Rules     altered     to     provide     for     Representation     and 

Government  of  Branches. 

,,     (Dec.  19) London  Branch  Committee  appointed. 

,,     (Dec.)  Leicester  Factory  (Duns  Lane)  purchased. 

202 


Record  oj  Events  in   (.'.U..^.   His  lory. 

Date.  Events. 

1875  (April  2)  Liverpool  Purchasing  Department  commenced. 

,,     (June  15) Manchester  Drapery  Warehouse,  Dantzic  Street,  opened. 

1876  (Feb.  21) New  York  Depdt  established. 

(May  24) S.S.  Plover  purchased. 

(July  16) Manchester  Furnishing  Department  commenced. 

(Sept.)  Transfer  of  Industrial  Bank  contemplated. 

(Oct.  5)    Industrial  Bank  fails. 

(Nov.  25) Special  Conference  re  C.W.S.  attitude  towards  Industrial 

Bank  and  Ouseburn  Works.      C.W.S.  exonerated  from 
blame. 

, ,     Industrial  and  Provident  Societies  Act  legalises  Banking. 

C.W.S.    "Loan  and  Deposit"    Department   becomes 
the  "  Banking  Department."  , 

1877  (Jan.  15) Cork  Dep6t  established. 

,,     First  Drapery  Traveller  sent  out. 

,,     (April)  "United    Coal    Mining    Society"    fails.       Bugle   Horn 

Colliery  taken  over  by  CW.S. 

1879  (Jan.  18) Garston  Forwarding  Depot  commenced. 

,,     (Feb.  21) S.S.  Pioneer  launched. 

,,     (Mar.  24) Eouen  Dep6t  opened. 

,,     (June  30)    Goole  Forwarding  Depot  opened. 

, ,     (July  19)  Foundation  Stone  of  London  Warehouse,  Hooper  Square, 

laid  by  Judge  Hughes. 
,,     Industrial  Depression.       Decrease  in  Sales. 

1880  (Jan.  1)    C.W.S.  4  nnuaZ  first  issued. 

„     (June  30) S.S.  Plover  sold. 

,,     (Aug.  14) ,.  Heckmondwike  Boot  and  Shoe  Works  commenced. 

1881  (Jan.  12)., Leman  Street  (London)  Premises  opened. 

,,     S.S.  Cambrian  purchased. 

,,     (June  6) Copenhagen  Depot  opened. 

,,     (July  30) Conference  at  Wakefield  asks  for  Yorkshire  Branch  of 

C.W\S. 

1882  (Mar.) Bugle  Horn  Colliery  sold. 

,,     (May)  Dining-room,  Balloon  Street,  opened. 

,,     (Oct.  31) Leeds  Saleroom  opened. 

,,     (Nov.  1)  Tea  Department,  London,  commenced. 

1883  (Feb.  10) Conference  at  Plymouth  on  a  Western  C.W.S.  Branch. 

,,     (July)  Direct  Cargo  of  Tea  for  C.W.S.  comes  from  China. 

,,     S.S.  Maria^ine  Br iggs  bought  and  Te-nsLTaed  Unity. 

,,     (Nov.  3)  Rules  altered :  General  and  Branch  Committees  enlarged. 

1884  (April-June)  ...  First  Deputation  to  America. 

, ,     (Sept.  13)  Commemoration  of  the  Society's  Twenty -first  Anniversary 

at  Newcastle-on-Tyne  and  London. 

,,     (Sept.  20)  Commemoration  at  Manchester. 

,,     (Sept.  29)  Bristol  Depdt  commenced  business. 

,,     (Oct.  6)  S.S.  Progress  launched. 

,,     Hamburg  Dep6t  opened. 

1885  (Aug.  25) Huddersfield  Saleroom  opened. 

,,     (Dec.  30) Fire  at  the  London  Tea  Department. 


Record  of  Events  in  C.W.S.  History. 

Date.  Events. 

1886  (April  22)  Nottingham  Saleroom  opened. 

,,     (Aug.  25) Longton  Dep6t  opened. 

,,     (Aug.) C.W.S.  Buyer  first  visits  Greece. 

,,     (Oct.  12) S.Q.  Federation  lunnched. 

,,     (Dec.  4) Cloth  Making,  Flour  Milling,  and  Cocoa  Manufacture 

authorised. 
1887 £20,000  invested  in  Ship  Canal. 

,,     (Mar.  14)  Batley  Mill  commenced. 

,,     (June) Pepper  Grinding  commenced. 

,,     (Aug.  29) Heckmondwike  Currying  Department  commenced. 

,,     (Oct.)  Employes'  Sick  and  Burial  Club  instituted. 

,,     (Nov.  2)  —  Manufacture  of  Cocoa  and  Chocolate  commenced. 

,,•   (Nov.  2)  London  (Leman  Street)  New  Premises  opened. 

1888    Enderby  Boot  Factory  opened. 

,,     (July)  ^.S.  Equity  launched. 

,,     (July)  Irish  Co-operative  Aid  Association  formed. 

1889  '..  C.W.S.    take    Shares    in    First    Irish    Dairy     Society 

registered — Dromcollogher. 
,,     (Oct.  21) First  C.W.S.  Dried  Fruit  Sale  held  at  Liverpool. 

1890  (May  16) Blackburn  Saleroom  opened. 

,,     (June  10) Leeds  Clothing  Factory  commenced. 

,,     (Oct.  22) Northampton  Saleroom  opened. 

1891  (Mar.  7)  First  Divisional  Meetings  held. 

,,     (Mar.  14) Land  Purchased  at  Broughton. 

,,     (April  18) Dunston  Corn  Mill  opened. 

,,     (June) Site  for  Irlam  Works  purchased. 

,,     (June  20)  Profit-sharing  finally  rejected. 

,,     (Oct.  22) Cardiff  Saleroom  opened. 

,,     (Nov.  4)  Leicester  Wheatsheaf  Works  opened. 

,,  •  (Nov.  4)  Aarhus  Depot  opened. 

1892  (April  9)  Special      Meetings      endorse      Committee's      policy     on 

Insurance  Fund. 

,,     (April  16) Coal  Conference  at  Balloon  Street. 

,,     (May  5) Birmingham  Saleroom  opened. 

,,     (Dec.  17  and  21)  Newcastle  Branch  Coming-of-Age  Celebrations. 

1893  (May  8) Broughton  Cabinet  Factory  opened. 

1894  (Jan.  1) Ship   Canal   opened   for   Trafftc.  S.S.    Pioneer  first 

Merchant  Vessel  to  reach  Manchester  from  oversea. 

,,     (June) Montreal  Depot  established. 

, ,     (Oct .  2)  Irlam  Works  opened . 

,,     (Dec.  8) Quarterly    Meetings    endorse    Committee's    policy    on 

Depreciation. 

1895  Broughton  Tailoring  Factory  commenced. 

,,     (Jan.  23) Printing  Department  commenced. 

,,  (Mar.  9)  First  C.W.S.  Creamery  (Castlemahon)  acquired. 

,,  (Mar.  16) Death  of  J.  T.  W.  Mitchell. 

,,  Mr.  J.  Shi-llito  elected  Chairman. 

,,  (April  24) London  Branch  Coming-of-Age  Celebrations. 

,,  (June) Durham  Soap  Works  closed. 

204 


Record  of  Events  in  C.W.S.  History. 

Date.  Events. 

1895  (Aug.  5) Gothenburg  Depot  opened. 

,,     (Oct.) S.S.  Cui/y  run  down  and  sunk  in  River  Seine. 

1896  (Jan.  2) Architect's  Department  formed, 

,,     (April  24) West  Hartlepool  Lard  Refinery  purchased. 

,,     (June  13) Roden  Estate  purchased. 

,,     (June  26) Middleton  Jam  Works  commenced. 

,,     (July  1)  The  Wheatsheaf  &Tst  published. 

,,     Denia  Depot  opened. 

,,     Broughton  Mantle,  Shirt,  and  Underclothing  Factories 

opened. 

1897  (Feb.  10) Northampton  (Guildhall  Road)  Premises  opened. 

,,     (Mar.  1)  Broughton  New  Tailoring  Factory  opened. 

,,     (Mar.  22) London  Tea  Department  New  Premises  opened, 

,,     (Aug.  7)  Sydney  Dep6t  commenced. 

,,     (Sept.  11)  Conmiittee   authorised   to   tender   for  Government  and 

Municipal  Supplies. 

1898  (Mar.  12) Tobacco  Factory  (Manchester)  purchased. 

,,     (April  1)  Littleborough  Flannel  Mill  acquired. 

,,     (June  11) Quarterly  Meetings  agree  to  Augmentation  of  Insurance 

Fund. 

, ,     (June  26) Odense  Depot  opened . 

,,     (July  11)... Longsight  Printing  W^orks  comjnenced. 

,,     (Oct.  20) Corset  Making  commenced. 

,,     (Dec.  10) Half-yearly  Stocktakings  commenced. 

,,     (Dec.  10) Rules  altered  to  extend  C.W.S.  Insurance  Business. 

1899  (June  10) Newcastle  Branch  Quarterly  Meeting  first  held  at  West 

Blandford  Street. 

„     (June  25) C.W.S.  Di\-idend  rises  to  4d. 

,,     (Dec.  16) Rushden  Boot  Factory  purchased. 

1900  (Jan.  19) Herning  Bacon  Factory  purchased. 

,,     (April  14) Silvertown  Flour  Mills  opened. 

1901  (April  30) Sydney  Tallow  Factory  purchased. 

, ,     (July  27) Roden  Convalescent  Home  opened . 

,,     (Aug.-Nov.) Coal  Conferences.     C.W.S.  Coal-mining  recommended. 

,,     (Sept.) Bute  Terrace  (Cardiff)  Premises  opened. 

,,     (Sept.  3) Tralee  Bacon  Factory  commenced. 

,,     Tax  of  4s.  2d.  placed  on  Sugar. 

1902  (April  9)  .........  Pershore   Street   (Birmingham)    New   Premises   opened, 

and  Cycle  Depot  established. 

, ,     (April  25) Fire  at  Newcastle  Branch. 

,,     (May  1)  Work  commenced  at  Pelaw  Drug  Factory. 

,,     (June  21) Nugawella     and     Weliganga     (Ceylon)     Tea     Estates 

purchased. 

,,     (Sept.  8) Luton  Cocoa  Works  opened. 

,,     (Sept.) Work  commenced  at  Pelaw  Cabinet  Factory. 

,,     (Nov.  1)  Launch  of  S.S.  Unity  (H.). 

1903  (June  20) Trafford  ^Vharf  and  land  purchased. 

,,     (July  1) Leicester  Hosiery  Factory  taken  over. 

,,     (Oct.  24) Launch  of  S.S.  Fraternity. 

205 


Record  of  Events  in  C.W.S.  History. 

Date.  Events. 

1904 London  Brushmaking  transferred  to  Leeds. 

,,     (Jan.  25) Employes  start  Thrift  Fund. 

,,     (Feb.  20) Marden  JPruit  Farm  purchased. 

,,     (April  18) New  Drapery  Buildings  (Manchester)  opened. 

,,     (June  20)  Brislington  Butter  Factory  commenced. 

,,     (June  20)   C.W.S.  Committee  report  against  buying-CoUieries.    Coal 

Department  re-organised. 

,,     (July  1) Huddersfield  Brush  Factory  taken  over. 

,,     Collective  Life  Assurance  instituted  by  C.I.S. 

,,     Silvertown  Grocery  Productive  Factory  built. 

1905  (Feb.  15) Weaving  commenced  at  Bury. 

,,  (June  17)   Special'^Committee  on  C.W.S.  Constitution  appointed. 

,,  (July  3)   Desborough  Corset  Factory  opened. 

,,  (Sept.  5) Esbjerg  Dep6t  opened. 

,,  (Oct.  26) Launch  of  S.S.  Neiv  Pioneer. 

1906  (Jan.  1) Rochdale  Flour  Mill  taken  over. 

,,  (Mar.  31) Star^Mill  (Oldham)  taken  over. 

,,  (April  28)  Sun  Flour  Mill  bought. 

,,     (May  16) Broad  Quay  (Bristol)  Premises  opened. 

,,     (July  21) Report  of  Special  Committee  adopted.      Unification  of 

General  and  Branch  Committees. 
,,     (Oct.  11  to  Nov.  23)     "  Soap  Trust  "  Agitation. 

,,     (Dec.)  East  Coast  Shipping  Department  closed. 

,,     (Dec.  15) Land  and  Buildings  Purchased  for  Leeds  New  Brush 

Works. 

1907  Output  of  C.W.S.  Soap  increased  by  one-third  over  1906. 

,,     C.W.S.    House  -  building    Scheme     (Bank    Advances  — 

instituted  1897,  suspended  1901)  re-opened. 
,,     (June  15) Grants    by    Committee     to     Employes'    Thrift     Fund 

approved. 

,,     (Aug.)  Minimum  Wage  extended  to  all  Adult  Male  Employes. 

,,     (Sept.  14)  Mitchell  Memorial  Hall  opened. 

,,     (Oct.  1)  Huddersfield  New  Saleroom  opened. 

,,     (Nov.  9)  Special  Insurance  Conference  at  Middlesbrough.   C.W.S. 

urged  to  take  action. 

1908  (Feb.  4)  Huthwaite  Hosiery  Factory  commenced. 

,,     (May  18) Silvertown  Soap  Works  opened. 

,,     (June  29)   Keighley  Ironworks,  Dudley  Bucket  and  Fender  Works, 

and  Birtley  Tinplate  Works  taken  over. 
,,     Sugar  Tax  Reduced  to  Is.  lOd. 

1909  (Jan.  16) Irish  Creamery  Conference.      C.W.S.  agree  to  transfer 

Creameries. 

,,     (Feb.  15) Dunston-on-Tyne  Soap  Works  opened. 

,,     (Feb.  22) Pontefract  Fellmongering  commenced. 

,,     (April  5)  Leicester  Printing  Works  commenced. 

1910  (April) Individual  Deposits  accepted  by  C.W.S.  Bank. 

,,     (April  27)  Avonmouth  Flour  Mill  opened. 

,,     (July  19) Leman  Street  (London)  Extensions  opened. 

,,     (Dec.  17) SpecialMeetingsendorseCommittee'spolicy  on  Insurance. 

206 


Record  of  Events  in  C.W.S.  History. 

Date.  Events. 

1911  (Oct.  18) Hearing  of  the  case    Masbro'    Equitable    Co-operative 

Society  Limited  v.  Lever  Bros.  Limited  and  Benjamin 
Brooke  and  Co.  Limited.  C.W.S.  defends.  Judgment 
for  defendants. 

,,     (Dec.  1)  Rochdale  Paint  Works  commenced. 

1912(Feb.29toMar.2)  Plaintiffs'  Appeal  in  Soap  Case  dismissed. 

(Mar,  16) Land  Bought  for  Leeds  Boot  and  Shoe  Works. 

(July  3)   C.W.S.  Health  Insurance  Section  formed. 

(Aug.  6)  Wisbech  Estate  purchased. 

(Aug.  12) Radcliffe  Weaving  Shed  couMnenced. 

(Dec.  21) Transfer  of  Co-operative  Insurance  Society  agreed  to  by 

C.W.S.  Quarterly  Meetings. 

,,     (Dec.  21) Delegates  recommend  Adoption  of  Minixnum  Wage  for 

Girl  and  Women  Workers  on  the  "Congress"  Scale. 

1913  (Jan.  20) Sheffield  Shirt  Factory  opened. 

, ,     Denmark  (Ceylon)  Tea  Estate  purchased. 

,,     Lower  Barcaple    and    Westhall   (Ceylon)   Tea    Estates 

purchased. 

,,     (Sept.  13)    Clitheroe  Estates  purchased. 

,,     (Sept.  13  &  20).  The  Society  celebrates  its  Jubilee. 

„     (Sept.  26)    First  Food  Ship  (S.S.  Hare)  left  Ship  Canal  for  Dublin. 

,,     Depot  at  Makene  (Sierra  Leone)  established. 

1914  South  Wynaad  (Southern  India)  Tea  Estates  purchased. 

, Depot  at  Accra  (Gold  Coast)  established. 

,,    Freetown  (Sierra  Leone)  Trading  Store  opened. 


207 


LIST  OF  TELEGRAPHIC  ADDRESSES, 


Armagh  Depot:   "WHOLESALE,  ARMAGH." 

AvoNMOUTH  Flour  Mill:    "WHOLESALE,  AVONMOUTH." 

Batley  Woollen  Mill:    "WHOLESALE,  BATLEY." 

Beeston  Hide  and  Skin  Department:    "WHOLESALE,  BEESTON, 

NOTTS." 
Birmingham  Cycle  Depot:    "CO-OPERATE,  BIRMINGHAM." 
Birmingham  Saleroom:   "CO-OPERATE,  BIRMINGHAM." 
BiRTLEY  TiNPLATE  WoRKS :  "WHOLESALE,  BIRTLEY." 
Blackburn  Saleroom:  "WHOLESALE,  BLACKBURN." 
Brislington  Butter  Factory:    "FACTORY,  BRISLINGTON." 
Bristol  Dep6t :   "WHOLESALE,   BRISTOL." 

Bboughton  Cabinet  Factory:    "CO-OPERATOR,  MANCHESTER." 
Broughton  Shirt,  Underclothing,  and  Mantle  Factory  : 

"JACKETS,  MANCHESTER." 
Broughton  Tailoring  Factory:  "TAILORING,  MANCHESTER." 
Bury  Weaving  Shed:  "WHOLESALE,  BURY." 
Cardiff  Saleroom:  "WHOLESALE,   CARDIFF." 

Cardiff  Co-operative  Insurance  Society  :  "  COLLECTIVE,  CARDIFF." 
Central,  Manchester:    "WHOLESALE,  MANCHESTER." 
Cork  Dep6t:    "WHOLESALE,  CORK." 
Crumpsall  Works  :  "BISCUIT,   MANCHESTER." 
Desboro'  Corset  Factory:  "WHOLESALE,  DESBORO'." 
Dudley  Bucket  Works:  "WHOLESALE,  DUDLEY." 
Dunston-on-Tyne  Soap  Works:  "SOAP,  DUNSTON-ON-TYNE." 
Dunston-on-Tyne  Corn  Mill:    "WHOLESALE,   GATESHEAD." 
GooLE  Dep6t:    "WHOLESALE,   GOOLE." 

Hartlepool  Lard  Refinery:  " WHOLESALE,  WEST  HARTLEPOOL." 
Heckmondwike  Shoe  Works:    "WHOLESALE,   HECKMONDWIKE." 
Huddersfield  Saleroom:  "WHOLESALE,  HUDDERSFIELD." 
Hull  Bacon  :  "  WHOLESALE,  HULL." 

HuTHWAiTE  Hosiery  Factory:  "WHOLESALE,  HUTHWAITE." 
Irlam  Soap  Works:   "WHOLESALE,   CADISHEAD." 
Keighlby  Ironworks:  "WHOLESALE,  KEIGHLEY." 
Leeds  Brush  Factory:    "BROOMS,  LEEDS." 
Leeds  Ready-Mades  Factory:    "SOCIETY,  LEEDS." 
Leeds  Shoe  Works:  "SYSTEM,  LEEDS." 
Leeds  Sale  and  Sample  Rooms:    "WHOLESALE,   LEEDS." 
Leeds  Hide  and  Skin  Department:  "SKINS,  LEEDS." 
Leicester  Printing  Works:  "TYPOGRAPHY,  LEICESTER." 
Leicester  Shoe  Works  :  "  WHOLESALE,  LEICESTER." 
Limerick  Depot:   "WHOLESALE,  LIMERICK." 
Liverpool  Office  and  Warehouse:    "WHOLESALE,  LIVERPOOL." 

208 


LIST  OF  TELEGRAPHIC  ADDRESSES-continued. 

London  Branch:    "  WHOLESALE  (ALD.*),  LONDON." 

London  Tea  Department:   "LOOMIGER  (ALD.*),  LONDON." 

London  Co-operati\t:  Insurance  Society:  "CENTRICAL,  WESTCENT, 

LONDON." 
LoNQSiGHT  PBiNTmG  WoRKS :   "TYPOGRAPHY,  MANCHESTER." 
LoNGTON  Crockery  Depot  :   "  WHOLESALE,   LONGTON   (STAFFS.)." 
Luton  Cocoa  Works:   "WHOLESALE,  LUTON." 
Manchester  Central:    "WHOLESALE,  MANCHESTER." 
Manchester  Co-operati^t:  Insurance  Society  :  "  COLLECTIVE, 

MANCHESTER." 
Manchester  Hide  and  Skin  Department:   "SKINS,  MANCHESTER." 
Manchester  Sun  Mill:  "SUNLIKE,  MANCHESTER." 
Manchester  Tobacco  Factory:    "TOBACCO,   MANCHESTER." 
Marden  Fruit  Fap^ :   "WHOLESALE,   MARDEN,  HEREFORD." 
MiDDLETON  Preserve  Works:   "WHOLESALE,  :^^DDLETON 

JUNCTION." 
Newcastle  Branch :   "WHOLESALE,  NEWCASTLE-ON-TYNE." 
Newcastle  Co-operative  Insurance  Society  :  "  COLLECTIVE, 

NEWCASTLE." 
Newcastle  Branch,  Pelaw:   "WHOLESALE,  BILL-QUAY." 
Newcastle  Branch,  Cattle  Department:   "KYLOE,  NEWCASTLE." 
Newcastle  Branch,  Greengrocery  (Stowell  Street)  :  "  LOYALTY, 

NEWCASTLE." 
Northampton  Saleroom:    "WHOLESALE,  NORTHAMPTON." 
Nottingham  Saleroom:  "WHOLESALE,  NOTTINGHAM." 
Oldham  Star  Mill:  "STAR,  OLDHAIVL" 

PoNTEFRACT  Fellmongering :  "WHOLESALE,  PONTEFRACT." 
Radcliffe  Weaving  Shed:  "WHOLESALE,  RADCLIFFE." 
Rochdale  Paint  Works:  "  W^HOLESALE,  ROCHDALE." 
Roden  Estate:    " W^HOLESALE,  RODEN." 
RusHDEN  Boot  Works :    "WHOLESALE,  RUSHDEN." 
Sheffield  Shirt  Factory:    "OVERALLS,  SHEFFIELD." 
SiLVERTOWN  Flour  Mill:    "CO-OPERATIF  (SILVER.*),  LONDON." 
Silvertown  Productive:  "PRODUCTIVO  (SILVER.'),  LONDON." 
SiLVERTOWN  Soap  Works:  "OPERSAPO  (SILVER.*),  LONDON." 
Tralee  Bacon  Factory:   "BACON,  TRALEE." 
Tralee  Depot:   "WHOLESALE,  TRALEE." 
Wisbech  Fbuit  Depot:  "WHOLESALE,  WISBECH." 

The  words  "  Aid."  and  "  Silver."  being  indicator  words  are  transmitted  free. 


209 


TELEPHONIC  COMMUNICATION. 


Our  Premises  in  the  following  towns  are  directly  connected 
with  the  Local  Telephone  System  : — 


MANCHESTER- 


Nos. 

-GENERAL   OFFICES    

DRAPERY   DEPARTMENT     

BOOT   AND    SHOE   DEPARTMENT   , 

FURNISHING   DEPARTMENT     I    61, 

*CRUMPSALL    'City. 

t*LONGSIGHT     

*TOBAGCO    

*BROUGHTON  CABINET  WORKS,  &c 

JOINT  INSURANCE  DEPARTMENT City  I  ^^g^ 

NATIONAL  HEALTH  INSURANCE  DEPT...    „  7784 

HIDE  AND  SKIN  DEPARTMENT Central  5180 

POMONA  DOCK  „  4608 

NEWCASTLE— WATERLOO   STREET  AND 

WEST  BLANDFORD  STREET.. Post  Office  284 

WEST   BLANDFORD   STREET    1787 

1260 

}>                 >>                    >>         lyoif 

2506 

2507 

498 

CATTLE 1989 

SADDLERY  DEPT.  (West  Blandford  Street) 2116 

GREENGROCERY  DE PT.  (Stowell  Street) . .  Central  1524 

(New  Bridge  Street) 2463 

QUAYSIDE  WAREHOUSE— CROCKERY 1304 

GROCERY Central  564 

PELAW  WORKS    Gateshead  121 

„               „          Newcastle  2806 

HIDES   AND  SKINS  (St.  Andrew's  Street) 2907 

ARCHITECT'S  (Westmorland  Road) City  478 

DENTISTRY                   ,,               ,,       ,,  335 

INSURANCE  DEPT.    ,,               ,,       ,,  2826 

LONDON— GENERAL   OFFICE ^ 

GROCERY   SALEROOM  

DRAPERY 

GROVE   STREET    

READY-MADES » \  Avenue 

TEA  DEPARTMENT f  7100. 

GENERAL   OFFICE    

FURNISHING   AND   BOOT   DEPARTMENT 

BUILDING  AND  ENGINEERING  DEPARTMENT  . 

TRAFFIC    

JOINT  INSURANCE  DEPARTMENT City  ]698 

AVONMOUTH  FLOUR  MILL 51  &  52 

BATLEY    101 

BEESTON  HIDE  AND  SKIN  DEPARTMENT 55 

BIRMINGHAM  CYCLE  DEPOT Midland  838 

BIRMINGHAM   SALEROOM     „  838 

BIRTLEY   TINPLATE   WORKS 15 

BRISTOL   (Private  Exchange)  1913 


*  Sub.  to  Manchester  General  Offices. 
210 


i  Also  1057,  Rusholme. 


TELEPHONIC  COMMUNICATION— ccmiinued. 

N08. 

BRISTOL    (Private  Exchange)  1914 

„      „  1915 

,,      ,,  1916 

,,      ,,  1917 

;;/.*.*.'.'. ..; „       „  1918 

BRISLINGTON   Bristol  1643 

BURY 179 

CARDIFF    (3  lines)  4615 

CO-OPERATIVE  INSURANCE  SOCIETY 2857 

DESBOROUGH  CORSET  FACTORY 22 

DUDLEY  BUCKET   WORKS    22 

DUNSTON  FLOUR   MILL    Central  1182 

,,  1183 

SOAP  WORKS    Gatrshead  426 

„              „           Dunston  11 

ENDERBY Narboro'  32 

GARSTON 6 

GOOLE   2 

HECKMONDWIKE 112 

HUDDERSFIELD 310 

HULL  BACON    Corporation  2196 

HUTH WAITE  HOSIERY    Sutton-in-Ashfield  66  &  67 

I    281 
IRLAM Urmston  |    282 

KEIGHLEY   IRONWORKS    160 

LEEDS  —SALEROOM  Central  2098 

READY-MADES,  HOLBECK „  1648 

BRUSH  FACTORY     • 4035 

HIDE  AND  SKIN  DEPARTMENT 4314 

SHOE  WORKS Central l^gjg 

LEICESTER— WHEATSHEAF   WORKS   1132 

235 

DUNS  LANE Central  1829 

PRINTING  WORKS 1144 

LITTLEBOROUGH  FLANNEL  FACTORY 63 

LIVERPOOL— VICTORIA   STREET    Central  7862 

REGENT  ROAD ,.  5861 

LONGTON     16 

LUTON 113 

MANCHESTER  SUN  MILL Trapford  Park  334 

»                                 »                  n         »                    »  335 

„      „            „  336 

MIDDLETON   PRESERVE   WORKS  Failsworth  33 

NORTHAMPTON   SALEROOM 206 

NOTTINGHAM   SALEROOM 2106 

OLDHAM   STAR   MILL  171 

PONTEFRACT   FELLMONGERING 33 

RADCLIFFE  WEAVING  SHED    Whitbfibld  356 

ROCHDALE  PAINT  WORKS    755 

RUSHDEN    10 

SHEFFIELD  SHIRT  FACTORY 461 

SILVERTOWN  FLOUR   MILL    Eastern  602 

PRODUCTIVE     „  1656 

SOAP  WORKS     „  1354 

DINING  ROOM „  1723 

WEST   HARTLEPOOL   LARD  REFINERY    286 

WISBECH 58 

211 


CO-OPERATIVE   WHOLESALE   SOCIETY   LIMITED. 


PAST  MEMBERS   OF  GENERAL  COMMITTEE. 

Name. 

Nominating  Society. 

Elected. 

Retired. 

*A.  Greenwood 

Rochdale 

1864  March .... 

1864  March 

1864  March .... 

1864  March 

1864  March  . . . . 

1864  March  .... 
1867  Nov 

1864  March  .... 

1865  Nov 

1885  Dec 

1886  June     .... 

1865  Nov 

1876  June    

1866  May    

1866  May  

1867  May    

1867  Nov 

1868  Feb 

1870  Feb 

1876  March  .... 

1868  May    

1868  Nov 

1868  Nov 

1868  Nov 

1869  May    

1869  Nov 

1869  Nov 

1869  Nov 

1870  August    . . 

1870  Nov 

1871  May    

1877  June   

1871  May    

1874  Dec 

1871  May    

1874  August. 
1869  May. 

1867  May. 

1868  Nov. 

fCouncillor  Smithies   . . 

§  James  Dyson  

John  Hilton    

Rochdale 

Manchester 

Middleton     

Heywood 

Charles  Howarth 

1866  October. 

J.  Neild    

Mossley   j 

Rochdale 

1865  Nov. 

1868  Nov. 
1865  Nov. 

*  James  Crabtree   

W.  Nuttall   

Heckmondwike   . .  - 

Oldham | 

Oldham  

1874  May. 
1886  March. 
1889  Dec. 

1866  Feb. 

John  Thomasson 

1877  Dec. 
1869  Nov. 

Edward  Hooson 

SE.  Lonsrfield 

Manchester 

Manchester 

Oldham 

1869  Dec. 
1867  Nov. 

Isaiah  Lee    

1868  Nov. 

t  J.  M.  Percival 

§D  Baxter 

Manchester - 

[ 

Manchester 

Hyde   

1868  May. 
1872  August. 
1882  June. 

1871  May. 

1869  Nov. 

T.  Sutcliffe   

Todmorden 

Manchester 

Oldham    

1869  Nov. 

J  James  C.  Fox 

W.  Marcroft 

1871  May. 
1871  May. 
1895  March. 

*§J.  T.  W.  Mitchell .... 

Rochdale 

Eccles   

1871  Nov. 

R.  Holgate   

Over  Darwen   

Rochdale 

Batley  Carr 

Bradford  | 

Barnsley   | 

Over  Darwen    

1870  Nov. 

A.  Mitchell 

1870  Nov. 

W.  Moore 

1871  August. 
1874  Dec. 

JTitus  Hall    

B.  Hague 

1885  Dec. 
1873  May. 

Thomas  Shorrocks 

1884  Sept. 
1871  Nov. 

212 


PAST  MEMBERS  OF  GENERAL  COMMITTED— contimied. 


Name. 

Nominating  Society. 

Elected. 

Retired. 

♦R  Allen 

Oldham   

1871  August    .. 

1871  August     .. 
1873  Feb 

1877  April. 

1872  Feb. 
1874  Feb. 

Job  Whiteley 

Halifax -[ 

{Thomas  Hayes    

Failsworth    

1871  Nov 

1873  August. 

Jonathan  Fish  wick  . . . 

Bolton 

1871  Nov 

1872  Feb. 

J.  Thorpe 

{W.  Johnson 

Halifax   

1872  Feb 

1872  Feb 

1877  June    

1873  Feb. 

Bolton 1 

1876  June. 
1885  March. 

§H.  Whiley    

Manchester - 

1872  August     . . 
1874  May    

1874  Feb. 
1876  March. 

J.  Butcher    

1873  May    

1873  August    .. 
1873  August    .. 

1873  August. 

1874  Dec. 

H  Atkinson     .... 

Blaydon-on-Tyne    . . 
Eccles   

William  Bates 

1907  June. 

J.  F.  Brearley 

Oldham  

1874  Feb 

1874  Dec. 

Robert  Cooper 

Accrington   

1874  Feb 

1876  June. 

H  Jackson  

Halifax 

1874  Dec 

1874  Dec 

1876  June. 

J.  Pickersgill    

Batley  Carr 

1877  INIarch. 

W.  Bamett 

Macclesfield 

1874  Dec 

1882  Sept. 
1898  June. 

John  Stansfield  

Heckmondwike    .... 

1874  Dec 

Thomas  Bland     

Huddersfield    

1874  Dec 

1907  March. 

S.  Lever    

F.  R.  Stephenson    

Thomas  Hind    

Bacup    - 

Halifax 

1876  Sept 

1886  March .... 

1876  Sept 

1877  June     

1877  Dec 

1885  Sept. 
1888  May. 
1877  March. 

Leicester 

1912  October. 

R.  Whittle    

Crewe    

1886  March. 

+Thos.  Swann    

Masborough 

1882  Sept 

1899  Feb. 

E.  Hibbert    

Failsworth    

1882  Sept 

1883  Nov 

1895  June. 

John  Lord    

Accrington   

Hyde   

1907  Sept. 
1886  March 

Joseph  Mc.Nab    

Alfred  North    

1883  Dec 

Batley   

1883  Dec 

1905  August. 
1890  January. 
1895  July. 

James  Hilton 

Oldham 

1884  Sept 

1885  March  .... 

James  Lownds 

Ashton-under-Lyne. . 

Samuel  Taylor 

William  P.  Hemm 

Bolton 

1885  Sept 

1888  Sept 

1891  Dec 

Nottingham 

1889  August. 

Amos  Scotton 

Derby    

1890  June     .... 

1904  October. 

James  Fairclough 

Barnsley 

1895  Sept 

1911  June. 

*  Held  Office  as  Pr 
:  Held  Office  as  Se 

esident.                    +  Held  C 
cretary.                     §  Held  < 

)ffice  as  Secretary  an( 
Dffice  as  Treasurer. 

i  Treasurer. 

213 


PAST  MEMBERS   OF   NEWCASTLE   BRANCH   COMMITTEE. 


Name. 

Nominating  Society. 

Elected. 

Retired. 

Ephraim  Gilchirist 

George  Dover 

Wallsend 

1873  Oct 

1874  Jan 

Chester-le-Street   ... 

1874  Dec 

1877  Sept. 

Humphrey  Atkinson  . . 

Blaydon-on-Tyne    . . 

1874  Dec 

1879  May. 

f  Joseph  Patterson    

West  Cramlington  . . 

1874  Dec 

1877  Sept. 

John  Steel    

Newcastle-on-Tyne . . 
Durham    

1874  Dec 

1876  Sept. 
1891  Sept. 
1875  March. 

William  Green 

1874  Dec 

Thomas  Pinkney 

Newbottle     

1874  Dec 

Richard  Thomson 

Sunderland 

1874  Dec 

1893  Sept. 

t  John  Thirlaway 

Gateshead    

1876  Dec 

1892  May. 

William  Robinson 

Shotley  Bridge    .... 

1877  Sept 

1884  June. 

William  J.  Howat 

Newcastle-on-Tyne . . 

1877  Dec 

1883  Dec. 

George  Scott    

Newbottle     

1879  May    

1893  Dec. 

J.  Atkinson 

Wallsend 

1883  Dec 

1890  May. 
1887  Dec. 

George  Fryer   

Cramlington 

1883  Dec 

Matthew  Bates    

Blaydon 

1884  June 

1QQQ   Jnnp 

Robt.  Gibson   

Newcastle-on-Tyne . . 

1890  Sept 

1910  Sept. 

George  Binney    

Robert  Irving 

Thomas  Rule 

Durham    

1891  Dec 

1905  May. 
1904  August. 
1903  June. 

Carlisle    

1892  June 

Gateshead    

1893  June   

William  Stoker    

Seaton  Delaval    

1893  Sept 

1902  July. 

Joseph  Warwick      .... 

North  Shields 

1903  June    

1912  Dec. 

F.  A.  Ciappessoni    

Cleator  Moor   

1904  Dec 

1912  Feb. 

PAST  MEMBERS   OF   LONDON    BRANCH    COMMITTEE. 


*  Newcastle  and  London  Branch  Committees  constituted  December,  1874. 
t  Held  Office  as  Secretary. 


214 


THE   CO-OPERATIVE 
WHOLESALE  SOCIETY  LIMITED. 


^[EMBERS    OF    GENERAL,    AND    NEWCASTLE    AND 

LONDON  BRANCH  COMMITTEES  WHO  HAVE 

DIED  DURING  TIME  OP  OFFICE. 


Name. 


Edward  Hooson  . . 

Robert  Allen 

Richard  Whittle  . . 

Samuel  Lever 

William  P.  Hemm 

James  Hilton    

Samuel  Taylor 

J.  T.  W.Mitchell.. 

E.  Hibbert     

James  Lownds 

Thos.  Swann 

Amos  Scotton 

Alfred  North 

James  Fairclough 
Thomas  Hind 


Nominating  Society. 


GENERAL. 

Manchester     

Oldham    

Crewe  

Bacup 

Nottingham    

Oldham    

Bolton 

Rochdale 

Failsworth 

Ashton-iinder-Lyiie 

Masboro' 

Derby 

Batley 

Barnsley 

Leicester 


Date  of  Death. 


December  11th,  1869. 
April  2nd,  1877. 
March  6th,  1886. 
May  18th,  1888. 
August  21st,  1889. 
January  18th,  1890. 
December  15th,  1891. 
March  16th,  1895. 
June  25th,  1895. 
July  27th,  1895. 
February  15th,  1899. 
October  2nd,  1904. 
August  14th,  1905. 
June  11th,  1911. 
October  26th,  1912. 


J.  Atkinson Wallsend . 

William  Green !  Durham 


NEWCASTLE. 


John  Thirlaway    

William  Stoker    

Robert  Irving 

George  Binney 

F.  A.  Ciappessoni     j  Cleator  Moor  . 

Joseph  Warwick |  North  Shields 


LONDON. 


Gateshead 

Seaton  Delaval 

Carlisle     

Durham 


J.  J.  B.  Beach 

T.E.Webb  

J.  Clay   

R.  H.  Tutt    

G.  Sutherland 

W.  H.  Brown    I  Newport  . 

J.  F.  Goodey '  Colchester 


May  25th,  1890. 
September  9th,  1891. 
May  1st,  1892. 
July  4th,  1902. 
August  22nd,  1904. 
May  5th,  1905. 
February  20th,  1912. 
December  6th,  1912. 


Colchester  i  December  21st,  1888. 


Battersea 
Gloucester 
Hastings  . . 
Woolvirich 


December  2nd,  1896. 
October  25th,  1901.    . 
February  26th,  1904. 
October  17th,  1904. 
April  20th,  1907. 
October  5th,  1910. 


215 


CO-OPERATIVE  WHOLESALE  SOCIETY  LIMITED. 


PAST  AUDITORS. 


Name. 

Nominating  Society. 

Elected. 

Retired. 

D.  Baxter 

Manchester 

1864  March 

1868  May. 
1865  May. 
1867  May. 

J  Hankinson 

Preston 

1864  May 

1865  May 

E.  Longfield    

Manchester 

James  White   

Manchester 

1867  May  ...... 

1881  Sept. 

W.  Nuttall  

Oldham     | 

1868  May 

1873  Nov 

1868  Nov. 

1874  May. 

A.  Howard    

Rochdale 

1863  Nov 

1870  May. 

R  Taylor 

Oldham     | 

1870  May 

1873  Nov 

1873  May. 

1875  Feb. 

J,  C.  Fox 

Manchester • 

1872  May 

1876  Dec 

1876  Sept. 

1877  Sept. 

H.  C.  Pingstone 

IManchestcr 

1872  May 

1872  Nov. 

W.  Barnett 

Macclesfield 

Eccles   

1872  Nov 

1873  May 

1873  Nov. 

W.  Grimshaw 

1874  May. 

J.  Leach.   

Rochdale 

1874  May 

1874  May 

1878  June. 

J.  Odgers 

Manchester 

1874  Sept. 

J.  M.  Percival 

Manchester 

1875  March  .... 

1876  March. 

W.  Applebv 

Manchester 

1876  March 

1888  Sept. 
1885  Sept. 

1878  Sept. 

1879  June. 

Oldham     

1876  Oct 

James  Kershaw 

Rochdale 

1878  June 

W.  Nuttall 

Eccles    

1879  March  .... 

T.  Whitworth 

Rochdale 

1881  Dec 

1885  Dec 

1885  June. 

J.  E.  Lord    

Rochdale 

1910  April. 

Isaac  Haigh 

Barnsley   

1888  August.... 
1910  Sept 

1903  Feb. 

P.  G.  Redfearn  

Birstall 

191-2  Sept. 

PAST  SCRUTINEER. 


Name. 

Nominating  Society. 

Elected. 

Retired. 

F   Harden 

Oldham     

1890  Sept • 

1913  Sept. 

216 


Statistics 

SHOWING  THE 
PROGRESS   OF 

The  Co^oPERATivE  Wholesale 
Society  Limited. 


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221 


BESEBVE  FUND 
m.  TBADE  DEPARTMENT  FROM 


Deductions  from  Reserve  Fund —  £ 

Subscriptions  and  Donations  to  Charitable  and  other  Objects 110,970 

Investments  Written  off :  Bank  Department   18,259 

„                     ,,           Trade  Department 10,660 

Insurance  Fund 6,000 

Land  and  Buildings  Account — Depreciation,  Special     1,148 

Fixtures                            „                      „                   „           852 

Celebration  Dinner  :  Opening  Warehouse,  Balloon  Street     56 

Newcastle  Formation  Expenses 16 

21st  Anniversary  Commemoration  Expenses,  Manchester     2,017 

Jubilee  Celebration  Expenses 34,699 

Expenses  incurred  in  West  Africa 3,256 

Sprinklers  Account — Amount  vs^ritten  off  to  date    74,812 


262,744 
Reserve  Fund,  December  27th,  1913  : — 
Investments — 

Manchester   Ship   Canal  Company,  2,000  Ordinary 

Shares  of  £10  each £20,000 

Gilsland  Convalescent  Home,  7,500  Shares  of  £1  each         7,500 
British  Cotton  Growing  Association,  5,000  Shares 

of  £1  each 5,000 

North-Western   Co-operative   Convalescent  Homes 

Association 8,000 

40,500 

Balance — 

As  per  Balance  Sheet,  December  27th,  1913   668,110 

As  per  proposed  Disposal  of  Profit  Account    37,023 

705,133 

£1,008,377 


222 


ACCOUNT. 

COMMENCEMENT    OF     SOCIETY.  Cr. 

Additions  to  Reserve  Fund—  £ 

From  Disposal  of  Profit  Account,  as  per  page  221 — Net    972,044 

Balance — Sale  of  Properties : — 

Strawberry  Estate,  Newcastle £1,953 

Land,  Liverpool , , 713 

Rosedale    11 

South  Shields 96 

Newhall 418 

Durham    376 

Gorton 10,923 

Calais    319 

Steamships 10,621 

Tipperary ;............ ;..-...;..... .... ;. . .  450    ' 

Land,  Shillingstone 100 

25,980 

Balance — Sale  of  Shares — ^New  Telephone  Company 44 

Sharelnvestment — Lancashire  and  Yorkshire  Productive  Society .  60 

Sale  of  part  Shares — Co-operative  Printing  Society     63 

Share  Investment — Leicester  Hosiery  Society 76 

„  „  Star  and  Rochdale  Corn  Mills 14 

„  „  Keighley  Ironworks   . : 55 

Dividend  on  Debts,  previously  written  off    808 

Balances,  Shares,  Loans,  &c..  Accounts    232 

Bonus  to  Employes  :  DijBterences  between  Amounts  Provided  and  actually  Paid         311 

Dividend  on  Sales  to  Employes 403 

Interest  on  Manchester  Ship  Canal  Shares 1,515 

Transfer  from  Reserve  Balances     6,772 


£1,008,377 


223 


CO-OPEBATIVE   ^yA^^HOLESALE 

Registered  Office:    1,  BALLOON 


Industrial  and  Provident  Societies 


ABSTRACT  OF  ANNUAL  RETURN  FOR 

(Under  the 

BALANCE  SHEET  OP  FUNDS  AND 

Trade  Department—  £       s.   d.        £       s.  d. 

Due  to  Shareholders— Transferable  Shares 2,039,054    9    3 

Loans  and  Interest 4,242,662  10    1 

Amount  Owing  by  Society  for  Goods  Used  in  Trade 839,932    2    6 

„  „        for  Trade  Expenses    J79,052  19  10 

Less  Selves  Account  (see  contra) 40,782  12    5 


38,270    7    5 

Mortgage  and  Interest 7,358  12  10 

Received  in  Advance  for  Goods 31,687    3    9 

Owing— Insurance  Claims    2,371    7  11 

„        Insurance  Premiums 53  15    1 

„        Reserve  Fund  Account 14,160  15    0 

Scottish  Wholesale  Society's  Proportion  due   of  Batley,  &c., 

Results    367    4  11 

Reserve  for  Unexpired  Risks— Societies' Fire  Insurances 947  10    0 


Bank  Department- 
Current  Accounts 5,078,288  17    8 

Less  Bank  Balance— Trade  Department 2,446,520    3    8 


5.177,811 


2,631,768  14    0 

Deposit  Accounts 840,127    8    2 

Employes'  Thrift  Fund 197,953  13  10 

Commission  Owing 32    3    6 

3,669,881  19 

Reserves— Trade  and  Bank  Departments  — 

Reserve  Fund-Trade  Department (a)£668,109  13    5 

Bank  „  £130,816  10    5 

„  „       Investment  Reserve  12,890    2  10 

143,706  ]3 


811,816    6    8 

Insurance  Fund    . .     877,479    1    6 

Reserve  Balances — Purchasing  Depots 18,277  17 


Profits  appropriated  but  not  paid  during  the  Financial  Year- 
Trade  Department JE339,216  17    0 

Bank  Department 27,737    0    3 

(a)  Exclusive  of  the  following  share  investments  made  from  this  fund- 
Manchester  Ship  Canal  Company  (2,000  Ordinary 

Shares) £20,000 

Gilsland  Convalescent  Home 7,500 

North-Western  Co-operative  Convalescent  Homes 

Association 8,000 

British  Cotton  Growing  Association 5,000 


1,707,573    5  11 


366,953  17 


(a)  £40,500 


Total £12,961,275    1    5 


Signature  of  Treasurer  (No  Treasurer). 
The  undersigned,  having  had  access  to  all  the  Books,  Deeds,  Documents,  and  Accounts  of  the 
Books,  Deeds,  Documents,  Accounts,  and  Vouchers  relating  thereto,  now  sign  the  same  as  found  to 


March  24th,  1914. 

224 


SOCIETY  LIMITED. 

STREET,  MANCHESTER. 


Act,  1893,  56  and  57  Vict.,  c.  39. 


YEAB  ENDED  27th   DECEMBEK,   1913 

above  Act). 

EFFECTS.  AS  AT  27th  DECEMBER,  1913. 

Trade  Department—  £    '  s.    d. 

Value  of  Stock  in  Trade 3,142,334    1  11 

„         Buildings,  Fixtures,  and  Land— (used  in  trade) 1,469,938  16    0 

•*   Four  Steamships  (used  in  trade)  (TTnffcn  q/f)    

Investments  and  other  Assets—  £        s.  d. 

In  Buildings,  Fixtures,  and  Land 592,093  15  10 

In  Shares  of  Industrial  and  Provident  Societies (b)  2,733    4    2 

In  Shares  of  Companies   (6)  2,956    3    3 

C.W.S.  Proportion  of  Partnership  Capital,  includinglnterest 

and  Profits  -English  and  Scottish  Wholesale  Societies.     300,895    2    7 
C.W.S.  Proportion  of  Partnership  Capital — Co-operative 
Insurance  Society  Limited — Consideration  Money  in 

respect  of  Shares  Acquired £107,558  13    7 

Lets  Premium  Paid  to  C.I.S.  Share- 
holders— Written  off  from  In- 
surance Fund 98,9.54  13    7 


8,604    0    0 
Interest  Due  430    4    0 


9  034    4    0 

Bents  Due l'836  19    0 

Expenses  Stock,  and  Payments  in  Advance    24,312    6    0 

Amount  Owing  by  Members  and  others  at  end  of  Year— Goods 

and  Freights    £-1,088,058    4    6 

Less  Selves  Account  (see  contra)    40.782  12    5 


1,047,275  12    1 


Payments  in  Advance  for  Goods    50,906    0    4 

2,032,043    7 

Bank  Department— Investments  and  other  Assets. 

On  Mortgage  Security    1,073,229    5    5 

On  Shares  and  Loans 80,673  16    7 

Promissory  Notes     121    7    0 

Loan  Stock  Certificates 252  17    3 

Land  and  Buildings    3,507    0    3 

Consols 166,360  12    6 

British  Corporation  Mortgages,  Stocks,  &c 3,102,472    2    3 

British  Railway  Debentures  and  Preference  Stock'^ 90,592  15  11 

Foreign  and  Colonial  Bonds   247,449    0    9 

Stamped  Cheques 189  18    4 

Bank  Balances 1,492,203  10    0 

6,257,052    6 

Cash  in  hand  and  at  Branches  :— 

Trade  Dept.  Bank  Dept. 

Cash  in  hand    £11,285    0    0     £30,793  10    5 

„     at  Branches 17,827  19    7     


£29,112  19    7  £30,793  10    5 


59,906  10    0 


(b)  Exclusive  of  investments  made  from  Reserve  Fund  (see  a). 


Total £12,961,275    1    5 


Secretary— THOS.  BRODRICK,  Eccles,  near  Manchester. 

Society,  and  having  examined  the  foregoing  General  Statement,  and  verified  the  same  with  the 
be  correct,  duly  vouched,  and  in  accordance  with  law. 

THOS    JAS.  BAYLIS,  High  Street,  Rotherham,  \ 

T.  WOOD,  40  to  46,  Deansgate  Arcade,  Manchester,  Accountants 

C.  J.  BECKETT.  24,  All  Saints'  Road,  St  Annes-on-Sea,        }■  and 

BENJ.  TETLOW,  94,  Westgate  Road,  Newcastle-on-Tyne,       Public  Auditors. 
J.  SMITH,  "  Wynbury,"  Orchard  Road,  Middlesbrough,       j 

225 


MANCHESTEB  GROCEBY  AND  PROVISION 

TRADE. 

Smee  keeping  a  separate  Account. 


. 

Expenses. 

Net  Profit. 

Period.          Ended. 

Sales. 

Stocks 

at  end. 

Amount. 

Rate 
per  je. 

Amount. 

Rate 
per.. 

£ 

£ 

s.    d. 

£ 

s.    d. 

£ 

If  Years,  January,     1876 

2,586,691 

26,417 

0    21 

31,028 

0    2J 

56,487 

5       „       December,  1880  .... 

8,740,658 

87,603 

0    2g 

140,043 

0    31 

70,091 

5        „                „           1885  ... . 

11,728,202 

127,892 

0    2i 

157,209 

0    3| 

92,790 

8        „                „           1890.... 

15,511,593 

180,023 

0    21 

264,131 

0    4 

123,432 

8        „                „           1895  . . . 

21,956,461 

279,262 

0    3 

339,816 

0    3i 

159,930 

8      .„                „           1900.... 

28,186,928 

374,568 

0    8J 

500,911 

0    4J 

158,537 

3        „                „           1905.... 

41,629,024 

489,689 

0    ^ 

774,698 

0    4i 

237,874 

8        „                „           1910  .... 

£6,681,416 

669,406 

0    2f 

1,134,978 

0    4i 

292,133 

Year,              „          1911  .... 

12,672,297 

157,362 

0    2i 

249,347 

0    4i 

335,733 

„    (53  wks)  „           1912  .... 

13,405,352 

163,759 

0    2i 

244,057 

0    4J 

'       319,102 

1913.... 

13,901,860 

164,399 

0    2| 

265,597 

0    ii 

369,537 

Half  Year,  June,       1914  .. 

7,042,888 

83,126 

0    2| 

148,435 

0    5 

1       245,910 

40i  Years' Total    

234,038,370 

2,803,506 

0    2| 

4,250,250 

0    4i 

1 

226 


MANCHESTER    DRAPERY    TRADE. 

Since  keeping  a  separate  Account. 


'               EXPENSKS. 

Net  Profit. 

Stocks 

Pbriod.          Ended. 

Sales. 

at  end. 

Amount. 

Bate 
per£. 

Amount. 

Rate 
per£. 

£       , 

£ 

s.   d. 

£ 

1 

8.     d. 

£ 

2i  Years,  January,     1876 

211,351    ■        11,484 

1    1 

2466 

0  n 

72,408 

8       „       December,  1880  . . . 

672,992 

43,116 

1    8g 

♦941 

0    Oi 

44,105 

5        „               „           1885  ... . 

771,933 

42,913 

1    li 

20,2T7 

0  et 

44,948 

8        „              „           1890.... 

1,205,935           60,656 

1    0 

25,278 

0    6i 

84,739 

5        „               „            1895  .... 

1,920,447 

100,386 

1    0} 

48,223 

0    6 

108,337 

8        „               „           1900.... 

2,568,623         141,497 

1    li 

88,183 

0    8i 

153,641 

5        „               „           1905  .... 

3,315,793  1       196,568 

1  ai 

94,449 

0    ^ 

107337 

5        „               „           1910  .... 

4,488,109  1 

283,807 

1    8i 

142,812 

0    71 

126,202 

! 

Year,                „         1911  .... 

1,075,460 

68,414 

1    3i 

33,693 

0    7i 

1 

125,698 

„      (53wks)  „           1912  .... 

1,150,367 

71,136 

1  n 

41,017 

0    8§ 

140,549 

1913.... 

1,259,157 

73,429 

1  li 

50,383 

0    9^ 

172,631 

Half  Year,  June,       1914  .... 

636,562 

37,750 

1    2S 

21,771 

0    8i 

184,922 

40|  Years'  Total    

19,276,729       1,131,156 

1    2 

567,260 
4,757 

•• 

Less  Depr 

aciation,  Octc 
licaves  Net  P 

)ber,  1877... 

rofit 

] 

562,608 

0    7 

*  Loss. 
Note.— To  December,  1883,  the  figures  include  Woollens  and  Ready-Mades  Department. 
„         To  J  une,  1905,  inclusive,  the  figiues  include  Desboro'  Corset  Factory,  |      now  separately 
To  December,  1906,  „  „  „        Broughton  Shirt     „         )"  stated  in  Prod.  Ac/3. 


227 


MANCHESTEB  "WOOLLENS  AND   BEADY- 
MALES   TBADE. 

Since  publishing  a  separate  Account  in  Balance  Sheet. 


Sales. 

Expenses. 

Net  Profit. 

Stocks  at  end. 

Period.           Ended. 

Amount. 

Rate 
Ver£. 

Amount. 

Bate 
periE. 

(a) 

(b) 

2  Years,  December,  1885  . . 

5       „                „          1890  .. 
5       „                „          1895  .. 
5       „                „          1900  .. 
5       „                „          1905  . . 
5       „                „          1910  .. 

Year,              „         1911  .. 

„    (.53wks)    „          1912  .. 

1913  . . 

Half  Year,  June,     1914  . . 

£ 

41,578 

120,546 
255,315 
622,486 
874,585 
1,190,500 

282,688 
295,112 
325,775 

201,372 

£ 
2,470 

8,331 
15,905 
35,706 
51,849 
73,678 

18,693 
19,822 
20,983 

11,673 

s.    d. 
1    2i 

if 

if 
1    3| 

1  n 

£ 
745 

*1,196 
*3,232 
13,805 
16,346 
25,475 

4,569 

5,508 

14,261 

8,309 

s.    d. 
0    4i 

0    21 
0    8 
0    6i 
0    4 
0    5 

li 

0  n 

£ 
5,242 

11,468 
15,608 
35,978 
51,262 
63,211 

71,082 
72,219 
82,091 

79,367 

£ 

16,779 
81,741 

88,428 
84,720 
47,819 

48,116 

30^  Years'  Total.... 

4,209,957 

259,110 

1    2| 

84,590 

on 

.. 

*  Loss.        (a)  Woollens  and  Ready-mades  and  Outfitting.        (ft)  Linings  and  Dyed  Goods. 
Note. — To  June,  1895,  inclusive,  the  Results  and  Stocks  include  Broughton  Clothing  Factory. 


MANCHESTEB  BOOT  AND   SHOE   TBADE. 

Since  keeping  a  separate  Account. 


Sales. 

Expenses. 

Net  Profit. 

Stocks 
at  end. 

Period.            Ended. 

i    Amount.      ^^fj^ 

Amount.      ^^l 

^J  Years,  January,    1876   .... 

5        „      December,  1880    

5        „                „          1885    .... 
S        „                „          1890    .... 
5        „                „          1895    .... 
S        „               „          1900    .... 
5        „               „          1905    .... 
5        „               „          1910    .... 

Year,              „         1911   ..  . 

„  (53  wks)    „          1912    ... 

1913   .... 

Half  Year,  June,    1914    .... 

£ 
96,648 

292,347 
439,988 
738,251 
1,175,301 
1,493,428 
1,859,595 
2,299,318 

469,916 

528,862 
538,661 

319,602 

t 

£ 

2,659 

10,500 
i       14,703 
24,180 
48,031 
59,448 
70,983 
91,335 

21,392 
22,600 
23,068 

12,130 

8.    d. 
0    6J 

0    8J 
0    8 

0    9| 
0    9^ 

0  lOi 
0  lOi 
0  10| 

0    9 

£ 
1,524 

3,646 

6,330 

1       17,519 

!       18,957 

i       30,468 

31,162 

37,121 

5,173 
8,776 
9,546 

7,063 

s.    d. 
0    31 

0    2§ 

0    3| 

0    4 
0    31 

0    21 

si 

0    5J 

£ 
7,711 

11,484 
16,074 
32,095 
56,302 
62,178 
63,144 
80,190 

85,715 
88,509 
99,361 

103,845 

m  Years'  Total 

10,251,917 

401,029 

0    9| 

1 
177,285          0    4^ 

•• 

228 


MANCHESTEB    FUBNISHING    TBADB. 

(Since  keeping  a  separate  Account. 


Sales. 

Expenses. 

Net  Pkofit. 

Stocks 

at  end. 

(a) 

Period.            Ended. 

Amount. 

Rate 
per£. 

Amount. 

Rate 
peri. 

4i  Years,  December,  1880 

S         „               „         1885 

5         „               „         1890 

5         „               -.         1895 

5         „               ..         1900 

5        „               „         1905 

3        „               „         1910 

Year,               „        1911 

„(53  wks)    „         1912 

..         1913 

Half  Year,  June,     1914 

£ 

81,886 

184,218 

439,580 

781,803 

1.317,554 

1,639,436 

2,030.974 

471,296 
499,051 
566,713 

305,086 

1 

i     ' 

1         4,999 
1         9,354 
j       21,250 

41,130 

1 

65,372 

i       80,885 

105,126 

28,215 
30,795 
31,026 

16,057 

8.    d. 
1    2§ 

1    01 

Olli 

1    Of 

0  Hi 

0  11| 

1  Of 

1    2i 
1    2i 

1  n 

1   og 

£ 

617 

2,379 

6,408 

6,587 

23,638 

22,300 

23,367 

2,029 
2,019 
8,774 

4,244 

B.  d. 
0    IJ 

0    3 

0  s§ 

0    2 

0    4i 
0    3i 
0    2| 

0    1 
0    Oi 
0    Sg 

0    Si 

£ 
4,307 

5,817 

12,930 

19,574 

27,817 
28,388 
81,664 

32,739 
34,937 
41,246 

45,244 

38  Years'  Total 

8,317,097 

434,209 

1    Oi 

102,362 

0    2i 

■>' 

Note.— From  March,  1893,  to  June,  1895,  inclusive,  the  Results  and  Stocks  include 
Broughton  Cabinet  Works. 

(«)  Excludes  Longton  Stock.        Memo.  -  In  Balance  Sheet  Longton  Stocks  included  with 
Manchester  Furnishing  Stocks. 


229 


NE^WCASTLE    BBANCH    GBOCERY    AND 
PBOVISION    TRADE. 

Since  keeping  a  separate  Account. 


Note. — To  December,  1903,  the  figures  include  Pelaw  Printing,  now  separately 
stated  in  Productive  Accounts. 


NE^WCASTLE  BBANCH  DBAPEBY  TRADE. 

Since  keeping  a  separate  Account 


Expenses. 

Net  Pkofit. 

Stocks  at 
end. 

Pkriod.           Ended. 

Sales. 

Amount. 

Bate 
per  £. 

Amount. 

Bate 
per  je. 

£ 

£ 

s.  d. 

£ 

8.    d. 

£ 

5  Years,  December,  1880  .... 

234,269 

10,745 

0  11 

5,484 

0    5i 

16,171 

a        „                „          1885  .... 

51.3,938 

17,599 

0    8i 

21,903 

OlOi 

24,064 

8        „                „          1890.... 

876,923 

30,548 

0    8i 

87,968 

OlOi 

33,216 

8        „                „          1895.... 

1,351,804 

44,684 

0    7S 

57,256 

0  lOJ 

48,361 

8        „                 „           1900  .... 

1,864,292 

71,047 

0    9J 

84,856 

0  lOS 

63,704 

8        „                 „          1905  .... 

2,259,678 

122,128 

1    OS 

64,195 

0    ^ 

i         59,939 

8        „                 „          1910.... 

2,698,979 

156,830 

1    li 

68,669 

0    6 

!         58,798 

Year,                „         1911  .... 

589,604 

1       94,264 

1    li 

15,030 

0    6 

i 

1         57,536 

„     (53  wks)    „          1912  .... 

592,005 

35,523 

1    2i 

16,098 

0    6i 

1         57,042 

1913.... 

684,483 

38,890 

1    li 

19,963 

0    6i 

i         55,179 

1 

Half  Year,   June,    1914  .... 

35?.471 

20,402 

1    li 

9,005 

0    61 

62,'?33 

m  Years'  Total 

12,018,446 

■     582,660 

0  Hi 

400,427 

0    7i 

Note.— To  June,  1898,  the  figures  include  Woollens  and  Ready-Mades  Department. 

„        To  December,  1903,  the  figures  include  Pelaw  Shirt  Factory,  now  shown  in  Productive 
Accounts  with  Pelaw  Tailoring  and  Kersey  Factories. 


NEWCASTLE    BRANCH   ^^A^GOLLENS 
READY-MADES    TRADE. 

Since  keeping  a  separate  Account. 


AND 


Sales. 

Expenses. 

Net  Profit.        1 

Stocks  at 
end. 

Period.            Ended. 

Amount. 

Rate    1 
per  £.  ' 

Amount. 

Rate 
per  £. 

£         ! 

£ 

s.     d.  - 

£ 

s.   d. 

£ 

2§  Years,  December,  1900  ... . 

339,631 

10,361 

0    7i 

16,984 

1    0 

35,627 

5        „                „          1905  .... 

719,657 

32,340 

0  10| 

24,408 

0    8i 

32,054 

5        „                „          1910  .... 

829,638 

39.934 

0  Hi  , 

35,272 

0  10| 

36,310 

Year,                „         1911  .... 

181,689 

8,974 

0  llf 

6,763 

0    Si 

39,327 

„    (53  wks)    „          1912  .... 

187,422 

9,080 

0  Hi 

8,669 

0  11 

39,843 

1913.... 

207,330 

9,976 

0  lU 

8,7  ;9 

OlOi 

.     44,942 

Half  Year,   June,   1914  .... 

120,610 

5,461 

1 

0  lOf 

4,861 

0    9g 

41,386 

16  Years' Total  

2,585,977 

116,126 

0  101 

105,736 

0    9i 

■• 

Note, — To  December,  1903,  the  figures  include  Pelaw  Tailoring  and  Kersey  Factories,  now 
shown  in  Productive  Accounts  with  Pelaw  Shirt  Factory.'. 


231 


NEWCASTLE    BBANCH    BOOT   AND    SHOE 

TBADE. 

Since  keeping  a  separate  Account. 


Expenses. 

Net  Profit. 

Stocks  at 
end. 

Period. 

Ended. 

Sales. 

Amount. 

Rate 
per  £. 

Amount. 

Rate 
per  ;£. 

£ 

£ 

s.     d. 

£ 

s.   d. 

£ 

5  Years,  December,  1880 

144,855 

4,500 

0    71 

2,412 

0    4 

1        5,971 

"        »> 

1885  .... 

327,150 

9,980 

0    7i 

8,276 

0    6 

11,319 

"        »» 

1890.... 

493,126 

18,876 

0    9J 

7,874 

0    3| 

11,870 

3        »> 

1895  .... 

648,837 

22,443 

0    8i 

14,020 

0    5S 

20,680 

s       »» 

1900  .... 

893,524 

31,452 

0    8i 

21,199 

0    5i 

26,770 

3        ,» 

1905  .... 

1,179,581 

47,466 

0    91 

18,082 

0    3g 

29,423 

°        >» 

1910  .... 

1,291,610 

51,780 

0    9J 

23,550 

0    4i 

33,298 

Year, 

1911  .... 

253,922 

10,787 

0  10^ 

4,245 

0    4 

33,346 

„     (53  wks) 

1912  .... 

263,912 

- 10,844 

0    9| 

3,073 

0    2| 

45,992 

5» 

1913  .... 

262,589     { 

10,888 

0    9g 

4,811 

0    4i 

43,587 

Half  Year,  J 

line,     1914  .... 
8'  Total 

150,.')45 

5,563 

0    8| 

2,860 

0    4J 

41,649 

38^  Year 

5,909,651 

224,579 

0    9 

1 

110,402 

1 

0    41 

Note. — To  December,  1888,  the  figures  include  Furnishing  Department. 


NEWCASTLE    BBANCH    PUBNISHINQ 
TBADE. 

SiTice  keeping  a  separate  Account. 


Sales. 

Expenses. 

Net  Profit. 

Stocks 
at  end. 

Period.           Ended. 

Amount. 

Rate 
per  £. 

Amount. 

Rate 
per  £. 

£ 

£ 

s.  d. 

£ 

s.    d. 

£ 

2  Years,  December,  1890 

5      „                „            1895  .... 
8      „                „            1900  ... . 

3  „                „            1905.... 
5      „                „            1910.... 

138,487 

485,907 

963,098 

1,285,488 

1,411,869 

6,287 
26,707 
47,272 
76,223 
100,024 

OlOi 
1    IJ 
Olli 

1   24 

1    5 

2,387 

6,233 

24,066 

11,638 

30,075 

0    4J 
0    3 
0    5i 
0    2J 
0    5 

\         10,474 
16,120 
29,79.6 
28,555 
32.852 

Year,              „          1911  .... 

„    (53  wks)  „            1912  .... 

1913  .... 

293,895 
288,076 
354,383 

21,433 
21,628 
23,361 

1^ 

1    6 

1    3fj 

5,833 
4,879 

7,558 

0    4i 
0    4 
0    5 

82,119 
84,471 
85,104 

Half   Year,  June,    1914  .... 

199,159 

12,048 

1    2i 

6,134 

0    71 

40,379 

23i  Years' Total   

5,420,862 

334,988 

1    2ji 

9&,80S 

0    4i 

•• 

Note. — To  December,  1903,  the  flguies  include  Pelaw  Cabinet  Factory,  now  separately 
stated  in  Productive  Accounts. 


232 


LONDON    BRANCH    GROCERY    AND 
PROVISION    TRADE 

(INCLUDING  BRISTOL,  CARDIFF,  AND  NORTHAMPTON  DEPOTS). 
Since  keeping  a  separate  Account. 


EXPBKSES. 

Nbt  Profit. 

Stocks 
at  end. 

Period.           Ended. 

Sales. 

Amount. 

Rate 
per  je. , 

A^oant.   I5J1. 

£ 

£ 

B.    d. 

£ 

s.    d. 

'              £ 

1|  Tears,  January,  1876    

203,137 

3,907 

0    4i 

2,151 

0    2i 

7,219 

S        „       December,  1880 

1,119,283 

17,326 

0    8§ 

17,688 

0    3i 

20,789 

5        „                „          1885.... 

1,746,107 

29,470 

0    4 

24,718 

0    Si 

24,256 

5        „                „          1890.... 

3,661,913 

66,023 

0    4i 

51,270 

0    3J 

57,347 

8        „                „          1895.... 

6,125,158 

125,071 

0    4S 

74,567 

0    2i 

45,828 

5        „                „          1900  ... . 

8,924,536 

188,854 

0    5 

137,122 

0    3i 

109,468 

5        „                „          1905  .... 

15,225,894 

247.770 

0    Si 

221,376 

0    31 

129,171 

5        „                „          1910.... 

20,980,393 

1       324,279 

0    31 

354,070 

0    4 

183,194 

Year,                „         1911  .... 

4,890,468 

76,215 

0    3| 

94,010 

0    4i 

191,004 

„    (53  wks)    „          1912  .... 

5,513340 

79,758 

0    3i 

99,527 

0    41 

213,268 

1913.... 

5,750,722 

79,796 

0    3i 

103,402 

0    41 

i 

210,022 

Half  Year,  June,    1914  .... 

2,974,784 

40,941 

0    3i 

56,160 

! 
0  a' 

204,050 

40J  Years'  Total   

77,115,685 

1,279,410 

0    Si 

1,236,061 

0    3i 

233 


LONDON    BRANCH  DBAPERY    TRADE 

(INCLUDING  BEISTOL  DEPOT). 
Since  keeping  a  separate  Accoimt. 


Expenses. 

Net  Pkofit, 

Stocks 

' 

!  Amount. 

Bate 
per  jE. 

Amount. 

Bate 
per  £. 

at  end. 

Half  Year,  December,  1880 

8  Years,              „          1885 

8       „                   .,          1890 

8       „                     „           1895 

5       „                     „           1900 

8       „                     „            1905  

5       „                     „           1910 

Year,                             1911    . 

£ 
8,157 

209,909 
368,681 
439,003 
693,385 
989,710 
1,349,170 

372,985 
405,121 
455,943      1 

245,077 

£ 
812 

11,677 
28,327 
33,431 
55,546 
80,375 
120,082 

31,694 
33,012 
34,604 

18,717 

s.    d. 

0  94 

1  li 
1    6i 
1    6i 
1   74 
1    7i 
1    9i 
1    81 

1   74 
1    64 
1    6i 

£ 
36 

1,963 

*5,789 

515 

9,992 
10,986 
13.755 

6,392 
9,752 
14,603 

6,897 

s.  d. 
0    1 

0    24 
0    31 
0    Oi 
0    33 
0    2i 
0    2g 

0    4 
0    5i 
0    71 
0    6| 

£ 
3,805 

11,502 
12,607 
21,859 
45,685 
44,749 
64,686 

62,378 
69,685 
75,624 

84,277. 

„     (53  weeks)    „           1912 

1913 

Half  Year,  June,           1914 

34  Years'  Total 

5,537,141      ! 

447,777 

1    7g 

69,102 

0    2i 

*  Loss. 

Note. — The  above  figures  include  the  following:  Boots  and  Shoes  to  September,  1887; 
Furnishing  to  March,  1889  ;  Woollens  and  Beady-mades  to  March,  1898. 


LONDON    BRANCH    Yi^OOLLENS 
AND  READY-MADE  S   TRADE 

(INCLUDING  BRISTOL  DEPOT). 
Since  keeping  a  separate  Account. 


Sales. 

Expenses. 

j       Net  Profit. 

Stocks 

Period.           Ended. 

Amount. 

Bate 
per  ;£. 

Amount. 

Bate, 
per  £. 

at  end. 

2|  Years,  December,  1900  .... 

8       „                  „         1905  .... 
8        „                   „         1910  .... 

Year,                   „        1911  .... 

„    (58  weeks)  „         1912 

1913  .... 

Half  Year,  June,        1914  .... 

96,037 

300,139 

408,825 

100,165 
110,538 
126,848      ' 

74,067  .   i 

I 

£ 
9,128 

28,287 
44,532 

10,600 
11,104 
12,004 

6,551 

s.   d. 
1  10| 

1  104 

2  2J 

2    li 
2    0 

iioi 
1   94 

£ 
2,054 

4,901 
*237 
*472 
519 

1,877 

880 

a.    d. 
0    54 
0    3i 

0  04 

0  14 
0   14 

0    8i 
0    '21 

£ 

14,908 

1 

21,602 
27,110 

27,391 
29,671 
40,040 

40,951 

16i  Years'  Total 

1,216,619      1 

122,206 

2    0 

9,522 

0   14 

•• 

"  Loss. 
234 


LONDON  BRANCH  BOOT   Sc  SHOE  TRADE 

(INCLUDING  BRISTOL  DEPOT). 
Since  keeping  a  separate  Account. 


DED. 

i 
Sales. 

F.TPENSK8. 

1 
Net  Profit. 

Nkt  Loss.      1 

stocks 

Period.        En 

A-o'nt.    ^\ 

Amo'nt. 

Bate 
per  je.  I 

Amo'nt. 

Rate 
per  je. 

at  end. 

3J  Years,  Decemt 
"       »»              " 

8        »»               11 

Year,              „ 

„      (53  wks)  „ 

>»                    " 

Half  Year,  June 

er,1890.. 

1895  . . 
1900.. 
1905.. 
1910.. 

1911 . . 

1912  . . 

1913  . . 

1914  . . 
Total.... 

£ 
105,438 
242,974 
376,424 
596,359 
818,189 

179,818 
208,224 
229,297 
135,708 

£          8.  d.   1 
5,640  !    1    Oi 
15,350       1    Si 
24,274       1    ^ 
34,976       1    2 
58,145  ,     1    5 

;    13,247  1    I    5§ 

:    13,853       1    Si 

13,558       1    2i 

7,146       1    Oi 

£ 
152 

2,064 
4,919 

75 
250 

s.  d. 
0    Oi 

0    li 
0    li 

0  og 

£ 
1.013 

6,361 

8,455 
1,278 

s.  d. 
0    1 

0    1| 

0    4i 
0    If 

£ 
'    6,051 
11,182 
20,287 
24,120 
45,515 

42,629 
48,340 
52,501 

52,515 

26|  Years' 

2,892,431 

j  186,189  j    1    31 

7,460  j       .. 

1 

12,107 
7,460 

•• 

Less] 
Leav( 

Profit 

is  Net  Loss 

1     "    ;     *■ 

4,647 

1 

0    Of 

i       "■ 

LONDON   BRANCH   FURNISHING-   TRADE 

(INCLUDING  BRISTOL  DEPOT). 
Since  keeping  a  separate  Account. 


Expenses. 

Net  Pbofit. 

Net  Loss. 

Stocks 

Period.        Ended.               Sales. 

A---'-  ^1 

AmCnJ    «J1  ' 

^"•"'  ^1 

at  end. 

£ 
IS  Years,  December,  1890  . .  i       53,957 
3        „              „          1895..      208,925 
5        „               „          1900..       370,518 
a        „               „          1905..       490,048 
5        „               „          1910..      617,399 

Year,               „         1911  . .      153,827 
„     (53 wks)  „          1912..       165,216 
„                    „          1913..       189,545 

Half  Year,  June,     1914  . .      103,057 

£         s.  d. 
4,487       1    7i 
17,814       1    8§ 
29,067       1    6i 
40,071       1    7i 
54,554       1    9J 

13,118       1    8i 
18,911       1    8k 
14,565       1    ^ 

7,611       1    5i 

£      1    8.  d. 

2,536       0    IJ 
4,286      0    If 

3,000       0    4g  1 
2,359       0    31 
3,931       0    4i 

2,171  i     0    5 

1, 

£ 

952 
655 
160 

s.  d. 
0    4i 
0    li 

•• 
.. 

£ 
3,957 
8,604 
12,854 
14,136 
14,251 

14,297 
14,945 
16,213 

18,718 

25i  Years' Total....    2,352,492     195,198       1    7i 

18,283 

i 
2,767         .. 

2,767  1       . . 

Less  1 
Leave 

s  Net  Profit  .... 

15,516       0    li 

235 


CRUMPSALL    BISCUITS,    CAKES, 

Since  keeping 


Net 
Supplies. 

Produc- 
tion. 

Expenses. 

Period.           Ended, 

Wages 

and 
Sundry. 

Deprecia- 
tion. 

Interest. 

Total. 

2J  Years,  January,     1876 

S         „      December,  1880 

S          „               „           1885 

8          „               „           1890 

5          „               „           1895 

5          „               „           1900 

8          »               ..           1905 

5          „               „           1910 

Year,                „         1911 

„    (53wks)    „           1912 

1913 

Half  Year,  June,       1914 

£ 
29,840 

87,213 
106,679 
177,924 
421,775 
464,581 
799,152 
936,711 

207,694 
213,597 
200,464 

106,247 

£ 
29,394 

87,003 
106,959 
181,173 
426,035 
443,116 
791,129 
922,477 

204,879 
208,518 
196,809 

105,062 

£ 
5,309 

14,589 

18,014 

35,716 

73,418 

101,908 

188,172 

209,931 

50.645 
50,886 
54,215 

29,889 

£ 
707 

2,427 
3,194 
6,308 
10,340 
13,412 
21,110 
23,515 

3,966 
3,999 
4,120 

2,060 

£ 
953 

2,298 
2,122 
4,022 
8,048 
6,020 
12,793 
13,305 

1,940 
2,038 
1,725 

839 

£ 
6,969 

19,314 

46,046 
91,806 
121,340 
222,075 
246,751 

56,551 
56,923 
60,060 

32,788 

lOf  Years'  Total 

3,751,877 

3,702,554 

832,692 

95,158 

56,103 

983,953 

Note.— Dry  Soap  and  Preserves  transferred  to  Irlam 
Dried  Sweets  transferred  to  Silvertown, 
Drugs  and  Sundries  transferred  to  Pelaw 


236 


S^\rEETS,    AND    JELLIES    ^WORKS. 

a  separate  Account. 


Pkbiod.         Ended. 


2i  Years, 

January,     1876 

s        „ 

December,  1880 

s 

1885 

s 

1890 

s        „ 

1895 

s 

1900 

5 

1905 

5 

1910 

Year, 

1911 

„    (53wks) 

1912 

1913 

Half  Year,  June,       1914 


40f  Years'  Total 


EZFENSSS. 


Bate  om  Pbodugtiom. 


Per  cent.         Per  £. 


£  s.     d. 

23  14    2i 

22  3  111 

21  16    2^ 

25  8    31 
21  10  111 

27  7    8 

28  1    4| 

26  14  111 

27  12    Oi 
27    5  111 

30  10    4 

31  4     li 


11    5i 


s.  d. 

4  8i 

4  Si 

4  4i 

5  Oi 

4  Si 

5  6g 

5  4} 

5  6i 

5  5i 

6  li 

6  2S 


Net  Profit. 


Amoont. 


£ 
955 


4,649 
7,987 
1,027 


1  Oi 
1  5J 
0    Ig 

24,157  1    Oi 

I 

57,382       '     1    5i 

I 

80,280  1 


21,042 


260,57« 


Bate 
per  £ 
on  Sap- 
plies. 


B.    d. 

0    7§ 


2    0| 


13,237       ;     1    2| 
15,802      I     1    6§ 

10,558       ■     1  113 


Stocks 
at  end. 


4i| 


£ 
1,538 

1,798 

3,534 
12,712 
28,905 
14,018 
14,631 

9,907 

15,516 
10,192 
11,313 

11,177 


and  Middleton  respectively,  September,  1896. 

December,  1906. 

and  Silvertown  respectively,  December,  1912. 


287 


MIDDLETON    PBESEBVE,    PEEL, 

From 


Period.            Ended. 

Net 
Supplies. 

Produc- 
tion. 

Expenses. 

Wages  & 
Sundry. 

Deprecia- 
tion. 

Interest.      Total. 

I 

4J  Years,      December,    1900 

S         „                  „              1905 

5         „                  „              1910 

Year,                   „            1911 

„    (53  weeks)    „             1912 

1913 

Half  Year,    June,           1914 

£ 

608,218 

1,214,080 

1,547,884 

404,163 
420,339 
449,294 

223,640 

639,903 
1,229,847 
1,572,759 

400,893 

477,243 
424,899 

188,314 

£ 

82,018 

134,015 

205,858 

53.887 
57,208 
61,483 

33,969 

£ 
12,740 
17,728 
29,761 

9,897 
9,514 
9,514 

4,757 

£ 
11,254 
20,507 
31,125 

8,174 

8,886 
8.644 

3,963 

£ 
106,012 
172,250 
266,739 

71,458 
75,608 
79.641 

42,689 

18  Years'  Total    

4,867,618 

4,933,358 

628,433 

93,411 

92,563    '    814,397 

IBLAM    SOAP,    CANDLE,    LARD, 

From 


Period. 


Ended. 


20  Weeks,  December,  1895. 


S  Years, 

s      „ 

3        „ 

Year, 

„    (53  wks) 


1900. 
1905. 


Net 
Supplies. 


1,875,031 


1910 j  3,604,506 


1911. 
1912. 
1913. 


Half  Year,  June,        1914 

18  Years  and  11  Mo.  Total 


•620,965 
658,186 
770,689 

412,105 


8,876,739 


Produc- 
tion. 


904.415 
1,852,601 


610,157 
647,350 
752,602 

405,545 


8,596,560 


Expenses. 


''a^"   Pt?->-|  interest. 
Sundry. 


tion. 


Total. 


£ 
3,597 

104,511 
201,734 
812,980 

71,658 
84,072 
91,859 

53,556 


£ 
807 

19,765 
29,576 

44,878 


6,380 
6,975 

3,681 


£ 


15,343 
24,813 
30,961 


5,451 
5,635 


£ 
5,060 

139,619 
256,123 
388.819 

82,900 

96,903 

104,869 


3,111         60.348 


923,967        118,342         90,832     1,133,141 


NOTE.— Durham  Soap  Works  business  commenced  January,  1873 ;  sold  March,  1896, 
when  trade  was  transferred  to  Irlam. 


238 


AND    PICKLE    ^W^OBKS    TBADE. 

commencement. 


Expenses. 

1        . 

PipRTftn                Ekdkd. 

Ratr  on  Pbo- 

DUCTION.               1 

Net  Profit. 

Stocks 
at  end. 

Per  cent. 

PerJB. 

Amount. 

Rate 

per  £  on 
Sapplies. 

(i  Years,      December,  1900 

5         ,,                   „           1905 

£  8.    d. 
16  11    4 
14    0    Ig 

B.  d. 
8  8i 
2     9n 

£ 
24,828 
35,398 
76,277 

15,871 

1     11,994 

13.290 

9,962 

8.  d. 

0    9^ 
0    6i 

66,044 
99.938 

8         ..                   ..            1910 

16  19    2|       3    43 

0  111    j      187,351 

Year,                    „           1911 

„    (53  weeks)    „           1912 

„                          „           1918 

Half  Year,    June,          1914 

17  16    5i 
15  16  10| 

18  15    3| 

22  13    4| 

3  6! 
3    2 

3  9 

4  6i 

0    91           180,098 
0    6|    j      181,949 
0    7             165,158 

0  lOf           134,773 

18  Years'  Total 

'     16  10    li 

3    3i 

186,615 

0    9i      : 

AND     STABCH    TATORKS    TRADE. 


commencement. 


Expenses. 

Net  Profit. 

Period.             Ended. 

Rate  on  Pboduotion. 

Stocks 
at 

Per  cent. 

Per^e. 

Amount. 

Rate 
per  £  on 
Supplies. 

end. 

(a) 

20  Weeks.  December.  1895     

£   s.     d. 
15  12    5| 

15    8    8g 
13  16    6 
11    9    31 

13  11    8| 

14  16    3i 
13  17    41 

14 17  n 

B.    d. 
3    11 

8    1 

2    9i 
2    3i 

2    8i 
2  llj 
2    9^ 

2  llg 

£ 
869 

40,819 
83,518 
136,168 

16,287 
13,905 
17,184 

10,116 

s.    d. 
0    3^ 

0  lOi 

0  log 

0    9 

0    6J 
0    5 
0    5i 

0    5i 

£ 
30,825 

5  Years                           1900        

74,059 

5                          ..           1905  

125,435 

5    „                    „           1910.' 

83,485 

Year                    .           1911        

91,884 

„     (53wks)    „           1912 

1913 

106,580 
132,514 

Half  Year,  June,         1914 

107,777 

18  Years  and  11  Months'  Total. . 

18    3    U 

2    7i 

317,816 

0    8i 

•• 

(a)  Includes  Sydney  Works. 


239 


SILVEBTO^WN    SOAP 

From 


Period.           Ended. 

Net 
Supplies. 

Produc- 
tion. 

Expenses. 

'.SI" 

Sundry. 

Deprecia- 
tion. 

Interest. 

Total. 

2  Years  &  29  Wks.,  Dec,  1910  . . 

Year,                         „     1911  . . 

„       (53  weeks)         „     1912  . . 

,.      1913  . . 

Half  Year,             June,  1914  . . 

£ 
370,607 

192,009 
195,916 
234,713 

113,392 

£ 

381,553 

199,467 
191,147 
229,485 

108,256 

\     36,522 

16,924 
20,647 
24,778 

13,577 

£ 

8,766 

3.688 
3,463 
3,558 

1,777 

£ 
7,278 

2,770 
2,585 
2,242 

1,219 

£ 
52,566 

23,282 
26,695 
30,578 

16,573 

6  Years  and  3  Weeks'  Total 

1,106,637 

1,109,908 

112,448 

21,152 

16,094 

149,694 

DUNSTON  SOAP 

From 


Period.           Ended. 

Net 
Supplies. 

Pro- 
duction. 

Expenses. 

!    Wages 

1       and 
Sundry. 

Deprecia- 
tion. 

Interest. 

Total. 

1  Year  &  45  Wks.,  Dec,  1910  . . 

Year,                         „     1911  . . 

„       (53  weeks)         „     1912  . . 

„     1913.. 

Half  Year,              June,  1914  . . 

£ 
205,444 

156,245 
155,498 
193,022 

86.050 

£ 
212,981 

158,706 
154,130 
188,720 

87,328 

!           ^ 
18,784 

13,566 
14,402 
22,236 

10,646 

£ 
4,631 

2,567 
2,342 
2,614 

1,375 

£ 
3,771 

1,802 
1,806 
1,890 

1,079 

£ 
27,186 

17,925 
18,550 
26,740 

13,100 

S  Years  and  19  Weeks'  Total 

796,259 

801,865 

79,634 

13,519 

10,343 

103,501 

240 


^WOBKS    TRADE. 

commencement. 


EZPBNSBS. 

'Kr__  t 

Period.            Ended. 

Rate  on  Production. 

Stocks 
at 

Percent 

PerjB. 

Amount. 

Rate 
per  £  on 
Supplies. 

end. 

£    s.    d. 

s.   d.     1 

£ 

s.d. 

£ 

2  Years  &  29  Weeks,  Dec,  1910 

18  15    61 

2    9 

17,176 

0  11 

\       34,547 

Year,                             „     1911 

11  13    5| 

2    4 

5,407 

0    Gi 

'        42,750 

„        (53  weeks)           „     1912 

13  19    8| 

2    9i 

6,157 

0    71 

33,983 

„                                    „      1913 

18    6    65 

2    7i 

10,881 

Olli 

j       44,640 

Half  Year,                June,  1914  

15    6    2| 

3    Of 

'       5,024 

oiog 

27,047 

6  Years  and  3  Weeks' Total   .... 

13    9    8i 

2    8i 

44,645 

0    91 

" 

ATV^OBKS   TRADE. 

commencement. 


Expenses. 

Net  Profit. 

Pekiod.              Ended. 

Rate  on  Production. 

Stocks 
at 

Per  cent. 

Per£. 

Amount. 

Rate 
per  £  on 
Supplies. 

end. 

£   s.     d. 

8.    d. 

£ 

s.    d. 

£ 

1  Year  &  iS  Weeks,  December,  1910 

12  15    31 

2    61 

14,376 

1    41 

23,236 

Year,                                „          1911.... 

11    6  m 

2    3 

8,593 

1     IJ 

21,223 

(53  weeks)             „           1912.... 

12    0    ^ 

2    4i 

8,022 

1   c« 

25,713 

1913.... 

14    3    4i 

2  10 

11,209 

1   15 

32,6.57 

1    - 

Half  Year,                June,         1914  .... 

15    0    Oi 

3    0 

4,785 

1  li 

28,118 

5  Years  and  19  Weeks'  Total. . . . 

12  18    IJ 

2    6i 

46,985 

1    2J 

i      ■■ 

241 


DUNSTON    FLOUB 

•  From 


Expenses. 

Net 
Supplies. 

Produc- 
tion. 

Period.                      Ended. 

Wages  & 
Sundry. 

Deprecia- 
tion. 

Interest. 

Total. 

£ 

£ 

£ 

£ 

£ 

£ 

4  Years  &  36  Weeks,  Dec,  1895  .... 

1,521,168 

1,502,636 

86,159 

29,715 

23,219 

139,098 

5     „                              „    1900  .... 

2,772,171 

2,732,924 

139,138 

33,810 

19,647 

192,596 

S      „                                  „    1905  .... 

3,330,419 

3,252,957 

163,484 

81,470 

22,002 

'  216,956 

5      „                                  „    1910  .... 

3,927,284 

3,877,005 

187,590 

46,304 

46,879 

280,778 

Year,                             „    1911  .... 

765,052 

769,472 

46,871 

9,037 

7,639 

63,597 

„        (53  weeks)            „    1912  .... 

854,824 

851,306 

43,029 

9,133 

8,488 

60,650 

„    1913  .... 

909,128 

904,821 

45,166 

9,135 

7,863 

62,165 

Half  Year,                June,  1914  .... 

420,815 

380,797 

25,158 

4,568 

4,405 

34,126 

23  Years  &  10  Weeks'  Total. . 

14,500,861 

14,271,918 

736,590 

173,223 

140,142 

1,049,955 

242 


MILL    TRADE. 

commencement. 


Expenses. 

Rate  on  Pro- 
duction. 

Net  Pkofit. 

Net  Loss. 

Stocks 

Pebiod.                   Ended. 

Rate 

Rate 

at 
end. 

Per  cent. 

Perje. 

Amo'nt. 

perje 
on  Sup- 
plies. 

Amo'nt. 

per  £ 

on  Sup- 
plies. 

£   s.    d. 

s.  d. 

£ 

s.  d. 

£ 

s.  d. 

£ 

i  Years  &  36  Weeks,  Dec,  1895. .. . 

9    6    li 

110* 

•• 

•• 

81,884 

0    5 

71,974 

3      „                                ..    1900.... 

7    0  Hi 

1  H 

20,952 

0  n 

•  • 

.. 

54,476 

8      „                                „    1905.... 

6  13    4| 

1    4 

84,917 

0    2^ 

•• 

131,541 

5      „                                „    1910.... 

7    4  10 

1    51 

3«,5.«r7 

0    IJ 

•• 

105340 

Year,                            ,.    1911.... 

8    5    3^ 

1    71 

11,549 

0    Si 

.. 

164,493 

„        (53  weeks)           „    1912.... 

7    2    5i 

1    5 

11,107 

0    3 

•• 

•• 

182,376 

..    1913     .. 

6  17    4i 

1    41 

8,352 

0    2i 

182,179 

Half  Year,               June,  1914.... 

8  19    2| 

1    H 

3,163 

0    If 

151,898 

23  Years  &  10  Weeks'  Total. . 

7    7    If 

1    51 

122,577 

•• 

31,884 

••' 

] 

Jess  Loss  . . 
Jeaves  Net 

81,884 

•• 

Profit . . 

1 

90,693 

0    li 

•• 

•• 

248 


SILVERTO^VN    FLOUR 

From 


Net 
Supplies. 

Produc- 
tion. 

Expenses. 

Period.            Ended. 

Wages  & 
Sundry. 

Depre- 
ciation. 

Interest. 

Total. 

Half  Year,  December,  1900 

S  Years,               „        1905 

.5      „                     „         1910 

Year,                   „         1911 

„    (53  weeks)     „          1912 

1913 

Half  Year,  June,         19]  4 

£ 
62,476 

1,802,999 

2,809,309 

466,374 
548,720 
572,628 

310,093 

£ 
61,569 

1,771,744 

2,760,514 

417,180 
548,723 
564,570 

295,884 

£ 
5,524 

92,095 

117,596 

23,396 
26,126 
25.337 

12,984 

£ 
1,804 

25,371 

39,474 

8,109 
7,680 
7,731 

1,794 

£ 
1,118 

17,720 

30,427 

4,939 
5,155 
4,752 

2,397 

£ 

8,446 

135,186 
187,497 

36,444 
38,961 
37,820 

17,175 

14  Years'  Total   

6,572,599 

6,420,184 

303,058 

91,963 

66,508 

461,529 

MANCHESTER    SUN    FLOUR 

From 


Net 
Supplies. 

Produc- 
tion. 

Expenses. 

Period.            Ended. 

Wages  & 
Sundry. 

Deprecia- 
tion. 

1 
Interest.      Total. 

4  Years  &  34  Weeks,  Dec,  1910  .... 

Year,                            „    1911  .... 

„         (53  weeks)          „    1912  .... 

„    1913  .... 

Half  Year,                June,  1914  .... 

£ 
3,213,133 

914,196 
1,073,127 
1,047,636 

570,053 

£ 
3,141,508 

894,453 
1,038,930 
1,023,552 

571,371 

£ 
106,557 

34,715 
40,077 
47,164 

24,361 

£ 
33,720 

10,099 
10,102 
10,102 

6,130 

£ 
28,189 

6,873 
5,670 
4,993 

8,769 

£ 
168,466 

51,687 
55,849 
62,259 

34,260 

8  Years  and  8  Weeks'  Total 

6,818,145 

6,669,814 

252,874 

70,153 

49,494 

372,521 

244 


MILL    TBADE. 

commencement. 


Expenses. 

BEStTLT  or  WORKINO. 

' 

Bate  on  Pboduction. 

Per  cent.          Per  £. 

\ 

1 

Pekiod.            Ended. 

Profit. 

Loss. 

Bate 
per  £  on 

Supplies. 

stocks 
at  end. 

Half  Year,  December,  1900  .... 

£     8.     d. 
13  14    4^ 

8.    d. 
2    8i 

£ 

£ 
4,381 

8.    d. 
1    4i 

£ 
18,538 

5  Years,              „          1905  ....| 

7  12    7J 

1     6i 

10,962 

.. 

0    li 

81,712 

5     „                    „          1910  .... 

6  15  10 

1    4i 

•• 

24,389 

0    2 

52,189 

Year,                  „         1911  .... 

8  14    8i 

1    8i 

6,353 

.. 

0    3i 

42,282 

„    (53  weeks)  „           1912  .... 

7    2    0 

1    5 

2432 

.. 

0    Oi 

96,680 

1913.... 

6  13  111 

1     4 

•• 

6,510 

0    21 

106,508 

1 

Half  Year,  June,          1914  .... 

5  16    1 

I     li 

IfiTJ 

.. 

0    li 

1     S2.118 

14  Years'  Total 

7    3    91 

1    6i 

■■ 

14,156 

0    Oi 

AND    PROVENDEB    MILL    TBADE. 

commencement. 


Pekiod. 


Ended. 


4  Years  ft  34  Weeks,  December,  1910 


Year, 


(53  weeks) 


1911 
1912 
1913 


Half  Year,                 June,           1914 
8  Years  ft  8  Weeks'  Total 


Expenses. 

Net  Besiilt. 

Bate  on  Production. 

Stocks 
at  end. 

Per  cent. 

i 

Per  £.     '■ 

\ 

Profit, 

Bate  per  £ 

on 
Supplies. 

£    s.    d. 

s.    d. 

£ 

s.    d. 

£ 

5    7    3 

1    Of 

15,507 

0  n 

63,394 

6  15    6i 

1    If 

17,562 

0    4i 

60.784 

5    7    6i 

1    OJ    1 

25,959 

0    5S 

23,861 

6    1    71 

1     2i 

21,248 

0    4| 

61,171 

5  19  11 
5  11     81 

1    2| 

1    18 

6.880 

0    2i 

73,679 

87,156 

0    3 

•• 

245 


OLDHAM    STAB    FLOUR 

From 


Expenses. 


Period. 


Ended. 


Net         Produc- 
S  applies.       tion. 


US^f'^T^^^'      Total. 


4  Years  &  38  Weeks,  Dec,  1910  ..:  1,728,272  |  1,712,548  \     69,450 


£ 
18,880 


1913 


£  £ 

16,189     i    104,519 


Year,  December,  1911 367,265        356,691         18,413  4,089    ,      3,017 

„  „  1912  (53  weeks).. I     416,130,     411,926  1      18,314    i       4,086     !      2,673 


95.519 
25,022 


395,555  '      20,981  3,978  2,809     I     27,S 


Half  Year,  June,  1914 193,653  ,     188,351  1 1       9,974 


1,070  13,033 


8  Years  and  12  Weeks' Total   3,100,988  ,  3,055,071    ,    137,132         32,971         25,258     j    195,361 

NOTE.— Rochdale  Flour  Mill  acquired  January,  1906;  closed  'June,  1907,  when  trade 
was  transferred  to  Oldham  Star  Mill. 


AVONMOUTH    FLOUB    AND 

From 


Net 
Supplies. 

Produc- 
tion. 

!                            Expenses. 

Period.           Ended. 

1  Wages  & 
i    Sundry. 

1 

Deprecia- 
tion. 

Interest. 

Total. 

34  Weeks,  December,  1910 

Year,  December,  1911    

„              „          1912  (53  weeks)  .. 
1913 

£ 
232,241 

427,217 
522,403 
556,420 

281,994 

£ 
227,688 

393,606 
470,742 
499,220 

247,423 

1       £ 

1       9,126 

15,462 
17,585 
17,487 

8,525 

£ 
2,953 

5,028 
5,156 
5,158 

2,648 

£ 
4,369 

6.055 
5,873 
6,176 

2,954 

£ 
16,448 

26,545 
28,614 
28,821 

Half  Year,  June,  1914  

14,127 

4  Years  and  8  Weeks'  Total. . 

2,020,275 

1,838,679 

68,185 

20,943 

25,427 

114,555 

246 


MILL    TRADE. 

commencement. 


Expenses. 

Net  Result. 

Rate  on  Pboduction. 
Per  cent.         Per  £. 

Stocks 
at  end. 

Period.                      Ended. 

Profit. 

Rateperje 

on 
Supplies. 

£    8.  d. 

8. 

d. 

£ 

s. 

d. 

£ 

4  Years  &  38  Weeks,  Dec,  1910   

6    2    Of 

1 

2i 

12,061 

0 

n 

31.196 

Tear,  December,  1911 

7    3    1. 

1 

5S 

4.073 

0 

21 

62,038 

„               „           1912  (53  weeks)    

6    1    53 

1 

2i 

8,115 

0 

*i 

25,881 

1913          

6  17  10| 

1 

4h 

3,986 

0 

^ 

28,077 

Half  Year,  June,  1914    

6  IS    4| 

1 

ii 

1,737 

0 

2| 

16,664 

8  Years*  12  We«ks'  Total 

6    7    5| 

1 

H 

29,972 

0 

2i    \ 

•• 

PROVENDEB    MILL    TRADE. 


commencement. 


Pebiod. 


Ended. 


34  Weeks,  December,  1910    

Year,  Dec,  1911 

„          „     1912  (53  weeks)  . . . . 
„  ,.     1913 

Half  Year,  June,  1914 

4  Years  &  8  Weeks'  Total. 


Expenses.              ' 

Ni 

ET  Result. 

Rate  on  Production. 

Stocks 
at  end. 

Per  cent.     {    Per  £. 

Profit. 

Rateperje  . 
Loss.           on 

1  Supplies. 

£   s.    d.    '     8.    d. 
7    4    5|    j      1    5i 

£ 

£ 
11,438 

s.    d.    W 

0  111      ;! 

£ 
119,915 

6  14  lOi 

IH 

6,522 

0  ss  i 

155,961 

6    1    6| 

1   3} 

9,133 

.. 

0    4i 

1! 

137,753 

5  15    5§ 

1   IS 

3,465 

..     '     0   11    i' 

147,&42 

5  14  21  ;    1  1| 

2,288 

..     I     0   IJ 

97,998 

6    4    7| 

1    21     1 

9,970 

■■ 

0    1|    1 

247 


MANCHESTER    TOBACCO 

From 


Net 
Supplies. 

Expenses. 

Period.                   Ended. 

Wages  and 
Sundry. 

Deprecia- 
tion. 

Interest. 

Total. 

£ 

£ 

£ 

£ 

£ 

2  Tears  and  28^  Weeks,  Dec,  1900  

436,841 

32,199 

1,944 

3,069 

87,212 

S      „                                   ,,      1905  

1,846,976 

1      111,441 

7,380 

11,907 

130,728 

9      «                                       »      1910 

2,900,605 

159,075 

12,544 

19,862 

191,481 

Year,                                  „     1911  

702,611 

37,055 

2,888 

4,183 

44,126 

„      (53  weeks)                  „      1912 

730,327 

89,829 

2,924 

4,689 

47,442 

1913 

726,091 

41,166 

2,955 

4,692 

48,813 

Half  Year,                       June,  1914  

366,896 

i       21,310 

1,512 

2,680 

25,502 

16  Years  and  2^  Weeks'  Total. . . . 

7,710,347 

i 

442,075 

32,147 

51,082 

525,804 

^SATEST   HABTLEPOOL   LABD   BEEINEBY 

From- 


Net 
Supplies. 

Expenses. 

Period.               Ended. 

Wages  and 
Sundry. 

Deprecia- 
tion. 

Interest.          Total. 

i 

«  Years  and  37  Wks.,  Dec,  1900  .... 

8     „                              „     1905  ... . 
5      „                               „      1910.... 

Year,                            „     1911  .... 

„      (53  weeks)            „      1912  .... 

„      1913.... 

Half  Year,               June,  1914  .... 

£ 
374,595 

652,804 
626,531 

109,527 
127,460 
140,148 

68,497 

£ 
12,475 

16,279 
14,610 

2,846 
3,038 

2,795 

1 

1,378 

£ 
8,690 

4,588 
5,338 

1,082 
845 

378 

189 

8,298 

8,708 
3,785 

767 
560 

457 
276 

£ 
19,463 

24,575 
23,733 

4,695 
4,443 
3,630 

1,843 

18  Years  and  11  Weeks'  Total. . 

2,099,562 

53,421 

16,110 

12,851      I       82,382 

Note. — Egg  Department  closed  June,  1904. 


248 


FACTOBY    TBABE. 

commenceTnent. 


Period. 


Ended. 


2  Years  and  28^  Weeks,  December,  1900 


s     „ 

1906 

5      „ 

1910 

Year, 

1911 

„      (53  weeks) 

1912 

» 

1913 

Half  Year,  June, 

16  Years  and  2i  Weeks'  Total 


1914 


Net  Pbofit. 

Amount. 

Bate 
per  £  on 
Supplies. 

£ 

s.    d. 

6,488 

0    8i 

35^26 

0   4§    ; 

14,121 

0   IS 

2,915 

0  og 

3,691 

0   ij 

1,024 

0    Oi 

136 

•• 

63,701 

0    li 

stocks 
at  end. 


£ 

44,502 

77,749 
75,331 

93,935 
108.889 
128,457 

127,530 


AND    EGG    ^WABEHOUSE    TBABE. 

commenceinent. 


Period. 


Ended. 


i  Years  and  37  Weeks,  December,  1900 


S  „ 
5  „ 
Year, 

„      (53  weeks) 

»» 
Half  Year, 


June, 


1905 
1910 

1911 
1912 
1913 

1914 


18  Years  and  11  Weeks'  Total 


Net  Profit. 


Amount. 


£ 
7,496 

10,418 
11,389 

293 
4,595 
4,330 


38,907 


I      Stocks 

Rate  at  end. 

per  je  on 

Supplies. 


s.  d. 

0  4i 

0  3| 

0  4i      I 

0  Of       , 

0  81       I 

0  7i      l| 

0  li     ii 


14,053 

6,279 
11,960 

8,655 

4,031 

15,843 


0    41 


249 


LONGSIGHT    PRINTING 

From 


Period.  Ended. 


47  Weeks,  December,  1895. 

8  Tears,  „  1900. 

5       „  „  1905. 

5        „  „  1910. 

Year,  „  1911. 

„     (53wks)    „  1912. 

„  „  1913. 

Half  Year,  June,  1914. 


Net 
Supplies. 


£ 

7,512 

177,885 
429,902 
641,046 

158,844 
160,300 
175,533 

94,927 


19  Years  and  5  Months'  Total |  1,845,949 


Expenses. 


Wages  & 
Sundry. 


79,927 
187,020 
285,554 

69,928 
75,379 
78,984 

43,504 


823,637 


Deprecia- 
tion. 


10,957 
21,830 
30,076 

6,290 
6,303 
6,344 

2,724 


85,115 


Interest. 


£ 
415 

5,531 
11,188 
14,869 

2,943 
2,789 
2,561 

1,325 


41,641 


Total. 


£ 

4,397 

96,415 
220,038 
330,519 

79,161 
84,471 
87,839 

47,553 


950,393 


LEICESTER  PRINTING 

From 


Net 
Supplies. 

Expenses. 

Period.                    Ended. 

Wages 

and 
Sundry. 

Deprecia- 
tion. 

Interest. 

Total. 

8  Year  &  39  Wee*  s,  December,  1910    

Year,                                „          1911    

„        (53wks;                   „            1912    

1913    

Half  Year,                June,          1914    

£ 
27,412 

21,041 
22,977 
27.549 

15,878 

£ 
10,296 

8,284 
8,750 
11,136 

6,278 

£ 
1,282 

758 
639 
684 

684 

£ 
724 

409 
355 
352 

389     . 

£ 
12,302 

9,451 
9,744 
12,172 

7,351 

5^  Years'  Total 

114,857 

44,744 

4,047 

2,229 

51,020 

260 


^VORKS    TRADE, 

commencement. 


Period.  Ended. 


47  Weeks,  December,  1895 

S  Tears,  „  1900 

S       „  „  1905 

5       „  „  1910 

Year,  „  1911 

„      (53wks)     „  1912 

1913 

Half  Year,  June,  1914 

19  Years  and  5  Months'  Total 


Nbt  PBoriT. 


Amount. 


£ 

475 

6,798 
13,369 
18,952 


Rate 
per  £  on 
Supplies. 


s.    d. 
1    31 

0    9i 

0    71 

I 
0    7 


Stocks 
at  end. 


4,836  j  0  7i 
1,948  I  0  21 
4,921 


1,137 


0    61 

0    2J 


52,431 


0    ^ 


1,089 

11,818 
18,695 


32,187 
34,956 

32,941 


ViTORKS   TRADE. 

commencement. 


Period. 


Ended. 


1  Year  &  39  Weeks,  December,  1910 


Year, 


(53  wks) 


Half  Year, 


June, 


1911 
1912 
1913 

1914 


5i  Years'  Total. 


Net  Profit. 


I      Bate 
Amount. !  per  £  on 
Supplies. 


£ 
967 

570 


621 

313 


,910 


s.  d. 

0  8i 

0  6i 

1  3 
0  5g 

0  41 


Stocks 
at 
end. 


0    8k 


£ 
2,826 

3,346 
4,621 
4,909 

5,509 


251 


PELA'W   PBINTING 

Since  publishing  a  separate 


Period.       Ended. 


2  Years,  December,  1905 

5      „  „  1910 

Year,  „        1911 

„     (53wks)     „  1912 

„  „  1913 

Half  Year,  June,      1914 
lOJ  Years'  Total  . . 


Net 
Supplies. 

EXPE 

NSES. 

Wages  & 
Sundry. 

Deprecia- 
tion. 

Interest. 

Total. 

£ 

£ 

£ 

£ 

£ 

15,530 

6,634 

1,143 

700 

8,477 

62,735 

27,508 

4,044 

1,862 

33,414 

21,390 

8,535 

1,458 

624 

10,617 

21,411 

9,214 

1,415 

600 

11,229 

26,785 

10,746 

1,375 

546 

12.667 

13,899 

6,203 

699 

296 

7,198 

161,750 

68,840 

10,184 

4,628 

83,602 

LITTLEBOBOUGH    FLANNEL 

From 


Net 
Supplies. 

Expenses. 

Period.               Ended. 

Wages  & 
Sundry. 

Deprecia- 
tion. 

Interest. 

Total. 

2|  Years,      December,  1900       .             ... 

£ 
56,517 

100,878 

118,709 

25,495 
26,417 
25,756 

9,722 

£ 
12,093 

28,098 

29,959 

6,141 
6,271 
6,262 

3,244 

£ 
1,515 

2,287 

1,900 

380 
380 
380 

190 

£ 
952 

2,547 

2,611 

528 
517 
510 

300 

£ 
14,560 

5         „                   „           1905...          

32,932 

S         „                   „           1910 

34,470 

Year,                    „          1911 

7,049 

„     (53wks)        „           1912 

„                                      1913 

7,168 
7,152 

Half  Year,    June,          1914 '. 

3.734 

16J  Years'  Total 

863,494 

92,068 

7,082 

7,965 

107,066 

252 


W^OBKS    TRADE. 

Account  in  Balance  Sheet. 


Period.  Enped. 


2  Tears,   December,  1905 

5       „  „         1910 

Year,  „        1911 

„    (53wks)      „         1912 
„  „  1913 

Half  Tear,  June,         1914 
10^  Tears'  Total . . . 


Net  Profit. 


Amonnt. 


Rate  per  £ 
on  Supplies. 


1,208 


481 

790 


3,722 


B.  d. 

0  Si 

0  4i 

0  71 

0  61 

0  7 

0  Of 


0    5* 


Stocks 
at  end. 


£ 

315 

3,150 

3,147 
3,119 
3392 

4,313 


MILL    TRADE. 

commencement. 


Period. 


Ended. 


23  Tears,      December,  1900 
5  „  „  1905 

5  „  „  1910 

Tear,  „  1911 

„      (53  weeks)  „  1912 

1913 

Half  Tear,   June,           1914 
16J  Tears' Total    


Net  Profit. 


Amount. 


£ 
18 

400 

4,730 


1,739 
870 


57 


8,805 


Bate 
per  £  on 
Supplies. 


s.  d. 

0  Oi 

0  9i 

0  91 

1  3| 
0  8 

0  If 


0    5| 


Stocks 
at  end. 


£ 

7,992 

7,693 
10,089 

10,158 
11,215 
12,911 

20,178 


868 


HUTH^VAITE   HOSIERY 

From 


Net 
Supplies. 

Expenses. 

Period.           Ended. 

Wages  and 
Sundry. 

Depre- 
ciation. 

Interest. 

Total. 

2h  Years,    December,  1905  

£ 
168,315 

365,805 

107,290 
126,958 
158,318 

72,296 

£ 

44,581 

102,696 

24,358 
30,816 
35,805 

19,512 

£ 
5,120 

11,996 

2,559 
2,920 
3.197 

1,689 

£ 
4,559 

12,364 

2,762 
2,952 
2,924 

1,581 

£ 
54,260 

127,056 

5         „                  „          1910  

Year,                   „         1911      ... 

29,679 
36.688 

„    (53  weeks)    „          1912  

„                         „          1913  

41,926 

Half  Year,  June,          1914  

22,782 

11  Years'  Total 

998,977 

257,768 

27,481 

27,142 

312,391 

Note.— Business  transferred  from  Leicester  to  Huthwaite  June,  1908. 


DESBOBO'   COBSET 

From 


.     Net 
Supplies. 

Expenses. 

Period.             Ended. 

Wages  and 
Sundry. 

Deprecia- 
tion. 

Interest. 

Total. 

£ 

£ 

£ 

£ 

£ 

Half  Year,  December,  1905 

5,142 

2,286 

56 

131 

2,473 

5  Years,              „         1910 

115,418 

43,433 

5,269 

3,911 

52,613 

Year,                  „         1911 

34,208 

11,237 

1,105 

785 

13,127 

„     (53  weeks)  „          1912 

34,103 

11.840 

1,129 

790 

13,759 

1913 

37,569 

12,187 

1,134 

714 

14,085 

Half  Year,  June,          1914 

23,161 

6,703 

572 

366 

7,641 

9  Years'  Total 

249,601 

87,686 

9,265 

6,697 

103.648 

254 


FACTORY  TRADE. 

commencevtent. 


Nkt  Profit. 

Net  Loss. 

Pbkiod.           Ended. 

Amount. 

Rate 
per  £  on 
Supplies. 

Amount. 

Bate 
per  £  on 
Sapplies. 

stocks 
at  end. 

2k  Tears.      December.  1905    

£ 

255 

s.   d. 
0    Oi 

•• 

0    5i 
0    7g 
0    3| 

0    3 

40,196 

8.   d. 
2    2i 

•• 
.. 

£ 
26,549 

5         „                  „           1910    

Year,                   „          1911    

„    (53  weeks)    „           1912    

1913    

Half  Year,  June,           1914    

11  Years'  Total    

Less  Profit 

2,368 
4,037 
2.498 

930 

49,919 

47,805 

,       55,548 

59,438 

75,254 

10,088 

•• 

40,198 
10,088 

1         •••• 

1 

30,110 

0  n 

I 

! 

FACTORY  TRADE. 

commencement. 


Net  Promt. 

Net  Loss. 

Period.               Ended. 

Amount. 

Bate 
per  £  on  ' 
Supplies. 

Rate 
Amount,    per  £  on 
1  SuppUes. 

Btocks 
at  end. 

Half  Year,  December,  1905 

JB 

1,084 
1,124 
1,163 

1,340 

8.     d. 

0    7i 
0    7S 

0  71 

1  n 

£ 
484 

3,069 

8.  d. 
llOi 

0    61 

£ 
7,558 

11,337 

11,344 

5  Years,              „         1910 

Year,                  „        1911  

„    (53week8)  „         1912 

„                        „         1913  

12,987 
11,525 

Half  Year,  June,          1914 

10,765 

9  Years'  Total  

4,661 
3,553 

" 

3,553 

Leares  Net  Profit 

1,108 

0    1 

1 

•• 

256 


BKOUG-HTON   SHIBT 

Since  publishing  a  separate 


Net 
Supplies. 

Expenses. 

Period.           Ended. 

Wages  and 
Sundry. 

Depre- 
ciation. 

Interest.  \    Total. 

i  Years,  December  1910                    

£ 
316,938 

102,092 
125,477 
140,406 

70,469 

£ 
,       69,831 

21,523 
26,218 

£ 
8,994 

902 

£ 
4,449 

975 

£ 
78,274 

93  inn 

Year,               „         1911  

„     (53  wks)    „          1912 

930 

980         28,128 
1,242          aa.ERR 

„                     „          1913  

30,166 
,       15,712 

1,160 
630 

Half  Year,  June,       1914  

669 

17,011 

7^  Years'  Total 

755,382 

163,450 

7,616 

8,815 

179,381 

BATLEY    ^VSTOOLLEN 

From 


PiTPTnTi              'RiJ-mT'n 

Net 
Supplies. 

Produc- 
tion. 

Expenses. 

Wages  & 
Sundry, 

Deprecia- 
tion. 

Interest. 

Total. 

4  Years,  December,  1890 

5  „                „         1895 

S      „                 „          1900 

3      „                 „          1905 

5      „                 „         1910 

Year,              „         1911..; 

„     (53  wks),,          1912 

,.         1913 

Half  Year,  June,      1914  

£ 
44,326 

95,265 
183,387 
245,026 
256,059 

55,786 
51,384 
59,334 

34,466 

£ 
47,618 

94,954 
183,125 
245,771 
264,100 

57,686 
53,562 
60,905 

31,734 

£ 
20,978 

31,138 
48,641 
71,871 
81,869 

17,959 
17,523 
18,966 

9,673 

£ 
1,124 

?.,9H9 
4,394 
8,374 
8,729 

1,924 
1,924 
1,955 

989 

1,607 

1,990 
2,808 
4,566 
6,201 

. 
1,353 
1,327 
1,260 

663 

£ 
28,704 

35,367 
55,843 
84,811 
96,799 

21,236 
20,774 
22,181 

11,325 

27%  Years' Total 

1,025,033 

1,039,455 

318,618 

31,652 

21,776 

872,040 

256 


FACTORY  TRADE. 

Account  in  Balance  Sheet. 


!       Net  Profit. 

Net  Loss. 

Period.           Ended. 

.  Amount. 

Bate 
per  £  on 
aupplies. 

Amount. 

Rate 
per  jB  on 
SuppUes. 

Stocks 
at  end. 

£ 
4  Years,  December,  1910  

Tear,               „        1911  854 

„     (53wk8)    „         1912 2,537 

„                      „         1913 1,687 

Half  Year,  June,      1914  2,070 

8.   d. 

! 

0  2    : 

0    4| 

0  2i  ; 

0    7      1 

£ 
12 

8.    d. 

£ 
«3,251 

14,684 
26,906 
24,925 

32,636 

7i  Years' Total I     7,148 

i 

12 

■' 

1 

Leaves  Net  Profit 7,136 

0    21 

•■ 

•• 

1 

1 

MILL    TRADE. 

commencement. 


Expenses. 

Peeiod.              Ended. 

Rate  on  Pao- 

DUCTION. 

Net  Profit. 

Stocks 

Per  cent. 

Perje. 

Amount. 

Rate 

per  £  on 
Supplies. 

at  end. 

4    Years,  December,  1890  

£    s.    d. 
49  15    7 

37  4  llj 
30    9  10| 

34  10    li 
36  13    0§ 

36  16    3i 

38  15    8| 
36    8    4i 

35  13    8g 

s.   d. 
9  111 

7    5| 
6    IJ 

6  10| 

7  3i 

7    4i 
7    9 
7    31 

7    11 

£ 
♦6796 

3,089 
7,648 
7,244 
5,946 

1,881 
1,367 
1,301 

1,018 

s.    d. 
3    (^ 

0    71 
0  10 
0    7 
0    5i 

0    8 
0    61 
0    6i 

0    7 

£ 
7,326 

8,139 
10,904 

5        „               „            1895 

S        „               „            1900 

5        „               „            1905  

12,886 

5        „               „            1910 

17,589 

Year,              „           1911 

17,850 
21,614 
23,964 

20,263 

„    (53  wks)  „            1912 

„                    „            1913  

Half  Year,  June,      1914  

27*  Years'  Total 

35  15  10 

7    li 

22,648 

0    5i 

♦Loss. 
267 


BUBY  ^ATEAVING- 

From 


Net 
Supplies. 

Expenses. 

Period.              Ended. 

Wages  and 
Sundry. 

Deprecia- 
tion. 

Interest. 

Total. 

37  Weeks,  December,  1905    

5  Years,             „         1910   

Year,                 „         1911    

„      (58wks)    „           1912    

1913    

Half  Year,  June,         1914    

£ 
27,620 

410,746 

114,534 
111,957 
109,909 

58,588 

1 

7,668 

i       89,517 

21,690 
20,016 
22,015 

11,597 

£ 
1,223 

12,145 

2,577 
2,664 
2,724 

1,362 

£ 
823 

8,177 

1,9«1 
1,641 

1,387 

727 

£ 
9,714 

109,83* 

26,228 

•     24,321 

26,126 

13,686 

9  Years  and  11  Weeks'  Total. . 

833,354 

172,503 

22,695 

14,716 

209,914 

BADCLIFFE    ^WEAVING 

From 


Net 
Supplies. 

1 

Expenses. 

Period.               Ended. 

Wages  and 
Sundry, 

Deprecia- 
tion. 

Interest. 

Total. 

20  Weeks,  December,  1912    

Year,                 „          1913   

Half  Year,  June,         1914   

£ 

981 

17,470 
21,907 

£ 
1,100 

6,779 

4,923 

£ 
120 

947 

652 

£ 
66 

611 

443 

£ 
1,286 

8,337 

6,018 

1  Year  and  46  Weeks'  Total. . 

40,358 

12,802 

1,719 

1,120 

15,641 

258 


SHED   TRADE. 

commencement. 


Nkt  Profit. 

Net  Loss. 

Period,              Ehsed. 

Amount. 

Rate 
per  £  on 
Supplies. 

Amount. 

Rate 
per  £  ou 
Supplies. 

Stocks 
at  end. 

£ 

B.    d. 

'£ 

s.    d. 

£ 

37  Weeks,  December,  1905    

650 

0    61 

6,129 

5  Years,            „         1910    

1,937 

0    li 

,^ 

•• 

81,918 

Year,                „         1911    

188 

0    Oi 

.. 

.. 

34,784 

„      (53wks)   „           1912    

1,156 

0    2g 

•• 

21,458 

1913    

1,473 

0    Si 

•• 

22,537 

Half  Year,  June,         1914   

984 

0    4 

24,126 

9  Years  and  11  Weeks'  Total. . 

5,737 
650 

•• 

650 

•• 

Leaves  Net  Profit 

5,087 

0    If 

SHED    TBADE. 

commencement. 


Net  Profit.           i 

Net  Loss.             I 

1 

Period.               Endkd. 

Amount. 

Rate 
per  £  on 
Supplies.   , 

Amount. 

Rate 

per  £  on    | 
Supplies.   ' 

Stocks 
at  end. 

20  Weeks,  December,  1912 

Year,                 „          1913 

Half  Year,  June,          1914 

£ 

■  • 
40 

1 
1 

i 
0    Oi 

£ 

587 

3,056 

1 

8.      d. 

3    5i 

£ 

4,208 

12,066 
13,971 

1  Year  and  46  Weeks'  Total. . 

40 

•• 

3,643 
40 

•• 

•• 

Less  Profit. 
Leaves  Net 

Loss 

8,603 

1    9i 

259 


LEEDS    CLOTHING 

From 


Period. 


Ended. 


2i  Tears, 

December 

1890 

8       » 

„ 

1895 

s      „ 

„ 

1900 

s       „ 

„ 

1905 

s       „ 

.. 

1910 

Year, 

„ 

1911 

„      (53  wks)  „ 

1912 

»» 

„ 

1913 

Half  Year,  June,         1914. 
25|  Years'  Total  . . . 


Net 
Supplies. 


£ 

10,652 

97,978 

198,863 

251,014 

288,718 

65,239 

71,975 
83,806 

52,450 


1,120,695 


Expenses. 


Wages  & 
Sundry. 


£ 

6,414 
53,712 
109,204 
137,638 
164,333 

39,361 
39,663 
50,154 

28,752 


629,231 


Deprecia- 
tion. 


£ 

149 

903 

2,639 

5,366 

4,978 

1,242 
1,326 
2,323 

1,000 


19,025 


Interest. 


£ 

128 

760 

1,740 

2,938 

3,118 


724 


Total. 


55,375 
113,583 
145,941 
172,424 

41,426 
41,821 
53,760 

30,476 


12,341      !   661,497 


BBOUGHTON    CLOTHING 

Since  publishing  a  separate 


Pbriod. 


Ended. 


Half  Year,  December,  1895. 


S  Years, 

1900 

8       „ 

1905 

8       „                    » 

1910. 

Year,                 „ 

1911 

„      (53  wks)     „ 

1912 

»>                         » 

1913 

Half  Year,  June, 

1914 

19  Years'  Total 

Net 
Supplies. 


7,561 
146,319 
204,787 
215,743 

51,365 
52,441 
58,150 

34,501 


770,867 


Expenses. 


Wages  & 
Sundry. 


£ 

4,920 

96,238 

127,974 


33,019 
35,690 
35,149 
18,713 


483,942 


Deprecia- 
tion. 


£ 

171 
3,671 
5,630 
5,860 

805 
821 
936 

507 


18,401 


Interest. 


Total. 


£ 

106 
2,252 
3,245 
8,124 

630 
704 
730 

436 


11,227 


£ 

5,197 
102,161 
136,849 
141,223 

34,454 
37,215 
36,815 

19,656 


513,570 


260 


FACTORY    TRADE. 

commencement. 


Net  PBoriT. 

Nkt  Loss. 

Pkriod.            Ended. 

Amount. 

Rate 
per  £  on 
Supplies. , 

Amount. 

Rate 
per  je  on 
Supplies. 

Stocks 
at  end. 

2i   Years,   December,   1890 

5          „                „            1895 

5          „                „            1900 

5          „                „            1905 

5          „                „            1910 

Year,                 „           1911 

„     (53wks)     „            1912 

„                       „            1913 

Half  Year,  June,           1914 

£ 

5,663 
13,728 
10,949 

8,528 

1,445 
868 
417 

28 

s.    d. 

1    li 
1    4i 
OlOi    , 
0    7 

0    5| 
0    2i 
0    li 

0    Oh 

£ 
1,125 

B.    d. 
2    li 

£ 

1,316 

5,276 
9,764 
8,860 
9,743 

li,482 
10,860 
15,515 

13,405 

25i  Years'  Total 

41,626 

.. 

1,125 

•• 

•- 

1,125 

" 

1 

1 

Leaves  Net  Profit 

40,501 

0    88 

> 

FACTORY    TRAX)E. 

Account  in  tJie  Balance  Sheet. 


Net  Profit. 


Period.  Ended. 


Rate 


Net  lioss. 


Stocks 
Rate     i!  at  end. 


Amount.  !  per  £  on     Amount,    per  £  on 


Half  Year,  December,  1895 

S  Years,  „  1900 

5      „  „  1905 

5       „  „  1910 

Year,  „  1911 

„      (53wks)     „  1912 

1913 

Half  Year,  June,  1914 

19  Years'  Total    

licss  Loss  

Leaves  Net  Profit 


Supplies. 


Supplies. 


£ 

8.   d. 

£ 

B.   d. 

£ 

254 

0    8 

.. 

1,003 

.. 

,. 

1,677 

0  n 

5,453 

6,636 

0    71 

.. 

.. 

!     3,306 

12,335 

1    If 

■■ 

4,505 

692 

0    3i 

6,597 

.. 

425 

0    li 

8,203 

1,201 

0    4i 

10,326 

203 

0    li 

•• 

8,709 

1 

21,320 

i 
2,102      ! 

2,102      ! 

19,218 

0    5S 

261 


LEICESTER    BOOT    AND 

Since  keeping 


Expenses. 

Period.         Ended. 

Net 
Supplies. 

Produc- 
tion. 

Wages* 
Sundry. 

Deprecia- 
tion. 

Interest. 

Total. 

£ 

£ 

£ 

£ 

£ 

£ 

2J  Years,  January,      1876 

86,565 

97,576 

28,264 

166 

914 

29,344 

S       „       December,  1880 

369,857 

362,821 

127,772 

1,947 

4,987 

184,706 

S        „                 „           1885 

495,321 

493,020 

182,021 

3,369 

5,822 

191,212 

S        „                 „           1890 

771,134 

783,457 

291,291 

5,724 

7,622 

804,637 

S        „                 „           1895 

1,264,427 

1,269,859 

495,923 

19,269 

23,491 

538,683 

S        „                 „           1900 

1,560,965 

1,546,483 

593,400 

27,815 

24,566 

645,781 

a       «              ..         1905 

1,812,821 

1,781,627 

687,119 

25,134 

23,234 

735,487 

5        „                 „           1910 

1,834,286 

1,823,798 

662,930 

14,279 

25,712 

702,921 

Y«ar,               „         1911 

374,882 

363,231 

132,790 

662 

4,514 

137,966 

„  (58  wkB)      „           1912 

428,531 

412,209 

140,555 

494 

4,163 

145,212 

1913 

384,045 

369,697 

128,886 

677 

4,434 

133,997 

Half  Year,  June,        1914 

265,535 

244,520 

77,984 

344 

2,089 

80,367 

401  Years' Total  

9,647,869 

9,543,298 

3,548,885 

99,880 

131,548 

3,780,813 

262 


SHOE    "WORKS    TRADE. 

€.  separate  Account. 


Period. 


■2i  Years,  January,      1876 


December,  1880 


EXPKNSKS. 


Rats  on 
Pboduction. 


Per  cent. 


£    s.    d. 
30    1    5§ 


Perje. 


s.   d. 
6    OJ 


Net  Pbofit. 


Amount. 


Rate 

per  £  on 
Supplies. 


Year, 

„  (53  weeks)     ,, 

Half  Year,  June, 


37  2    6|       7    5 

38  1*^    8    I    7    9 


38  17    8 
42    8    4i 


41  15     li       8    4| 


1895 

1900 

1905 41    5    7i 

1910 38  10    9i 


7  9i 

8  51 


s.   d. 
0    4* 


4,008  0 

0    4i 

35,946  0  Hi 

i 
24,347  0    4i 


7    81 


1911 
1912 
1913 

1914 


37  19    %       7    7J 

35  4    61       7    Oi 

36  4  10|       7    2J 


17    4i  '     6 


40i  Years'  Total 


39  11    9i 


7  11 


27,905 

0  4i 

16,617 

0  2 

40,084 

0  5i 

6,179 

0  ^ 

7,577 

0  41 

3,305 

0  2 

5,991 

0  5i 

181,077 

0  ^ 

263 


HECKMONDWTKE    BOOT,     SHOE, 

From 


Period. 


Ended. 


I      Net 
I  Supplies. 


Boot  and 
Shoe 

Produc- 
tion. 


Half  Year,  December,  1880. 


£ 
3,060 


5  Years, 


Year, 

„  (53  weeks) 


Half  Year,  June, 


1885 !  83,295  ! 

1890 139,007  ! 

1895 229,350  , 

1900 280,601 

1905 342,878 

1910 1  357,796  i 

1911 84,141  ; 

1912 1  105,738 

1913 115,202 


£ 
3,438 

85,197 
117,020 
192,594 
238,078 
307,637 


1914. 


34  Years'  Total 1,800,382     1,645,494 


59,314 


Total  Expenses 
(Including   Currtjng  Department). 


Wages  &  Deprecia-i  t„x^^^„x 
Sundry,  j      tion.       Interest. 


£ 
1,057 


44,539 

78,872 

100,647 

115,788 

115,619 


80,470    I       27,853 
103,790  34,194 

118,305 


20,028 


461 

1,038 

2,389 

2,857 

4,552 

5,408 

8,605  1 

6,104 

10,183 

6,161 

3,416 

4,652 

14 

14 

1,515 

795 


878 
1,152 
2,175 

1,200 


31,960 


Total. 


£ 
1,103 

29,323 
49,785 
88,832 
115,356 
132,132 
123,687 

28,745 
85,360 
42,088 

23,028 


31,655    j    668,434 


BUSHDEN    BOOT    ANI> 

Fro7n- 


Period. 


Ended. 


31  Weeks,  December,  1900 
5  Years, 


Net 
Supplies. 


£ 
11,091 


Year, 

„  (53  weeks) 


1905  1     285,920 

1910 1     544,351 


1911 
1912 
1913 


Half  Year,  June,         1914  

II  Years  and  5  Weeks'  Total. 


88,997 
89,796 
98,015 

57,138 


1,175,318 


Produc- 
tion. 


£ 

11,806 

295,640 
559,668 

76,017 
94,848 


53,686 


1,191,287 


Expenses. 


Wages  & 
Sundry. 


£ 
4,215 

84,225 
153,740 

23,638 
27,777 
27,439 

16,147 


337,181 


Depre- 
ciation. 


£ 

68 

5,191 


2,515 
2,769 


1,412 


24,202 


Interest. 


3,867 
8,656 

2,035 
1,915 
1,907 

976 


19.489 


Total. 


171,835 

28,18& 
32,461 
32,154 

18,535 


264 


AND    CUBRYING    ^WOBKS    TRADE 

commencement. 


EXPSNSKS. 


Boot  4  Shoe  Rats 
ON  Pboductiok. 


Nkt  Profit. 


Net  Loss. 


Period. 


Ended. 


Per  cent,   i  Per  £. 


Half  Year,  December,  1880. 


S  Years, 

S  „ 
5  „ 
S  „ 
5  „ 
S      „ 

Year, 

„  (53  weeks) 


Half  Year,  June, 


1885. 


1900. 
1905. 
1910. 

1911. 
1912. 
1913. 

1914. 


34  Years'  Total 


Rate  ,     Rate 

Amo'nt.  per  £  on  i  Amo'nt.)  i)er  £  on 
Supplies.  -       .. 


£    s. 

d. 

s. 

d. 

32    1 

n 

6 

4i 

34  8 

35  16 
38    2 
40  18 
37  19 
33    6 

l| 

l| 

6 

7 
7 
8 
7 
6 

1 

33    3 
31  17 
33  12 

83 

.1 

6 
6 
6 

31  19 

3* 

6 

35  IS  lOi 

7 

Less  Loss    

Leaves  Net  Profit. 


Stocks 
at  end. 


71 
4,953 
9,416 


6,074         0    4i 


616 

1,364 

467 


406 

0    li 

23,367 

•• 

4,748 

•• 

18,619 


0    21 


SHOE    ^W^OBKS    TRADE. 

comm,en€e7nent. 


Period. 


Ended. 


31  Weeks,  December,  1900 


5  Years, 

1905 

8      „ 

1910 

Year, 

1911 

„  (53  weeks)    „ 

1912 

»»                        >» 

1913 

Half  Year,  June,        1914    

14  Years  and  S  Weeks'  Total. . . 


Expenses. 

1 

Net  Profit. 

Rate  on  Production. 

'     Stocks 

Per  cent. 

Perje. 

Amount. 

Rate 
per  £  on 
Supplies. 

at  end. 

£  a.    d. 

8.    d. 

£ 

s.    d. 

£ 

36  19    71 

7    4| 

964 

1    8| 

2,482 

31  11    0| 

6    31 

22,070 

1    6i 

20.549 

30  14    Og 

6    li 

27,392 

1    0 

38,333 

37    1    71 

7    4i    1 

869 

0    Oi 

25,076 

34    4    5| 

6  10J    , 

716 

0    IS 

28,?;92 

32    5    6 

6    51 

720 

0    1| 

34,376 

34  10    51 

6  101 

331 

0    li    ^ 

33,993 

31  19    4& 

6    4i 

52,562 

0  101 

■• 

265 


BBOUQHTON    CABINET 

From 


Net 
Supplies. 

Expenses. 

Period.                Ended. 

Wages  & 
Sundry. 

Deprecia- 
tion. 

Interest. 

Total. 

31  Years,  December,  1895  

5        „                „              1900  

5        „                „             1905  

5        „                „              1910  

Year,               „            1911  

„  (53  wks)     „              1912  

1913 

Half  Year,  June,         1914  

£ 
22,423 

65,846 
69,879 
141,435 

32,136 
30,442 
36,616 

18,135 

£ 
15,442 

39,217 
36,847 
69,372 

15,806 
15.529 
17,907 

9,233 

£ 
1,216 

2,414 
2,921 
3,608 

690 
80 

86 

45 

£ 
1,326 

2,524 
2,363 
3,257 

741 

480 
476 

264 

£ 

17,984 

44,155 
42,181 
76,237 

17,237 
16,089 

18,469 

9,542 

21|  Years'  Total 

416,912 

219,353 

11,060 

11,481 

241,844 

LEEDS    BRUSH 

Since  publishing  a  separate 


Net 
Supplies. 

Expenses. 

Period.            Ended 

'        ■              I 

"^^^    ""'S:'"       I-*--'-^      Total. 

i                  i 

1 J  Years,  December,  1905 

5        „                  „          1910 

Year,                 „         1911 

„     (53  wks)    „          1912 

1913 

Half  Year,  June,        1914 

£ 
16,814 

109,505 

32,047 
33,498 
36,669 

20,624 

i 

i         7,530 

45,569 

12,880 
13,439 

14,918 

8,618 

: 

£                    £ 
307                  341 

3,272               2,544 

915                  705 
955                 678 
960                  579 

484                 801 

1 

£ 
8,178 

51,385 

14,500 
15,072 
16,457 
9,403 

18  Years' Total 

249,157 

102,954 

6,893              5,148 

114,995 

Note.— Huddersfield  business  transferred  to  Leeds,  June,  1906. 
266 


WOBKS    TRADE. 

commencement. 


Net  Pkofit. 

Net  Loss. 

Period.          Ended. 

Amount. 

Rate 
per  £  on 
Supplies. 

Amount. 

Rate 

per  £  on 
Supplies. 

Stocks 
at  end. 

£ 

s.    d. 

£ 

s.   d. 

£ 

3i  Years,  December,  1895    

•• 

1,305 

1    11 

7,257 

3       „                „           1900    

.. 

5,950 

1    91 

4,452 

S       „                „           1905    

.. 

432 

0    li 

7,584 

5       „                „           1910    

1,547 

0    21 

•• 

9,853 

Year,                „           1911   

201 

0    li 

1       10,917 

„      (53wks)  „           1912    

139 

0    1 

12,133 

1913    

188 

0    IJ 

12,797     • 

Half  Year,  June,        1914    

103 

0    li 

•• 

14,767 

213  Years'  Total 

2,178 

•• 

7,687 
2,178 

•• 

Less  Pro 
Leaves  > 

fit 

ret  Loss 

5,509 

0    3J 

FACTORY    TRADE. 

Account  in  Balance  Sheet. 


Period. 


Ended. 


Net  Profit. 


11  Years,  December,  1905 

5       „  „         1910  

Year,  „        1911  

„     (53wks)     „  1912 

„  „  1913  

Half  Year,  June,         1914  ' 

10  Years'  Total !        6,847 


Amount. 

Rate 
per  £  on 
Supplies. 

£ 

s.  d. 

565 

0    8 

3,907 

0    8i 

1,003 

0    7i 

873 

0    6J 

293 

0    IS 

206 

0    2| 

0    6i 


2d7 


KEIGHLEY 

From 


i 

Expenses. 

Pekiod.           Ended. 

Supplies.   ;  Wages  and 
Sundry. 

Deprecia- 
tion. 

Interest. 

Total. 

2|  Years,  December,  1910 

Year,                 „          1911  

„      (53wks)    „           1912 

1913  

Half  Year,  June,         1914  

r 
£         1            £ 

40,970      i        17.167 

i 
19,712       i         8,283 

23,397       i         9,340 

29,536              11,082 

15,776                5,712 

£ 
1,418 

551 
562 
574 

287 

£ 
1,186 

485 
419 
420 

202 

£ 
19,721 

9,269 
10,321 
12,076 

6,201 

6  Years'  Total 

129,391      ;        51,584 

3,392 

2,612 

57,588 

DUDLEY  BUCKET  AND 

From 


Net 
Supplies. 

Expenses. 

Period.           Ended. 

Wages  and 
Sundry. 

Deprecia- 
tion. 

Interest. 

Total. 

£ 

£ 

£ 

£ 

£ 

2i  Years,  December,   1910 

61,120 

24,717 

1,189 

954 

26,860 

Year,                 „          1911  

25,546 

9,839 

440 

391 

10,670 

„      (53wks)    „           1912  

27,749 

10,402 

440 

378 

11,220 

1913 

31,570 

11,347 

440 

343 

12,130 

Half  Year,  June,          1914 

17,138 

1         6,500 

220 

169 

6,889 

6  Years'  Total 

163,123 

62,805 

2,729 

2,235 

67,769 

268 


% 


IBON^WOBKS  TBADE. 

commencement. 


Period.  Ended. 


^  Years,  December,  1910 

Year,  „  1911 

„      (53wks)    „  1912 

„  „  1913 

Half  Year,  June,         1914 


6  Years'  Total 


Net  PROFrr.         i 

stocks 
at  end. 

Amount. 

Rate  per  £ 
on  Sapplies. 

£    . 

1 

8.    d. 

£ 

89S 

0    5i 

4,699 

805 

0    9f 

4,651 

901 

0    9i 

6,887 

1^98 

1    Oi      ^ 

5,939 

1,604 

2    Of 

6,204 

.'ifiOfi 

0  10? 

FENDER  ^WORKS  TRADE. 

comm^Ticement. 


Period.  Ended. 


Net  Profit. 


A„„„„*    Rate  per  £ 
^"°^*- Ion  Supplies. 


Stocks 
at  end. 


2|  Years,  December,  1910 

£ 
2,149 

683 
1,266 
2,661 

1.137 

s.   d. 
0    81 

«    61 

0  101 

1  7i 

1    3i 

£ 
3,849 

Year,                „          1911  ..                                                   

4,069 

„      (53  wks)    „           1912 

4,736 

„                      „           1913  

4,542 

Half  Year,  June,         1914 

4,454 

6  Years'  Total 

7,786 

0  111 

269 


BIRTLEY   TINPLATE 

From 


Net 
Supplies. 

1 

Expenses. 

1 

Pkeiod.           Ended. 

Wages  & 
Sundry. 

Deprecia- 
tion. 

Interest.      Total. 

2|  Tears,  December,  1910  

£ 
16,745 

7,118 
7,489 
7,336 

3,512 

£ 
8,476 

3,016 
3,073 
3,291 

1,664 

£ 
742 

214 
212 
212 

106 

£        !         £ 
542            9.760 

Year,                „          1911  

172 
151 
134 

68 

3402 
3,436 
3,637 

„      (53  wks)    „           1912  

1913  

Half  Year,  June,         1914  

1.838 

6  Years'  Total 

42,150 

19,520 

1,486 

1,067         22.07.«i 

ROCHDALE    PAINT,    &c., 

From 


Net 
Supplies. 

Expenses. 

Period.              Ended. 

Wages  & 
Sundry. 

Deprecia- 
tion. 

Interest. 

Total. 

42  Weeks,  December,  1912  

£ 
5,156 

9,743 

6,765 

£ 
1,991 

2,759 

1,365 

£ 
264 

386 

£ 
206 

360 

96 

£ 
2,461 

Year.                 .          1913                     .  . . 

3,505 

Half  Year,  June,         1914   

1,461 

2  Years  and  IS  Weeks'  Total 

21,664 

6,115 

650 

662 

7,427 

270 


W^ORKS  TRADE. 

commencement. 


Period.       Ended. 


2|  Years,  December,  1910 

Year,  „  1911 

„      (53wks)    „  1912 

„  „  1913 

Half  Year,  June,        1914 
6  Years'  Total 


Net  Profit. 


Amoimt. 


Rate  per  je ! 
on  Supplies. 


£ 

575 


s.    d. 
0    8i 


2,300 


1    1 


Stocks 
at  end. 


£ 
2,647 


523 

1  5|    : 

2,246 

532 

1    5J 

1,920 

429 

1 

1    2       ! 

1,642 

241 

1    ih 

1,829 

WORKS    TRADE. 

commencement. 


Net  Profit. 

Net  Loss. 

Period.              Ended, 

Amount. 

Rate  per  £ 
on  Supplies. 

Amount. 

Rate  per  £ 
on  Supplies. 

Stocks 
at  end. 

42  Weeks,  December,  1912 

1 
£                 8.     d. 

239              0    8i 

1 

£ 
757 

3,602 

s.    d. 
2  114 

£ 
6,438 

6,369 

4,755 

Year,                „          1913  

Half  Year,  June,          1914  

2  Years  and  15  Weeks'  Total 

I 
239 

4,359 
239 

•• 

lit 

«s  Prnflt. 

Jobs 

Lt 

saves  Net  1 

4,120 

" 

271 


PELA"W    TAILOBINQ,    KEBSEY, 

Since  publishing  a  separate 


Net 
Supplies. 

Expenses. 

Period.       Ended. 

Wages  & 
Sundry. 

Deprecia- 
tion. 

Interest. 

Total. 

2  Years,  December,    1905   

£ 
65,992 

209,084 

46,455 
47,965 
52,342 

28,842 

£ 
20,918 

62,147 

14,198 
14,989 
15,912 

9,223 

£ 
2,371 

5,292 

1,083 
1,036 

988 

501 

£ 
1,398 

3,540 

810 
766 
647 

350 

£ 
24,687 

70,979 

16,091 

5        „                   „          1910    

Year,                  ,          1911          

„     (53  wks)    „          1912       

16,791 
17,547 

10,074 

1913           ... 

Half  Year,  June,        1914    

lOi  Years'  Total 

450,680 

137,387 

11,271 

7,511 

156,169 

peijA"w  cabinet 

Since  publishing  a  separate 


Net 
Supplies. 

Expenses. 

Period.            Ended. 

Wages  and     Deprecia- 
Sundry.            tion. 

Interest. 

Total. 

2  Years,  December,  1905    

9        „    ■              „      1910    

Year,                  „     1911    

£ 
52,223 

152,676 

32,721 
34,204 

46,714 

24,956 

£ 
31,659 

'       78,509 

16,776 
17,604 
22,681 

12,600 

3,912 

.5,339 

123 
123 
107 

70 

£ 
2,434 

4,377 

337 
403 
468 

253 

38,005 

88,225 

17,236 
18,130 

,.    (53  wks)    ..      1912    

»      1913    

Half  Year,  June,      1914    

23,256 
12,923 

lOi  Years'  Total  

343,494 

179,829 

9,674 

8,272 

197,775 

272 


AND    SHIBT    FACTOBIES    TRADE. 

Account  in  Balance  Sheet. 


Net  PBonr. 

1 

I 

Period.       Ended. 

1 
A_-_„+     Rate  per  £ 
^™°^*-  onSupVlies. 

Stocks 
at  end. 

2  Tears.  December.  1905                                    

£ 
725 

8494 

982 

8.     d. 

0    21 

0  n 

0    4? 

£ 
5,606 

a                                   1910                                                 

9,411 

Year,               „        1911 

11,219 

„    (53  wks)    „         1912 

793             0    3Z 

8,112 

1913 

1,459 
532 

0    6i 
0    4S 

9,491 

Half  Tear,  June,      1914 

8,995 

lOi  Tears'  Total 

12,635              0    6i 

^WORKS    TRADE. 

Account  in  Balance  Sheet. 


Period. 


Ended. 


Result  of  Working. 


2  Years,  December,  1905 

5        .,  „         1910 

Tear,  „        1911 

„    (53  wks)    „         1912 
,,  „  1913 

Half  Tear,  June,      1914 
lOi  Tears*  Total  .. 


Profit. 

Loss. 

Rate 
per  £  on 
Supplies. 

Stocks 
at  end. 

£ 

£ 

s. 

d. 

£ 

1,814 

0 

8i 

9,877 

13,117 

1 

7 

1         8,520 

i 

287 

0 

2 

10,480 

121      1 

.. 

i    0 

(^ 

12,211 

698 

•• 

1     0 

' 

13,331 

208 

!      0 

i 

2 

'       15,472 

•• 

12,707 

1 
1      0 

Si 

273 


DISTEIBUTIVE  EXPENSES  AND  BATE  PEE  CENT.  ON 


SALES= 

Expenses= 


Wages 

Auditors 

Scrutineers  

Committees 

Price  Lists :  Printing    

„        „        Postage 

Printing  and  Stationery 

Periodicals    

Travelling 

Stamps    

Telegrams 

Telephones  

Miscellaneous 

Advertisements  and  Showcards   

"  Wheatsheaf  "  Record    

Rents,  Rates,  and  Taxes 

Power,  Water,  Lighting,  and  Heating 

Exhibition  and  Congress     

Quarterly  Meetings    

Employes'  Picnic   

Legal  

"  Annual,"  1913 

Dining-rooms   

Repairs,  Renewals,  &c 

National  Health,  &c.,  Insurance 

Insurance  

Depreciation :  Land 

„  Buildings 

„  Fixtures,  &c 

Interest  

Totals 


GRAND    TOTAL. 


(,691,320. 


Amount. 


£      s.   d. 
300323    6    0 

999    5    9 

31  12  11 

10763    7  11 

7979  16    0 

757    0    4 

15645    9  11 

382  12  11 


6    7 

680  19    2 

2267    1    2 

2674    9    1 

6733  13  11 

11868    6  11 

15024    3    7 

8476  11    7 

2104    9    6 

1250    7    3 

400    9    0 

119    2    4 

924  17  10 

25595  11    6 

19764    3    5 

1772  17  11 

5680  19  10 

6546  18    6 

21971    7    1 

9338  19  10 

88971  11    7 


Rate  per 
£100. 


s.  d. 

20  2-76 

0  0-81 

0  0-03 

0  8-70 

0  6-45 

0  0-61 

1  0-65 
0  0-31 

2  7-44 
0  8-35 
0  0-51 
0  1-83 
0  2-1& 
0  5-44 

0  9-59 

1  0-14 
0  6-85 
0  1-70 
0  1-01 
0  0-32 
0  0-10 

0  0-75 

1  8-69 
1  3-98 
0  1-43 
0  4-59 

0  5-29 

1  5-76 
0  7-55 
5  11-92 


41    7-72 


274 


SALES  FOE  THE  YEAE  ENDED  DECEMBEE  27th,  1913. 


sxjnsnAiii^xKY'   of   xsiarrRxcrr   rro'm.rjS. 

MANCHESTER. 

NEWCASTLE. 

LONDON. 

£17,021,192. 

£5,670,321. 

£6,999,807. 

Amount. 

"JfoT' 

Amoont. 

Rate  per 
£100. 

Amount. 

Rate  per 
£100. 

£        8.    d. 
151015    5    3 

s.      d. 
17    8-93 

£      8.     d. 
73065  12    9 

8.      d. 
26    9-25 

£     s.   d. 
76242    8    0 

8.      d. 
21    9-41 

589  14    5 

0    0^6 

216  15    5 

0    0^ 

242  15  11 

0    083 

18    1    6 

0    0-03 

5  19    0 

0    003 

7  12    5               0    0-03 

5439    1    6 

0    7-67 

2994  19    7 

1    0-68 

2.329    6  10               0    7-99 

4833    4  11 

0    6-81 

1169    4    9 

0    4-95 

1977    6    4 

0    6-78 

507  10  11 

0    0-72 

57  16    5 

0    0-24 

191  13    0 

0    fr66 

8299    8    6 

0  11-70 

3305    7    0 

1    1-99 

4040  14    5 

1    1-85 

203    4  11 

0    0-29 

81  13    2 

0    0-84 

97  14  10 

0    0-34 

19217    3    2 

2    3-10 

7429  14    4 

2    7-45 

12246  12    3 

3    5-99 

5337    5    7 

0    7-53 

2643  18    5 

0  11-19 

2346    2    7 

0    804 

303  19  10 

0    0-43 

261    7    5 

0    1-11 

65  11  11     '           0    0-23 

1063    3  10 

0    1-50 

412  15    5 

0    1-75 

791    1  11               0    2-71 

1557  12  10 

0    2-20 

587  12    0 

0    2-49 

529    4    3 

0    1-82 

4060    0    2 

0    5-72 

1148  11    7 

0    4-86 

1525    2    2 

0    5-23 

6781  17    4 

0    9-56 

2228    5    8 

0    9-43 

2858    3  11 

0    9-80 

7039    6    6 

0    9-93 

3696  18    0 

1    3-65 

4287  19    1 

1    2-70 

4672  10    1 

0    6-59 

1857  14    0 

0    7-86 

1946    7    6 

0    6-67 

1566  19    8 

0    2-21 

244  10    9 

0    103 

292  19    1               0    100 

835    2    7 

0    1-18 

61  11    2 

0    0i26 

353  13    6               0    1-21 

238    3    0 

0    033 

62    2    0 

0    0^ 

100    4    0                0    0-34 

16    6    8 

0    0-02 

10  15    5 

0    0-04 

92    0    3                0    0-32 

528    4    3 

0    0-74 

173  18    0 

0    0-74 

222  15    7               0    0-76 

14462  16    2 

1    8-39 

6063    4    6 

2    1-66 

5069  10  10    1           1    5-38 

10446  11    3 

1    2-73 

4429    5    6 

1    6-75 

4888    6    8               1    4-76 

927    3    7 

0    1-31 

410    7    1 

0    1-74 

435    7    3                0    1-49 

2512    7    8 

0    3-54 

1452  11  10 

0    615 

1716    0    4    j           0    5-88 

4346    3    8 

0    6-13 

1245    9    8 

0    5-27 

955    5    2    1          0    3-28 

9478  12  11 

1     1-36 

6399  14    9 

2    *09 

6092  19    5               1    8-89 

5494    9    6 

0    7-75 

1791  14    5 

0    7-58 

^052  15  11               0    7-04 

45637  13    1 

5    4-35 

19671    9    6 

6  11-26 

23662    9    0               6    9-13 

317379    5    3 

37    3-51 

143180  19    6 

50    6-02 

157660    4    4             45    0-56 

275 


DISTEIBUTIVE  EXPENSES  AND  BATE  PER  CENT.  ON 


:]y^J^Is^CHc:H]STEI^. 

TOTALS. 

GROCERY. 

COAL. 

SALBS  = 

£17,021,192. 

£13,901,860 

• 

£429,026. 

Expenses  = 

Amount. 

Rate  per 
£100. 

Amount. 

Rate  per 
jEIOO. 

Amount. 

Rate  per 

jeioo. 

Wages   

£       a.  d. 
151015    5    8 

s.      d. 
17    8-93 

£       8.    d. 
72933  11    4 

8. 

10 

d. 
5-91 

£      8.   d. 
1797    7    1 

8.      d. 
8    4-55 

Auditors   

539  14    6 

18    1    6 

5439    1    6 

o     o     c. 

875    0    6 

14  14    6 

2929  16  10 

0 
0 
0 

0-65 
0-08 
506 

8  13    5 
0    9    4 
51    0    5 

0    0'49 

Scrutineers 

0    0'03 

Committees 

0    2-85 

Price  Lists :   Printing 

4833    4  n 

0    6-81 

2230  14    2 

0 

3-85 



„         „        Postage  .... 

£07  10  11 

0    0-72 

446    0  11 

0 

0-77 



Printing  and  Stationery. . 

8299    8    6 

0  11-70 

4682  15    9 

0 

8-08 

229    2    4 

1    0-82 

Periodicals 

203    4  11 

0    0-29 

158    1    8 

0 

0-27 

4    2    9 

0    0-23 

19217    3    2 

2    310 

7569  13    1 

1 

1-07 

489  19    4 

2    3-41 

5337    5    7 

0    7-53 

4263  15    1 

0 

7-36 

132    9    6 

0    7-41 

303  19  10 

0    0-43 

208    7    2 

n 

0-36 

6    7    6 

0    0-36 

Telephones 

1063    3  10 

0    1-50 

839  13    6 

0 

1-45 

26    0    6 

0    1-46 

Miscellaneous    

1557  12  10 

0    2-20 

1081  19    2 

0 

1-87 

28  13    0 

0    1-60 

Adverts,  and  Showcards. . 

4060    0    2 

0    5-72 

3145  18    8 

0 

5-43 

63    2    1 

0    3-53 

"Wheatsheaf"  Record  .. 

6781  17    4 

0     9-56 

5530  15    2 

0 

9-55 

175    0    0 

0    9-79 

Rents,  Rates,  and  Taxes.. 

Power,   Water,  Lighting, 

and  Heating  

7039    6    6 
4672  10    1 

0    9-93 
0    6-59 

3055  15    7 
1325  11    3 

0 
0 

5-28 
2-29 

29    3    0 
42  11    4 

0    1-63 
0    2-38 

Exhibition  and  Congress 

1566  19    8 

0    2-21 

1065  19    6 

0 

1-84 

30    4    1 

0    1-69 

Quarterly  Meetings 

835    2    7 

0    1-18 

681    4    0 

0 

1-18 

21  10    8 

0    1-20 

Employes'  Picnic 

238    3    0 

0    0-33 

95  14    7 

0 

017 

0    4    9 

0    0-01 

Legal 

16    6    8 

0    0*02 

14  10    7 

0 

0-02 

0    10 

"Annual,"  1913 

528    4    3 

0    0-74 

429  19    8 

0 

0-74 

13  16    3 

0    0-77 

14462  16    2 

10446  11    3 

927    3    7 

1    8-39 

9884    6    3 

1 

5-07 

204  18    4 

0  11-46 

Repairs,  Renewals,  &c.  . . 

National      Health,      &c., 

Insurance    

1    2-73 
0    1-31 

6722    3  10 
483  15    1 

0  11*60 
0    0-84 

538  14    6 
12  12    9 

2    6-14 
0    0-71 

Insurance    

2512    7    8 

0    3-54 

1208    0  10 

0 

2-09 

4    2    0 

0    0-23 

Depreciation:  Land    

4346    3    8 

0    6-]  3 

1740    9  10 

0 

300 

19  13    1 

0    110 

Buildings.. 

9478  12  11 

1    1-36 

3706  10  11 

0 

6-40 

42  18    5 

0    -2-40 

„          Fixtures,  &c. 

5494    9    6 

0    7-75 

2760  16    9 

0 

4-76 

47  16    4 

0    2-67 

Interest 

45637  13    1 

5    4-36 

24813    1    5 

8 

6-83 

453  19    0 

2    1-39 

Totals    

317379    5    3 

37    3-51 

164398  17    7 

23 

7-82 

4474  12    9 

20  10-31 

276 


SALES  FOR  THE  YEAE  ENDED  DEC.  27th,  im— continued. 


liJI^IsrOIIESTEI^. 

DRAPERY. 

WOOLLENS  AND 
READY-MADES. 

£825,775. 

BOOTS  AND  SHOES. 

FURNISHING. 

£1,259,157. 

£538,661. 

£566,713. 

Amount       "^foT' 

Amoont.     j 

Rate  per 

jeioo. 

Amount. 

Rate  per 

jeioa 

Amonnt. 

Rate  per 

£      s.  d. 
39162  10    3 

s.      d. 
62    2-45 

£      s.  d. 
10614    3    9 

8.        d. 

65    1-95 

£      s.  d.  1 
11444    6  11 

8.     d. 
42    5-90 

£        8.    d. 

15063    5  11 

8.      d. 
53    192 

75  17    0 

0    1-44 

19    9    8 

0    1-43 

32  10    3  1 

0    1-45 

28    3    7 

0    1-19 

1    7    6 

0    0^ 

0    7    1 

0    0-03 

0  11    8  1 

0  oroa 

0  11    5 

0    0-03 

1099    4    8 

1    8^5 

276  15    2 

1    8-39 

552  12    9 

2    0-62 

529  11    8 

1  10-43 

1107    1    9 

1    9-10 

1466  10    6 

9    0-04 

.... 



28  18    6 

0    1-23 

41    8    3 

0    0^ 









20    1    9 

0    0-85 

1870  13    2 

2  11-65 

324    9    2 

1  11-90 

519  12    1 

1  11-16 

672  16    0 

2    4-49 

21  10    4 

0    0-41 

6  18    3 

0    0-51 

5  14  10 

0    0-2€ 

6  17    1 

0    0-29 

6769    6    2 

10    9-02 

2115  18  10 

12  11-88 

835    6    9 

3    1-22 

1436  19    0 

5    0-86 

456  16  10 

0    8-71 

112  10    9 

0    8-29 

181    1    2 

0    8-07 

190  12    3 

0    807 

33  17    1 

0    0-65 

13    7    0 

0    0-98 

7    4    0 

0    0-32 

34  17    1 

0    1-48 

94  10    5 

0    1-80 

27  15  11 

0    2-05 

39    1    7 

0    1-74 

36    1  11 

0    1-53 

274  11    5 

0    5-23 

58    4    0 

0    4-29 

54    4    2 

0    2-42 

60    1    1 

0    2-54 

329  19    1        0    6-29 

93  13    0 

0    6-90 

342    6    9 

1    3-25 

85    0    7 

0    3-60 

514  15    9  1     0    9-81 

129    7    5 

0    9-53 

217  16  11 

0    9-71 

214    2    1 

0    9-07 

1725  13    7  i     2    8-89 

288  17    7 

1    9-28 

560    6    2 

2    0-97 

1379  10    7 

4  10-42 

1707    0    5 

2    8-54 

242    6    8 

1    5-85 

407    5    0 

1    6-14 

947  15    5 

3    4-14 

210    7    3 

0    4-01 

45  11    3 

0    3-36 

105    4    1 

0    4-69 

109  13    6 

0    4-64 

63    7    1        0    1-21 

15  18    3 

0    1-17 

26  16    3 

0    119 

26    6    4 

0    111 

81  11    8        0    1-56 

16  14  10 

0    1-24 

17    9    0 

0    0-78 

26    8    2 

0    112 

1  11  11        0    003 

0    0  10 

.... 

0    1    3 

.... 

0    1    1 

40    1    5        0    0-76 

!          10    8    4 

0    0-77 

17    6    3 

0  o-n 

16  12    4 

0    0-70 

2173  18    6        3    5-44 

502  16    0 

3    1-04 

882  16  11 

3    3-34 

814    0    2 

2  10-47 

1334  13    5  !     2    1-44 

358    9    4 

2    2-41 

607    0    8 

2    3^)5 

885    9    6 

3    1-50 

227  16    6        0    4-34 

56    4    4 

0    414 

55  18    8 

0    2-49 

90  16    3 

0    3-85 

527  17    2        0  10-06 

289  17    6 

1    9-36 

190    7    8 

0    8-48 

292    2    6 

1    0-37 

1030  19    4  1     1    7-65 

197    3    2 

1    2-52 

415    1    3 

1    6-49 

i        942  17    0 

3    3-93 

2821    7  10 

1     3    8-25 

449  13    9 

2    9-13 

911    2    1 

3    4-59 

2046  19  11 

7    2-69 

1503  19  11 

'     2    4-67 

81    6    8 

0    5-99 

158    5    0 

0    7-05 

942    4  10 

3    3-90 

8625    6    4 

13    8-40' 

3167  14    0 

19    5-37 

4480    7    3 

16    7-62 

1      4097    5    1 

14    5-52 

73429    2    0 

116    7-58 

1    20982  13    0 

128    9-80 

1    23067  17    4 

85    7-79 

i    31026    2    7 

109    5-94 

277 


DISTEIBUTIVE  EXPENSES  AND  EATE  PEE  GENT.  ON 

n^TZE^W^OJ^STXjIB. 

TOTALS. 

GROCERY. 

COAL. 

SALES = 

£5,670,321. 

£4,040,879. 

£120,658. 

Expenses  = 

Amount. 

Rate  per 
£100. 

Amount. 

Rate  per 
£100. 

Amount. 

Rate  per 
£100. 

Wages   

&      s. 
73065  12 

d. 
9 

s.      d. 
25    9-25 

£.     s.    d. 
26832    8  10 

s.     d. 
13    8-37 

&    s.   d. 
365    5    6 

s.      d. 
6    0-66 

Auditors    

216  15 

5 

0    0-92 

119    4    6 

0    0-71 

2    3    3 

0    0-43 

Scrutineers  

5  19 

0 

0    0-03 

4    3    7 

0    003 

0    2    8 

0    0-03 

Committees 

2994  19 

7 

1    0-68 

1324    1  10 

0    7-86 

8    14 

0    1-60 

Price  Lists:  Printing 

1169    4 

9 

0    4-95 

235    6    1 

0    1-40 

„        „        Postage 

57  16 

5 

0    0-24 

57  16    5 

0    0-34 



Printing  and  Stationery. . 

3305    7 

0 

1    1-99 

1321    9    8 

0    7-85 

31  10    4 

0    6-27 

Periodicals 

81  13 

9. 

0    0-34 

48  14    2 

0    0-29 

1  13  10 

0    0-34 

Travelling       ...         .... 

7429  14 

4 

2    7-45 

1320  19    7 

0    7-85 

51  18    5 

0  10-31 

Stamps 

2643  18 

5 

0  11-19 

1084  15    7 

0    6-44 

8  10    7 

0    1-70 

Telegrams 

261    7 

i=> 

0  rii 

125  19  10 

0    0*75 

0  13    5 

0    013 

412  15 

5 

0    1-75 

299  17    8 

0    1-78 

3  18    7 

0    0-78 

Miscellaneous    

587  12 

0 

0    2-49 

379    8    6 

0    2-25 

6    3    9 

0    1-23 

Adverts,  and  Showcards. . 

1148  11 

7 

0    4-86 

716  14  11 

0    4-26 

18  12    8 

0    3-71 

"Whjeatsheaf"  Record  .. 

2228    5 

8 

0    9-43 

1567  19    9 

0    9-31 

48  14    5 

0    9-69 

Rents,  Rates,  and  Taxes. . 

Power,  Water,    Lighting, 

and  Heating  

3696  18 
1857  14 

0 
0 

1    3-65 
0    7-86 

892  18    3 
1426  17    6 

0    5-30 
0    8-47 

4  19    0 
25    9    9 

0    0-98 
0    5-07 

Exhibition  and  Congress . 

244  10 

9 

0    1-03 

164  17    7 

0    0-98 

5    6    3 

0    106 

Quarterly  Meetings 

61  11 

2 

0    0-26 

43    5    6 

0    0-26 

17    1 

0    0-27 

Employes'  Picnic 

62    2 

0 

0    0-26 

15  11    0 

0    0-09 



Legal 

10  15 

5 

0    004 

10  11    4 

0    0-06 

0    0    3 

*'  Annual,"  1913 

173  18 

0 

0    0-74 

122    1    8 

0    0-73 

3  17    5 

0    0-77 

6063    4 

^ 

2    1-66 

4048  17    0 

2    0-05 

147  11    3 

2    5-35 

Repairs,  Renewals,  Ac.  . . 

National      Health,      &c.. 

Insurance    

4429    5 
410    7 

6 
1 

1    6-75 
0    1*74 

2271  19    0 
128  14    5 

1    1-49 
0    0-76 

49  14    2 
2    4    0 

0    9-89 
0    0-44 

Insurance 

1452  11  10 

0    6-15 

696  13  10 

0    4-14 

18    0 

0    0-28 

Depreciation :  Land    

1245    9 

8 

0    5-27 

488  11  11 

0    2-90 

3    0    0 

0    0-60 

„             Buildings    . . 

6399  14 

9 

2    3-09 

3362    2    2 

1    7-97 

11    4    0 

0    2-23 

„             Fixtures,  &c. 

1791  14 

5 

0    7-58 

1023    9    2 

0    6-08 

5    9    4 

0    1-09 

Interest 

19671    9 

6 

6  11-26 

8990    6    8 

4    5-40" 

132  16    1 

2    2-41 

Totals 

143180  19 

6 

50    6-02 

59125  17  11 

29    3-17 

941  15    4 

15    7-32 

278 


SALES  FOE  THE  YEAE  ENDED  DEC.  27th,  191S— continued. 


liTIES-W-C -A.S  T  liE  . 

DRAPERY. 

WOOLLENS  AND 
READY-MADE  8. 

BOOTS  AND  SHOES. 

FURNISHING. 

£684,483. 

£207,330. 

£262,588. 

£354,383. 

Amouut. 

Rate  per 
£100. 

Amount. 

Rate  per 
£100. 

Axnonn.     \^^<^^ 

Amount. 

Rate  per 
£100. 

£      s.  d.      s.     d. 
21978  15    5  1  64    264 

£      8.    d. 
4270  16    7 

s.      d. 
41    2-39 

£      8.     d.        8.        d. 

5659    9    2  1  43    1*26 

1 

£     s.    d. 
13958  15    3 

8.     d. 
78    9-33 

41    3    9  1    0    1-44 

13    0    8 

0    1-51 

17    6  10 

0    1-58 

23  16  10 

0    1-62 

0  14  10       0    003 

0    4    7 

0    0-03 

0    5    9 

0    0-03 

0    7    7 

0    0i)3 

€89  11    5 

2    0-18 

220  16    7 

2    1-56 

370  14    8 

2    9-88 

381  13    9 

2    1-85 

311    1    3 

0  10-91 

605  14    5 

5  10-12 

6  13    6 

0    0-61 

10    9    6 

0    0-71 

844  15    6 

2    5-62 

.... 
300    1    9 

2  10-74 

224    4    0 

1    8-49 

583    5    9  j    3    3-50 

12    0    6 

0    0-42 

4  10    3 

0    0-52 

5    5    6 

0    0-48 

9    8  11  1    0    0-64 

3671  15    2     10    5-24 

986    1    8 

9    615 

301  10    4 

2    3-56 

1197    9    2       6    9-10 

813  17    1 

e.  4-54 

116^  8  10 

1    1-48 

127  18    4 

0  11-69 

492    8    0       2    9-35 

104  12    7 

.  0    3-67 

11  11    7 

0    1-34 

3  10    3 

0    0-32 

14  19    9  j    0    1-01 

44    7    0       0    1-56 

13    3    8 

0    1-53 

16  16    5 

0    1-54 

34  12    1 

0    2-34 

85  10    9  !    0    3-00 

17  14    0 

0    2-05 

23    2    2 

0    2-11 

75  12  10 

0    512 

167  14    8  i    0    5-88 

33    3    3 

0    3-84 

133    7    4 

1    0-19 

78  18    9 

0    5-35 

279    6    5       0    9-79 

83  17    0 

0    9-70 

106  12    9 

0    9-75 

141  15    4       0    9-60 

1025    7    12  11-95 

251  13    4 

2    513 

406    3    3 

3    1-12 

1115  17    1  ;    6    3-57 

160  10    5  1    0    5-63 

99    4    8 

0  11-49 

61  19    4 

0    5-66 

83  12  •  4       0    5-66 

28    0    0  i     0    0-93 

15    5     1 

0    1-76 

16  11    1 

0    1-51 

14  10    9       0    0-98 

7  14    5  :     0    0-27 

2    6    9 

0    0-27 

2  19    3 

0    0-27 

3  18    2  i     0    0-27 

20    2    0       0    0-70 

3    6    0 

0    0-38 

3  18    0 

0    0-36 

19    5    0  ;    0    1-30 

0    2    0 

.... 

0    0    6 

0    0    7 

0    0    9 

21  15  10 

0    0-77 

6  13    6 

0    0-77 

8    8    5 

0    0-77 

11    1    2       0    0-75 

855    2    9 

2    5-98 

254    7    7 

2    5-45 

324    6  11 

2    5-65 

432  19    0       2    5-32 

1024  14    8 

2  11-93 

1        169    5    9 

1    7-60 

168  13    7 

1    3-42 

744  18    4       4    2-44 

135    6    3       0    4-74 

22  11    5 

0    2-61 

28  17    0 

0    2-64 

92  14    0  ;     0    6-28 

295    5    0 

0  10-35 

1        127  11    3 

1    2-77 

144  13    0 

I     1-22 

187    0    9       1    0-67 

315  17    7 

0  11-08 

78  11    9 

0    910 

126    1    9 

0  11-53 

233    6    8       1    3-80 

1227    6  11       3    7-03 

397  18    2 

3  10-06 

487    7    0 

3    8-54 

913  16    6       5    1-89 

443    0    5  i     1    3-53 

9    8    4 

0    1-09 

11  18    6 

0    1-09 

298    8    8  :     1    8-21 

4384  11    9     12    9-74 

1859  12    2 

17  11-26 

2098  14    6 

15  11-82 

2205    8    4  ;  12    5-36 

38890    3    5  1113    7-60 

9975    2    8 

96    2-70 

10887    9    2 

82  11-09 

23360  11    0  {131  10-05 

279 


DISTEIBUTIVE  EXPENSES  AND  BATE  PEE  CENT.  ON 


LonsriDOi^. 

TOTALS. 

GROCERY. 

COAL. 

SALES'- 

£6,999,807. 

£5,750,722. 

£247,452. 

Expenses= 

Amount. 

Rate  per 
JEIOO. 

Amount. 

Rate  per 

£\m. 

Amount. 

Rate  per 

£im. 

Wages   

£      s.   d. 
76242    8    0 

s. 
21 

d. 
9-41 

£      s.  d. 
36340  12    7 

s. 
12 

d. 
7-66 

£     8.    d. 
1389    8  10 

s.      d. 
11    2-76 

242  15  11 

7  12    5 

2329    6  10 

1977    6    4 

0 
0 
0 
0 

0-83 
0-03 
7-99 
6-78 

166  18    8 

6    5    3 

1392  19  11 

545  12    8 

0 
0 
0 
0 

0-70 
0-03 
5-81 
2-28 

4    6    6 

0    5    5 

25  18  11 

0    0-42 

0    003 

0    2-52 

Price  Lists  :  Printing .... 

„       „       Postage 

191  13    0 

0 

0-66 

191  13    0 

0 

0-80 



Printing  and  Stationery. . 

4040  14    5 

1 

1-85 

2373  19    5 

0 

9-91 

48    8  11 

0    4-7(> 

Periodicals 

97  14  10 
12246  12    3 

0 
3 

0-34 
5-99 

77    1  10 
4122  15  10 

0 

1 

0-32 
5-21 

12    0 
425  12    7 

0    Oil 

Travelling    

3    5*28 

Stamps 

2346    2    7 

0 

8-04 

1800    5    3 

0 

7-51 

46  13    2 

0    4-53 

Telegrams   

65  11  11 

0 

0-23 

54  16  11 

0 

0-23 

.... 

Telephones     ...       .   . 

791    1  11 

529    4    3 

1525    2    2 

0 
0 
0 

2-71 
1-82 
5-23 

479    1    5 

402  14     1 

1153  12    1 

0 
0 
0 

2-00 
1-68 

4-82 

26  15  11 

0  14    0 

.35  14    2 

0    2-60 

Miscellaneous 

0    0-07 

Adverts,  and  Showcards.. 

0    3-46 

"Wheatsheaf"  Record  .. 

2858    3  11 

0 

9-80 

2348    3    1 

0 

9-80 

101    2    5 

0    9-81 

Rents,  Rates,  and  Taxes.. 

Power,   Water,    Lighting, 

and  Heating  

4287  19    1 
1946    7    6 

1 
0 

2-70 
6-67 

1359    3  10 
1090    9    8 

0 
0 

5-67 
4-55 

21  16  10 
8    3    8 

0    2-12 
0    0-80 

Exhibition  and  Congress.. 

292  19    1 

0 

1-00 

191  15    3 

0 

0-80 

Quarterly  Meetings 

353  13    6 

0 

1-21 

299  14    3 

0 

1-25 

10  13    2 

0    1-03 

Employes'  Picnic 

100    4    0 

0 

0-34 

56  16    6 

0 

0-24 

0  18    0 

0    0-0^ 

Legal                   

92    0    3 
222  15    7 
5069  10  10 
4888    6    8 
435    7    3 
1716    0    4 

0 
0 

1 
1 

0 
0 

0-32 
0-76 
5-38 
4-76 
1-49 
5-88 

76  17    8 

183    1    6 

3254    3    2 

2391  14    1 

260    7    8 

1003    0    7 

0 
0 

1 

0 
0 
0 

0-82 
0-75 
1-58 
9-98 
1-09 
4-19 

0    0    6 
7  16  11 
72  10    8 
574  17    4 
5    6    2 
3    6    9 

"  Annual,"  1913 

0    0-76 

0  7-oa 

Repairs,  Renewals,  &c.  . . 
National      Health,      &c., 

4    7-75 
0    0-51 

Insurance    

0    0-32 

Depreciation :  Land    

955    5    2 

0 

3-28 

333    4    6 

0 

1-39 

7    2    3 

0    0-69 

„           Buildings 

6092  19    5 

1 

8-89 

3036    3    7 

1 

0-67 

19  13    4 

0    i-91 

„           Fixtures,  &c.. 

2052  15  11 

0 

7-04 

1198    1    9 

0 

5-00 

30  11    0 

0    2-96 

Interest 

23662    9    0 

6 

9-13 

13604  19    5 

4 

8-78 

263    9  11 

2    1-55 

Totals 

157660    4    4 

45 

0-56 

79796    5    5 

27 

902 

3132    9    4 

25    3-81 

280 


SALES  FOR  THE  YEAR  ENDED  DEC.  27th,  191S^continued. 


Xj  G  1ST  ID  (D  HT  . 

DRAPERY. 

WOOLLENS  AND 
READY-MADES. 

BOOTS  AND  SHOES. 

FURNISHING. 

£455,942. 

«lft6.849. 

£229,297. 

£189,545. 

Amonn.     \^^^ 

Amoant 

Rate  per 
£100. 

Amoont. 

Rate  per 

Amonnt. 

Rate  per 
£100. 

£       s.  d.      8.      d. 
18144  15    4     79    Til 

£       8.    d. 
5480    8    7 

s.      d. 
86    4-90 

£      s.   A 
6712    5    7 

8.      d. 
58    6-56 

£      s.  d. 
8174  17    1 

8.      d. 
86    Sr09 

32  10    3  '    0    1-71 

10  16    8 

0    2-05 

15    3    5 

0    1-59 

13    0    5 

0    1-65 

0    9  11  '    0    (MB 

0    2    9 

0     QrOS 

0    4  11 

0    008 

0    4    2 

0    0-03 

359  15    7       1    6-94 

134  18    4 

2    1-53 

239  17    0 

2    110 

175  17    1 

110-27 

543    7    3 

2    4-60 

817    2  10  i  12  10-60 

22    3    3 

0    2-32 

49    0    4 

0    6-21 

707  11  U 

8    1-25 

287    3    0  1    4    6-83 

307    2    6 

.... 
2    8-15 

316    8    8 

3    4-07 

6  15    8 

0    0-36 

8  14    8 

0    0-71 

5    5    3 

0    0-55 

3  15  10 

0    0-48 

3819  14    0  j  16    9H)6 

1484  15    8 

23    4-92 

1160  15    5 

10    1-50 

1232  18    9 

13    0-12 

226    3    2  1    0  11-91 

78  14  10  i     1    2-52 

105  12    1 

0  11-05 

90  14    1 

0  11-47 

4  17    8  i    0    0-26 

1  10    2       0    0-29 

2    3    4 

0    0-23 

2    3  10 

0    0-28 

132  19    5  1    0    700 

43  18    3       0    8-31 

29    1    4 

0    arOi 

79    5    7 

0  1004 

56  19    2 

0    8-00 

14    8    7       0    2-73 

26  14    2 

0    2-79 

27  14    3 

0    3-51 

120    2    8 

0    6-32 

29    3    7       0    5-52 

152  10    0 

1    3-96 

33  19    8 

0    4-30 

186    7  10  ;    0    9-81 

51  14  10       0    9-79 

93    2    2 

0    9-75 

77  13    7 

0    9-84 

1359    1    3  j    5  11-54 

311    9    9  14  10-93 

518  12    3 

4    6-28 

717  15    2 

7    6-88 

342  13  10  1    1    6-04 

113  16    0       1    9-53 

198  14    8 

1    8-80 

192    9    8 

2    0-37 

52    3    2       0    2-75 

19  18    3       0.  3-77 

20    4  11 

0    2-12 

8  17    6 

0    111 

17    1    1       0    0-90 

5  16  10  i    0    1-11 

11  13  11 

0    1-22 

8  14    3 

0    1-10 

21  14    6       0    1-14 

5    1    9  N    0-96 

5  13    4 

0    0-59 

9  19  11 

0    1-27 

6  18  11       0    0-37 

1  17    2       0    0-35 

3    5    9 

0    0-34 

3    0    3 

0    0-38 

14    8    8  !    0    0-75 

4    2    0  ,    0    0-77 

7    5    3 

0    076 

6    13 

0    OrTJ 

815    9    0  I    3    6-92 

243    3  10       3  10i)l 

403    7    0 

8    6-22 

280  17    2 

2  11-56 

805    7    7  i    3    6-39 

436  13    2       6  10-62 

264    8    1 

2    3-67 

415    6    5 

4    4-59 

80  12    5       0    4-24 

19  10    4  i    0    3-69 

27    6    8 

0    2-86 

42    4    0 

0    5-34 

292    5    3       1    8-38 

138    1    8  '    2    213 

149    2    4 

1    8-61 

130    3    9 

1    4-49 

•290    1    9       1    3-27 

105  14  11       1    8-01 

77  18    7 

0    8-16 

141    3    2 

1    5-87 

1-272  13    5  i    5    6-99 

456    3    4 

7    2-31 

553  18  10 

4    9-98 

754    6  11 

7  11-52 

338    5  11  1    1    5-81 

117    5    4 

1  10-18 

155    6    7 

1    4-26 

213    5    4 

2    3-00 

4552  10    7     19  11-64 

1583  15  10 

25    0-60 

22S9  18    5 

19  11-68 

1362  14  10 

14    4-55 

34603  16    9  |l51    9-49 

12004    2  11 

189    3-20 

13558  17    0 

118    8-17 

14564  12  11  Il53    8-16 

281 


The  Scottish 

Co-operative  Wholesale 

Society  Limited. 


PLATES,  ADVERTISEMENTS, 
STATISTICS,  &<., 

Pages  283  to  397. 


THE  SCOTTISH 
CO-OPERATIVE  WHOLESALE  SOCIETY 


LIMITED, 


En/rolled  20th  April,  1868,  under  the  provisions  of  the  Bidustrial  atid  Provident 
Societies  Act,  20th  August,  1867,  SO  and  81  Vict.,  cap.  117,  sec.  4. 


Business  Commenced)  September  8tb,  \S6S. 


CENTRAL  OFFICES  AND  FURNITURE  WAREHOUSE  : 

MOEEISON  STREET,  GLASGOW. 


GROCERY   AND   PROVISION   WAREHOUSES: 

PAISLEY  EOAD,  CEOOKSTON  AND  CLAEENCE  STEEETS, 

GLASGOW. 


DRAPERY   WAREHOUSE: 

DUNDAS,  WALLACE,  AND  PATEESON  STEEETS,  GLASGOW. 


BOOT  AND  SHOE  WAREHOUSE: 

DUNDAS  STEEET,  GLASGOW. 


SHIRT,  BESPOKE  CLOTHING,  JUVENILE  CLOTHING,  AND 
AERATED  WATER  FACTORIES: 

PATEESON  STEEET,  GLASGOW. 


MANTLE   AND   UMBRELLA  FACTORIES 

DUNDAS  STEEET,  GLASGOW. 


HAM-CURING,  SAUSAGE  FACTORY,  WATERPROOF  FACTORY 
CARTWRIGHT,  AND  SCALE  REPAIR  DEPARTMENTS: 

PAEK  STEEET,  K.P.,  GLASGOW. 


FACTORIES  FOR  BOOTS  AND  SHOES,  CLOTHING,  FURNITURE  AND 
BRUSHES,  PRINTING,  PRESERVES,  CONFECTIONS,  CHEMICALS, 
COFFEE  ESSENCE,  TOBACCO,  PICKLES,  AND  TINWARE: 

SHIELDHALL,  near  GOVAN,   GLASGOW. 

284 


Branches, 


LINKS   PLACE,  LEITH. 

GRANGE   PLACE,   KILMARNOCK. 

SEAGATE,   DUNDEE. 

HENRY   STREET,   ENNISKILLEN,  IRELAND. 


FURNITURE  WAREHOUSE,  DRAPERY  &  BOOT  SAMPLE 

ROOM— CHAMBERS  STREET,  EDINBURGH. 

CHANCELOT   FLOUR  MILLS— EDINBURGH. 

JUNCTION  FLOUR  AND  OATMEAL  MILLS— LEITH. 

REGENT   FLOUR   MILLS— GLASGOW. 

SOAP  WORKS— GRANGEMOUTH. 

ETTRICK   TWEED   MILLS— SELKIRK. 

HOSIERY  FACTORY— LEITH. 

DRESS  SHIRT  FACTORY  AND  LAUNDRY— PAISLEY. 

FISH-CURING  WORKS— ABERDEEN. 

BLANKET   MILLS— GALSTON. 


Creameries  : 

IRELAND— ENNISKILLEN,  BELNALECK,  GOLA, 
FLORENCE  COURT,  S.  BRIDGE,  GARDNER'S  CROSS, 

BLACKLION,  GLENFARNE,  MONEAH; 
BLADNOCH  and  WHITHORN,  WIGTOWNSHIRE,  N.B. 


CALDERWOOD  ESTATE  and  RYELANDS  MILK  CENTRE, 
LANARKSHIRE. 


Bankers : 

THE   UNION   BANK   OF   SCOTLAND   LIMITED. 
Head  Offices : 


GLASGOW :                              LONDON :  EDINBURGH : 

Ingkam  Street,                  62,  Cornhill,  E.G.  George  Street. 

General  Manager :                Manager  :  Manager : 

ARTHUR  C.  D.  GAIRDNER.     GEORGE  J.  SCOTT.  WILLIAM  GRAHAM. 

285 


General  Committee. 


President : 

Mr.  ROBERT  STEWART,  "  Endrick,"  Percy  Drive,  Giffnock. 

Secretary: 
Mr.  JOHN  PEARSON,  "Beechdale,"  Fenton  Street,  Alloa. 

Directors: 

Mr.  PETER  GLASSE 185,  Byres  Road,  Glasgow. 

Mr.  THOMAS  LITTLE   264,  Scott  Street,  Galashiels. 

Mr.  WILLIAM  R.  ALLAN "  Inchbank,"  Balhousie  Street,  Perth. 

Mr.  JAMES  YOUNG  34,  New  Street,  Musselburgh. 

Mr.  GEORGE  THOMSON "  Newfield,"  Stevenson  Street,  Kilmarnock. 

Mr.  ALEX.  B.  WEIR   "  Drhoma,"  Paisley  Road,  Barrhead. 

Mr.  C.  W.  MACPHERSON 80,  Montpelier  Park,  Edinburgh. 

Mr.  T.  B.  STIRLING   Yew  Cottage,  Middleton  Street,  Alexandria. 

Mr.  WM.  GALLAGHER «'  Loretto,"  Montgomery  Street,  Larkhall. 

Mr.  JOHN  BARDNER   22,  Netherton,  Dunfermline. 


Sub'Committees : 

(1)  Finance  and  Property — 

Messrs.  GLASSE,  ALLAN,  GALLAGHER,  and  THOMSON. 
Gonveners:    Mr,  Gallagher  (Finance).     Mr.  Glasse  (Property). 

(2)  Grocery  :  Distributive  and  Productive — 

Messrs.  STEWART,  LITTLE,  BARDNER,  and  YOUNG. 

Conveners:  Mr.  Bardner  (Distributive).     Mr.  Stewart  (Productive). 

(3)  Drapery  and  Furnishing  :  Distributive  and  Productive — 

Messrs.  STIRLING,  PEARSON,  MACPHERSON,  and  WEIR. 
Gonveners :  Mr.  Macpheeson  (Distributive).    Mr.  Stirling  (Productive). 


The  President  is  ex  officio  a  member  of  all  Sub-Committees. 


Auditors: 

Mr.  JNO.  MILLEN,  Rutherglen.         |     Mr.  ROBT.  J  SMITH,  C.A.,  Glasgow. 

Mr.  WM.  H.  JACK,  F.S.A.A.,  Glasgow. 

(Public  Auditors  under  the  Industrial  and  Provident  Societies  and 
Friendly  Societies  Acts.) 

286 


Officers  of  the  Society, 


Accountant : 
Mr.  ROBERT  MACINTOSH,  Glasgow. 

Cashier : 
Mr.  ALLAN  GRAY,  Glasgow. 

Buyers,  ^c. : 
Grocery  and  Provisions Glasgow Mr.  E.  ROSS. 

„      Mr.  JOHN  McDonald. 

„        Mr.  M.  McCALLlBL 

„        Mr.  A.  S.  HUGGAN. 

Leith Mr.  PETER  ROBERTSON. 

],  „         „       •. Mr.  WILLIAM  Mc.LAREN. 

„       Mr.  A.  W.  JOHNSTONE. 

Kilmarnock  ..Mr.  DAVID   CALDWELL. 

Dundee   Mr.  JAMES  WILKIE. 

Potato  Department    Glasgow Mr.  HUGH  CAMPBELL. 

Leith  Mr.  WM.  DRUMMOND. 

Cattle Glasgow Mr.  WILLIAM  DLTTCAN. 

Provisions Enniskillen  .  .Mr.  WILLIAM  WHYTE. 

Preserve  Works   Glasgow . .  Mr.  N.  ANDERSON. 

Chemical  Department    „        Mr.  A.  GEBBIE. 

Tobacco  Factory „        Mr.  THOMAS  HARKNESS. 

Flour    Mills— Chancelot    and/         „        Mr.  WM.  F.  STEWART. 

Regent  Oatmeal  and  Flour  \         „        Mr.  JAIVIES  TIERNE Y. 

Mill— Junction ( Edinburgh     .  .Mr.  JOHN   PAISLEY'. 

Soap  Works Grangemouth  .Mr.  J.  A.  PENNY. 

Printing  &  Stationery  Dept Glasgow Mr.  DAVID  CAMPBELL. 

Drapery  Department „       V Mr.  DAVID  GARDINER. 

„       •    Assistant..         „        Mr.  J.  Mc.GILCHRIST. 

„        ..         „        Mr.  WM.  ALLAN. 

„       .^        ^       _,        ,  f         „        Mr.  WILLIAM  ^HLLER. 

Furniture  Department    |  ^^^.^^^^^ ^^^   THOMAS  FEN  WICK. 

„  „  Edinburgh    ..Mr.  GEO.  CARSON. 

Tinware Glasgow Mr.  J.  H.  TURNBULL. 

,„■      ^  (         „        Mr.  P.  Mc.PARLANE. 

Boot  and  Shoe  Department   . .  |  Assistant Mr.  J.  J.  HORN. 

Ettrick  Tweed  &  Blanket  Mills.  .Selkirk Mr.  J.  H.  OLDFIELD. 

Building  Department    Glasgow Mr.  WILLIAM  MERCER. 

EngineeriQg  &  Electrical  Depts  . .         „        Mr.  JAMES  STEWART. 

Carting  Department  „        Mr.  JAJMES  CALDWELL. 

Coal  Department     „        Mr.  T.  BURTON. 

Fish  Curing  Department Aberdeen Mr.  W.  C.  STEPHEN. 

Wheat  Buying  Depot     Winnipeg      >    Mr.  GEO.  FISHER. 

(Canada)' 

Creameries Wigtownshire .  .Mr.  ROBERT  GREEN. 

Estate .  Lanarkshire    . .  Mr.  G.  G.  Y'OUNG. 

287 


Business  Arrangements. 


Registered  Office : 
MORRISON   STREET,   GLASGOW. 

Branches : 

LINKS   PLACE,   LEITH  ;    GRANGE   PLACE,   KILMARNOCK 

SEAGATE,  DUNDEE  ; 

HENRY   STREET,   ENNISKILLEN,   IRELAND; 

LEMAN   STREET,  LONDON.  E. 


Societies,  to  which  our  trade  is  strictly  confined,  desirous  of  opening  a» 
account  with  this  Society,  should  forward  a  copy  of  their  registered  Rules 
and  latest  balance  sheet ;  or,  if  but  recently  started,  a  statement  showing  the 
number  of  members,  value  of  shares,  amount  subscribed  for  and  paid  up, 
weekly  turnover  expected,  and  the  amount  of  credit  allowed,  if  any,  per 
member  in  proportion  to  the  capital  paid  up.  Should  these  particulars  be 
considered  satisfactory,  goods  will  be  supplied  on  the  following  terms : — The 
maximum  credit  allowed  is  fourteen  days,  and  interest  is  charged  quarterlif 
on  all  in  excess  of  this  allowance  at  the  rate  of  21^  per  cent,  per  annum,  but  in 
cases  where  the  debt  exceeds  one  month'' s  purchases  5  per  cent,  is  charged. 


Interest  at  the  rate  of  2^  per  cent,  per  annum  is  allowed  on  prepaid 
accounts. 


The  Directors,  by  authority  of  the  general  meeting,  are  empowered  to  have 
the  books  of  societies  examined  whose  accounts  are  overdue,  and  to  take  the 
necessary  steps  to  protect  the  other  members  of  the  federation. 


Orders  for  goods  should  bear  the  price  or  brand  of  the  article  wanted,  the 
mode  of  transit,  and  name  of  station  to  which  the  goods  are  to  be  sent.  Orders 
for  the  different  departments  should  be  on  separate  slips.  Goods  not  approved 
of  must  be  returned  at  once  and  intact.  No  claim  for  breakage,  short  weighty 
&c.,  can  be  entertained  unless  made  within  six  days  after  goods  are  received. 
Delay  in  delivery  should  be  at  once  advised, 

288 


Business  Premises 

OWNED  BY 

THE  SCOTTISH 

CO-OPERATIVE    WHOLESALE 

SOCIETY    LIMITED. 

"With  Diagrams  showing  Progress  of  Society 
since  Commencement. 


w  289 


Scottish  Co-operative  Ulbolesale  Societv 
Limited. 


First  Central  Premises  owned  by  the  Society. 

^THE  Scottish  Co-operative  Wholesale  Society 
lyimited  was  registered  in  April  1868,  and 
commenced  business  during  September  of  the 
same  year  in  rented  premises  in  Madeira  Court, 
Argyle  Street,  Glasgow.  During  1872  ground  was 
purchased  at  the  junction  of  Morrison  Street  and 
Paisley  Road,  and  to  the  Warehouse  erected  there, 
and  shown  on  this  page,  the  Society's  business 
was  transferred  in  1874.  The  whole  of  this 
gusset-shaped  piece  of  ground  was  acquired  by 
1882,  and  the  Warehouses  and  Offices  erected 
thereon  formed  the  Central  Premises  of  the 
Society,  119  Paisley  Road,  Glasgow,  until  the 
Morrison  Street  Premises  were  occupied  in  1897. 


290 


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Registered  Office  and  Furniture  Warehouse: 
95  Morrison  Street^  Glasgow. 

T^HE  block  of  buildings  shown  on  the  opposite 
page  forms,  since  1897,  the  Central  Premises 
of  the  Scottish  Wholesale.  With  its  splendid 
facade  fronting  Morrison  Street,  and  occupying  a 
commanding  situation  close  by  the  river  Clyde, 
this  structure  forms  one  of  the  most  imposing 
features  of  street  architecture  in  the  southern 
part  of  Glasgow. 

Here  the  Central  Office,  with  its  staff  of  over 
two  hundred  and  sixty  clerks,  is  located.  This 
occupies  the  whole  of  the  first  floor,  the  ground 
floor  giving  accommodation  for  the  Board  Room, 
Committee  Rooms,  Grocery  Managers'  Rooms, 
and  also  the  Grocery  Department  Saleroom. 
The  basement  and  all  the  other  floors  in  the 
front  building  are  fully  occupied  by  the 
Furniture  and  Furnishing  Department  Show- 
rooms. Fronting  Clarence  Street — on  the  left 
side  of  the  drawing,  and  to  the  rear  of  the  main 
building — is  a  block  extending  through  to 
Crookston  Street,  on  the  right.  The  great  bulk 
of  this  space  is  devoted  to  warehouse  accom- 
modation for  the  Grocery  Department,  and  here, 
also,  the  spacious  Clarence  Street  Hall  belonging 
to  the  Society  is  located. 


293 


Grocery  and  Provision  Warehouse^  Stationery 
Departmentt  etc* : 

Links   Place,   Leith. 

NT  INK  years  after  the  start  of  the  Wholesale 
in  Glasgow,  the  I^eith  Branch  was  opened 
(in  April  1877),  primarily  to  faciUtate  the  handling 
of  Continental  produce,  but  it  was  soon  found 
advisable  to  add  a  full  stock  of  groceries.  This 
Branch  has  proved  of  great  service  and  utility 
in  dealing  with  retail  societies  in  the  East  of 
Scotland. 

Business  developments  soon  forced  it  out  of 
the  original  rented  premises  in  Constitution  Place 
lycith,  and,  ground  having  been  secured  at  Links 
Place  in  May  1879,  the  first  portion  of  the 
buildings  here  shown  was  erected  by  the  Society. 
At  various  dates  extensive  alterations  and 
additions  have  been  made  to  the  structure.  In 
addition  to  the  Grocery  Warehouse,  a  Stationery 
Department,  Aerated  Water  Factory  (started  1898), 
and  a  Ham-curing  Department  form  valuable 
adjuncts  of  this  Branch  of  the  Wholesale. 


294 


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Grocery  and  Provision  Warehouse: 
Grange  Place,  Kilmarnock. 

1  ESS  than  a  twelvemonth  after  the  inauguration 
of  the  Branch  at  Leith,  it  was  decided  to 
open  a  Depot  in  Kilmarnock  to  deal  with  agri- 
cultural produce  of  all  kinds  in  Ayrshire  and 
surrounding  coimties.  In  February  1878  this 
Branch  was  opened,  and  its  career,  Uke  that  of 
most  other  ventures  of  the  Wholesale,  has  been 
uniformly  prosperous. 

Intended  originally  as  a  store  from  whence 
cheese,  butter,  eggs,  etc.,  could  be  distributed  to 
retail  societies  to  the  orders  of  the  various 
Branches,  this  Depot  also  does  a  very  extensive 
trade  in  potatoes.  These  are  planted  imder  the 
supervision  of  the  Department,  or  purchased  in 
the  fields  at  agreed-on  rates  per  acre,  for  the 
direct  supply  of  retail  shops.  A  very  large 
business  in  cheese  is  also  done. 


297 


Grocery  and  Provision  Warehouse: 
Seagate^  Dundee, 

pOUR  years  elapsed  from  the  foundation  of  the 
Kilmarnock  Depot  before  another  Branch 
of  the  Wholesale  was  started.  This  time  the 
impelling  idea  was  to  provide  societies  in  the 
North  of  Scotland  with  a  convenient  centre  from 
which  to  obtain  supplies.  Dundee  was  fixed  on 
as  the  most  suitable  place,  and  there,  in  premises 
at  the  corner  of  Trades  Lane,  a  Branch  was 
opened  in  1881. 

Until  igo6  business  was  successfully  conducted 
in  the  building  originally  occupied,  but  in  that 
year  a  disastrous  fire  swept  it  entirely  away,  and 
caused  the  Directors  to  find  a  site  elsewhere. 
Ground  was  soon  afterwards  purchased  in  Seagate, 
Dundee,  and  the  Warehouse  shown  opposite 
erected  and  opened  for  business  in  July  1909. 


298 


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.    Central  Premises,  Enniskillen  Branchy 
Ireland. 

"T^HE  growing  quantities  of  Irish  Tproduce 
handled  by  the  Wholesale  led  the  Directors 
at  an  early  date  to  consider  the  advisability  jof 
-estabUshing  a  Bu\4ng  Branch  or  Depot  in 
Ireland  for  collecting  the  produce  of  the  north- 
western districts.  After  careful  investigation, 
Enniskillen,  directly  communicating  with  London- 
derry and  Belfast  by  rail  and  thence  with  Glasgow 
by  an  admirable  service  of  steamers,  was  fixed  on 
as  the  most  suitable  centre.  In  premises  rented 
by  the  Society  in  that  town  a  Branch  was  started 
during  May  1885,  and  its  progress  since  has 
justified  the  choice  of  location. 

In  addition  to  a  thoroughly  up-to-date  Central 
Creamery  established  in  1908,  there  are  now 
•eight  Auxiliary  Creameries  belonging  to  the  Society 
within  a  range  of  tei;i  miles  of  Enniskillen.  The 
names  of  these  are  Moneah,  Gardner's  Cross,  Gola, 
-S  Bridge,  Belnaleck,  Blacklion,  Glenfarne,  and 
Plorencecourt. 


301 


Drapery  Warehouse^  Wallace  Street^ 
Glasgow. 

'^HB  Drapery  Department  was  started  on  28th 
December  1873,  in  a  corner  of  the  rented 
premises  first  occupied  by  the  Society  in  Madeira 
Court,  Argyle  Street,  Glasgow.  The  Warehouse 
now  occupied  in  Wallace  vStreet,  Dundas  Street, 
and  Paterson  Street,  and  shown  on  the  opposite 
page,  gives  a  fair  idea  of  its  growth  and  develop- 
ment during  the  intervening  years. 

The  Warehouse  at  the  present  time  is  divided 
into  forty  departments  dealing  with  every  known 
variety  of  drapery  goods.  Heating,  ventilating, 
and  sanitary  arrangements  are  of  the  most 
approved  description,  and  from  a  hygienic  stand- 
point the  Warehouse  meets  all  that  science  at 
present  demands.  This,  with  the  admirable 
planning  of  departments  and  the  up-to-date 
equipment,  justifies  its  claim  to  premier  position 
among  such  establishments. 

There  are  also  attached  to  the  Warehouse^ 
Mantle,  Millinery,  and  Umbrella  Workrooms, 
while  the  alHed  Productive  Departments  include 
the  Wool  Shirt  Factory,  Waterproof  Factory, 
Juvenile  Clothing  Factory,  Underclothing  Factory, 
and  Bespoke  Clothing  Factory,  Glasgow ;  the 
Ready-made  Clothing  Factory,  Artisan  Clothing 
Factory,  and  Hosiery  Factory,  Shieldhall ;  Ettrick 
Tweed  and  Blanket  Mills,  Selkirk ;  Ayrshire 
Blanket  Mill,  Galston  ;  the  Dress  Shirt  Factory 
and  Potterhill  lyaundry.  Paisley ;  and  Hosiery 
Factory,  Leith. 


302 


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Drapery  Warehouse^  Wallace  Street, 
Glasgow. 

(ANOTHER     VIEW.) 

*T^HE  demand  for  increased  space  to  meet  the 
steady  growth  of  trade  in  Drapery  goods 
made  it  necessary-  to  enlarge  the  Warehouse, 
and  the  extension  in  Paterson  Street,  which  was 
opened  in  June  1909,  is  shown  on  the  extreme 
right  of  the  picture. 

In  the  short  period  of  three  years  it  became 
apparent  that  more  accommodation  must  be 
found,  and  a  further  addition,  also  in  Paterson 
Street,  affording  20,832  square  feet  of  extra 
floorage,  was  opened  in  July  of  this  3^ear  (1914). 
A  motor-car  is  seen  near  the  main  entrance  in 
Wallace  Street. 


305 


Productive  Factories^  Paterson  Street, 
Glasgow* 

T^HESB  buildings  are  given  over  solely  to 
production,  and  occupy  the  greater  portion 
of  the  west  side  of  Paterson  vStreet,  between 
Gloucester  Street  and  Scotland  Street.  Here 
accommodation  is  found  for  the  manufacture  of 
aerated  waters  ;  shirts  ;  underclothing  ;  juvenile 
clothing  ;  and  bespoke  clothing.  Originally  two- 
storied  only,  in  1908  another  fiat  was  added ^ 
which  has  considerably  increased  the  usefulness 
of  the  buildings.  A  large  extension,  for  Drapery 
Production,  is  nearing  completion. 


306 


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O 


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(f) 


New   Stationery  Warehouse^ 
Morrison  Street^  Glasgow^ 

IN  the  year  1882  the  vStationery  Department  was 
commenced  in  a  small  portion  of  the  "  gusset  " 
buildings,  Morrison  Street.  As  business  increased 
the  Department  was  removed  from  time  to 
time,  until,  in  the  year  1910,  the  Directors 
sought  and  obtained  power  to  proceed  with  the 
building  depicted  opposite.  Situated  near  the 
principal  building  in  Morrison  Street,  the  erection 
was  completed  in  September  191 1,  and  at  once 
proved  of  great  service,  being  temporarily  utilised 
for  the  housing  of  the  Furniture  Departments 
burnt  out  in  the  fire  at  Morrison  Street,  3rd 
September  191 1.  Since  January  of  1913  the 
Stationery  Department  has  occupied  the  building, 
which  is  equipped  in  every  way  to  suit  the  trade. 
A  magnificent  showroom  runs  the  full  length  of 
the  first  flat,  the  basement,  main,  and  other  floors 
being  utilised  for  stock  and  despatch  purposes. 


309 


Furniture  and  Furnishing  Showrooms: 
Chambers  Street,  Edinburgh. 

^pO  meet  the  requirements  of  societies  in  the 
East  of  Scotland,  a  branch  of  the  Furniture 
and  Furnishing  Department  was  opened  in 
premises  secured  during  1898  in  Chambers  Street, 
Edinburgh.  In  these  is  stocked  a  full  range  of 
goods  similar  to  that  in  the  Central  Furnishing 
Warehouse,  Glasgow.  The  business  rapidly 
extended,  and  this  led  to  the  purchase  of  the 
adjoining  property  of  Minto  House — the  most 
distant  part  of  the  structure.  Transformed  to 
suit  the  requirements  of  the  trade,  the  whole 
building  now  forms  a  connected  and  spacious 
Warehouse. 


310 


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S.C.W.S.   Productive   Works, 
Shieldhall,  Govan. 

'"THE  Shieldhall  Works  of  the  S.C.W.S.  afford 
a  vivid  and  impressive  illustration  of  the 
growth  of  Productive  Co-operation  and  the 
inherent  force  of  the  Co-operative  Movement  in 
Scotland. 

Situated  on  the  south  side  of  the  road,  between 
Glasgow  and  Renfrew,  and  about  three  miles 
from  the  Society's  Central  Offices,  it  is  claimed 
for  the  remarkable  hive  of  industr^^  now  estab- 
lished there  that  nowhere  else  in  this  country-, 
or  any  other,  are  so  many  different  industrial 
operations  carried  on  within  one  common  gate- 
way. The  justice  of  this  claim  is  apparent  when 
it  is  recollected  that  the  production  of  the  various 
commodities  is  so  highly  specialised  as  to  call 
for  the  services  of  nearh^  one  htmdred  trades  or 
occupations.  There  are  now  sixteen  Factories 
in  operation,  employing  over  4,000  persons,  whose 
yearly  wages  bill  exceeds  /i 9 1,000,  and  who 
produce  goods  to  the  value  of  over  £1,045,000 
per  annum. 

In  the  planning  of  the  Works,  sanitation, 
ventilation,  and  good  health  conditions  have 
alwaj'S  been  insisted  on  ;  and  these,  combined 
with  the  best  labour  conditions  in  the  trades 
represented,  place  the  Shieldhall  Works  in  a 
position  second  to  none  in  Scotland. 


313 


New  Frontage  and  Printing  Department, 
Shieldhall. 

nPHB  illustration  on  the  opposite  page  shows 
the  building  which  eventually  will  form 
the  street  front  for  vShieldhall.  The  gateway 
and  side  structures,  with  a  large  portion  of  the 
west  wing,  are  already  completed ;  the  latter, 
with  the  whole  of  the  shaded  portion  to  the  right 
of  the  picture,  being  occupied  by  the  Printing 
Department. 

This  important  branch  of  the  Wholesale's 
industrial  enterprises  was  established  in  1887, 
and  transferred  to  Shieldhall  two  years  later. 
The  Department  has  extended  rapidly,  and  to 
the  original  letterpress  printing,  bookbinding 
and  paper- ruling,  paper-bagmaking,  lithographing, 
designing,  stereo  and  electro tj^ping,  machine  type- 
setting, and  paper-boxmaking  have  been  added 
in  the  order  given.  All  of  these  can  be  seen  in 
the  complex  establishment  of  to-day.  The 
forty-eight  hour  week  has  been  in  force  since 
1901,  and  at  the  present  time  (October  1914) 
there  are  over  500  persons  employed. 


314 


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Boot  Factory,  ShieldhalL 

T^HE  Boot  Factory  is  the  largest  of  all  the 
Shieldhall  Departments  and  the  first  to  be 
«estabHshed  there.  Started  originally  in  part  of 
what  is  now  the  Drapery  Warehouse,  Glasgow, 
it  has  expanded  with  very  great  rapidity,  and  at 
the  present  date  (19 14)  the  average  weekly 
output  is  well  over  15,000  pairs  of  all  classes  of 
footwear.  For  the  year  1913,  788,146  pairs  were 
manufactured. 

Kver>^  kind  of  boots  and  shoes  for  men  and 
women,  boys  and  girls,  is  now  made,  the  quality 
ranging  from  strong,  heavy  boots  for  pit  or 
workshop  to  the  most  elegant  of  footw^ear. 
The  supply  of  leather  is  drawn  from  all  parts 
of  the  world,  that  for  pit  boots  coming  from 
India,  box  calf  from  the  Continent  generally, 
black  and  tan  glace  kid  chiefly  from  America. 
For  the  last-named  class  of  work  alone  some 
82,000  goatskins  are  required  annually.  Altogether 
nearly  200,000  hides  are  used  up  in  the  course  of 
a  twelvemonth,  apart  from  over  300  tons  of  sole 
leather. 

An  auxiliary  Factory,  where  special  attention 
is  given  to  the  manufacture  of  boys'  and  girls' 
footwear  and  slippers,  is  situated  in  Adelphi 
Street,  Glasgow.  Equipped  with  every  modem 
labour-saving  appUance  and  machine,  the  Shield- 
hall  Boot  Factor\^  is  the  finest  and  largest  in 
Scotland.  At  October  1914,  1,400  persons  were 
employed  in  the  two  factories. 


317 


Cabinet  Factory^  ShieldhalL 

AN  Upholster}^  Department,  inaugurated  by  the 
Wholesale  in  1882,  and  conducted  for  a 
time  under  the  aegis  of  the  Drapery  Department, 
was  the  beginning  of  the  furniture  trade  now 
done.  In  1884  a  Cabinet-making  Workshop  was 
opened  in  Houston  vStreet,  Glasgow  :  and  here,, 
with  a  complement  of  six  persons,  the  making: 
of  furniture  was  begun. 

In  March  1888  the  scene  of  operations  was- 
removed  to  Shieldhall,  to  the  first  part  of  the 
existing  Factory,  which,  by  addition  after  addition 
to  meet  the  growing  demands  of  the  trade,  has 
reached  the  dimensions  of  the  building  shown 
in  the  illustration.  It  ranks  among  the  largest 
of  its  kind  in  Scotland,  and  structural  alterations 
now  being  effected  will  place  it  in  the  forefront 
of  such  establishments.  It  has  a  floor  space  of 
over  two  acres,  a  complete  electric  installation 
for  power  and  light,  the  May-Oatway  fire-alarm 
system  throughout,  and  is  replete  with  the  latest 
appliances  for  facilitating  production. 

The  furniture  turned  out  from  this  Factory, 
which  includes  every  article  required  for  house, 
office,  or  boardroom,  has  earned  a  name  for 
soundness  of  construction  and  beauty  of  design, 
and  received  the  well-merited  distinction  of  a 
Diploma  of  Honour  for  work  exhibited  at  Glasgow 
International  Exhibition  during  1901.  In  the 
Scottish  Historical  Exhibition,  held  in  Glasgow 
during  191 1,  the  magnificent  group  of  cases  and 
furniture  shown  by  the  S.C.W.S.  was  entirely 
produced  by  the  Cabinet  Factory,  Shieldhall. 


318 


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Dining-Rooms  and  Ready-made  Clothing 
Factory,  ShieldhalL 

i 

'T^HE  higher  part  of  the  buildings  shown  here 
is  occupied  by  the  Dining  and  Recreation 
Rooms.  On  the  ground  floor  are  two  large 
Halls,  supplied  with  newspapers,  periodicals,  and 
■other  means  of  recreation.  On  the  other  floors 
Directors'  and  Managers'  Dining  Rooms  and 
Halls  for  the  use  of  over  4,000  workers 
employed  at  Shieldhall  are  situated.  Meals  can 
be  obtained  there  at  rates  just  sufficient  to  cover 
cost  of  food  and  expenses  of  service,  and  these 
faciHties  are  largely  taken  advantage  of. 

The  Ready-made  Clothing  Factory  occupies  the 
long  range  of  building  to  the  rear  of  the  Dining 
Halls,  and  is  the  present-day  representative  of 
the  first  Clothing  Factory  of  the  Wholesale. 
This  was  started  in  188 1  in  Dundas  Street, 
Clasgow ;  was  removed  to  Wallace  Street, 
Clasgow,  soon  after  ;  and  from  thence  to  Shield- 
liall.  All  kinds  of  ready-made  clothing  for  men, 
youths,  and  boys  are  made  up  here,  immense 
quantities  being  turned  out  in  the  course  of  a 
year.  Every  appliance  for  facilitating  work  has 
been  installed,  and  this  Factory  to-day  will  hold 
its  own  for  arrangement  and  equipment  with  the 
best  in  the  countrv. 


321 


Chancelot  Roller  Flour  Mills, 
Edinburgh. 

r\IFFBRING  from  all  other  ventures  of  the 
Wholesale  in  the  magnitude  of  the  original 
undertaking,  Chancelot  Roller  Flour  Mills  repre- 
sent the  boldest  step  yet  taken  by  the  Society 
in  Co-operative  Production.  The  nature  of  the 
work  to  be  undertaken  precluded  the  possibility 
of  starting  in  a  small  way ;  and  it  was  only 
after  mature  deliberation  that  the  Directors 
entered  on  the  scheme,  of  which  the  building 
shown  on  the  opposite  page  is  the  outcome. 
A  feu  of  fully  three  acres  having  been  secured  in 
Bonnington  Road,  Edinburgh,  it  was  decided  to 
erect  thereon  a  group  of  mills,  the  output  of 
which  would,  at  least,  approximate  to  the 
demand  likely  to  be  made  on  them. 

The  opening  ceremony  took  place  in  August 
1894,  and  the  opinion  was  freely  expressed  that 
these  Mills  were  the  finest  of  their  kind  in  this 
or  any  other  country.  From  the  start  the  Mills 
have  been  entirely  successful.  They  are  now 
fully  e'quipped  with  the  most  improved  milling 
machinery,  and  have  been  kept  running  night 
and  day  to  meet  the  great  demands  made  on 
their  productions. 


322 


I 


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■-3 


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Junction  Meal  and  Flour  Mills, 
Leith. 

'T^HE  product  of  Chancelot  Mills  met  with 
such  a  favourable  reception  that  it  became 
necessary-  to  devise  some  plan  for  rapidly 
augmenting  suppUes.  The  Directors  therefore 
gave  their  attention  to  the  problem,  a  solution 
for  which  was  found  by  the  purchase  of 
Junction  Meal  and  Flour  ^lills,  Leith,  in  August 
1897.  These  important  Mills  are  in  the  immediate 
vicinit}^  of  Chancelot  Mills,  and  as  an  investment 
they  have  proved  both  satisfactory  and  profitable. 
Since  acquiring  these  Mills,  and  to  cope  with 
the  demand  for  Scotland's  staple  food,  the 
Oatmeal  Mill  has  been  entirely  remodelled  and 
extended.  About  1,200  sacks  of  flour  are  pro- 
duced per  week,  and  the  milling  of  pod  barle^^ 
is  also  carried  on. 


325 


Regent  Roller  Flour  Mills^ 
Glasgow. 

'T^HB  demand  made  on  the  products  of  the  two 
Mills  already  mentioned  justified  the  existence 
of  another,  and  the  question  of  building  or  acquir- 
ing one  was  immediately  taken  up.  As  a  result, 
arrangements  were  made  with  Messrs  John  Ure 
-&  Son,  the  proprietors,  and  in  November  1903, 
Regent  Mills,  Glasgow,  were  purchased  from  that 
firm  by  the  Society,  and  business  began  in  the 
following  year. 

Situated  on  the  banks  of  the  classic  Kelvin, 
the  story  of  these  Mills  runs  back  to  medieval 
times.  For  three  and  a  half  centuries  the  old 
Regent  Mills  were  in  possession  of  the  Bakers' 
Incorporation  of  Glasgow,  but  being  burned  down, 
in  1886  they  passed  into  the  hands  of  the  Messrs 
Ure,  by  whom  they  were  entirely  rebuilt  and 
enlarged  to  something  like  their  present  dimensions. 
Being  in  good  order,  production  commenced 
immediately  the  transfer  was  completed.  Various 
alterations  and  additions  have  since  been  made, 
and  the  Mills  now  rank  among  the  best  equipped 
in  the  country. 

The  total  productive  capacity  of  the  three  Mills 
•owned  by  the  Society  exceeds  12,300  sacks  per 
^week,  or  over  640,000  sacks  per  working  year. 


326 


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Grain  Elevators,  Winnipeg, 
Canada. 

AS  may  be  understood,  the  amount  of  grain 
necessary  to  keep  three  Mills  with  the 
working  capacity  of  those  just  described  in  full 
operation  is  very  large.  This  fact  soon  led  the 
Directors  to  consider  the  question  of  arranging 
to  purchase  the  raw  material  as  near  the  first 
source  as  possible,  and,  as  a  resiilt,  a  buyer  was 
appointed  in  1906  and  an  office  taken  in  Winnipeg, 
Canada,  the  capital  of  the  vast  wheat-growing 
regions  of  that  Colony. 

From  its  inception  the  step  has  proved  satis- 
factor>\  Thirteen  large  Elevators,  each  capable 
of  storing  30,000  bushels  of  wheat,  have  been 
erected  at  a  cost  of  over  £1,000  each  ;  and  other 
two  are  now  (1914)  in  course  of  construction. 
From  these  the  grain  is  forwarded  as  required 
to  the  Terminal  Elevators  at  Port  Arthur  and 
Fort  WilHam,  and  shipped  from  thence  to  this 
country  via  Montreal  when  the  St  lyawrence  is 
open,  or  from  ports  on  the  Atlantic  seaboard 
during  the  winter  season 


329 


Ettrick  Tweed  and  Blanket  Mills, 
Selkirk. 

A  FTER  being  carried  on  for  some  years  by  the 
Scotch  Tweed  Manufacturing  Society,  the 
shareholders  unanimously  agreed  to  the  transfer 
of  the  business  to  the  Wholesale  Society.  Details 
of  the  bargain  having  been  settled  and  matters 
amicably  arranged,  these  extensive  Mills  became 
the  property  of  the  Scottish  Co-operative  Wholesale 
Society  in  1895. 

vSince  then  the  Society  has  cleared  the  Mills 
of  all  old  types  of  looms  or  machinery,  and 
substituted  in  their  place  the  most  up-to-date 
appliances.  The  result  has  been  evident  in  the 
reputation  rapidly  attained  among  Co-operative 
societies  by  the  products  of  the  Mills,  Ettrick 
tweeds  and  blankets  being  held  in  high  esteem 
throughout  Co-operative  Scotland.  Quite  recently, 
for  the  making  of  all  classes  of  hosiery  yarns, 
spinning  machinery  of  the  latest  type  was 
introduced,  and  a  large  proportion  of  the  yarns 
used  in  the  S.C.W.S.  Hosiery  Factory  is  procured 
from  these  Mills. 


330 


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Soap  Works,  Grangemouth. 

pARLY  in  1896  the  Directors  decided  to  include 
the  industr>^  of  soapmaking  within  the  scheme 
of  the  Society's  operations,  and,  suitable  ground 
having  been  secured,  the  buildings  shown  on  the 
opposite  page  were  erected,  and  work  commenced 
at  Grangemouth  Soap  Works  in  October  1897. 

The  keen  competition  in  this  trade,  the 
prejudice  in  favour  of  other  soaps,  and  the 
difficulty  of  producing  an  article  which  would 
prove  generally  popular,  seriously  hampered  the 
progress  of  this  Department  in  its  earUer  years. 
Gradually,  however,  the  productions  rose  in  general 
esteem,  until  at  the  present  time  a  very  high 
percentage  of  retail  societies'  trade  goes  to 
Grangemouth.  Apart  from  the  ordinar}^  soaps 
and  cleansing  preparations  for  household  use, 
high-class  toilet  soaps  now  form  an  important 
branch  of  the  manufactures.  Extensive  alterations 
and  additions  have  been  made  at  various  times, 
and  the  Soap  Works,  equipped  with  the  latest 
machiner}^  and  appliances,  are  in  every  respect 
thoroughly  up   to   date. 


333 


Hosiery   Factory^   Leith. 

(OLD     DRESS     SHIRT     FACTORY.) 

T^HE    building    (shown    opposite)    was    erected 

for  the  manufacture  of  dress  shirts — on  a 

portion    of   the   ground    acquired   with    Junction 

Mill — ^work  being  commenced  in  December  1901. 

In  order  to  avoid  smoky  atmosphere,  and 
obtain  an  abundant  supply  of  water,  the  Laundry 
connected  with  the  Factory  was  removed  to 
Barrhead  in  1904,  and  again,  in  1909,  to  more 
suitable  premises  at  Paisley.  In  the  year  1912  it 
was  decided  to  transfer  the  Factory  also  to  that 
town,  and  the  productions  are  now  being  manu- 
factured and  finished  under  one  roof  at  Potterhill, 
Paisley. 

The    building    has    since    been    fitted    for    the 
manufacture     of     hose     and     half-hose,     which 
formerly    were    made    at    the    Hosiery    Factory 
Shieldhall. 


334 


Creamery  and  Margarine  Factory, 
Bladnoch,  Wigtownshire. 

'T^O  cope  with  the  demand  for  supplies  of  fresh 
butter,  and  also  with  a  \dew  to  the  manu- 
facturing of  margarine,the  Creamery  and  Margarine 
Factory  here  shown  was  erected  at  Bladnoch, 
Wigtownshire,  during  1899.  At  a  later  date  an 
Auxiliary  Creamery,  situated  at  Whithorn  in  the 
same  shire,  was  opened.  Placed  in  the  midst  of 
a  purely  agricultural  district,  where  the  desirable 
adjuncts  of  clear  atmosphere  and  absence  of  dust 
or  smoke  help  the  purity  of  the  products,  these 
Creameries  have  proved  very  successful. 

Complete  electrical  installations  have  been  fitted 
up,  and  the  machinery  is  of  the  latest  type. 
Consignments  of  the  productions  are  forwarded 
direct  to  societies  daily,  as  ordered.  Extensive 
Piggeries  have  also  been  estabHshed. 


337 


Fish-Curing  Works,  Aberdeen. 

'T^HB  growing  trade  in  fresh  and  cured  fish  led 
the  Directors  of  the  S.C.W.S.  to  consider  the 
advisabiHty  of  undertaking  this  industry,  and,  in 
1899,  Fish-Curing  Works  were  started  at  Aberdeen, 
the  largest  fishing  centre  on  the  Hast  Coast  of 
Scotland.  The  original  rented  premises  were  soon 
found  inadequate  for  the  requirements  of  the 
Department,  and,  later,  ground  was  leased  from 
the  Aberdeen  Harbour  Trust  and  the  buildings 
shown  on  the  opposite  page  erected. 

From  this  Depot  boats  are  engaged  at 
Scalloway,  I^erwick,  and  other  ports,  and  the 
catch  of  these  goes  direct  to  the  Curing  Works. 
In  addition  to  this,  large  purchases  of  fish  are 
made  daily  at  the  public  market.  These  are 
immediately  transferred  to  the  Wholesale's 
premises,  cleaned,  sorted,  packed,  and  sent  off 
so  expeditiously  as  to  be  on  sale  in  retail  societies' 
shops  all  over  Scotland  the  following  morning. 
A  very  successful  trade  is  now  done,  over  2,600 
tons  of  fish  being  dealt  with  annually. 

The  rendering  of  cod  liver  oil  is  now  assuming 
considerable  importance,  and  at  the  Works  a 
thoroughly  up-to-date  plant  for  this  purpose  has 
been  fitted  up.  The  oil  thus  extracted  is  taken 
up  by  the  Society's  Chemical  Department,  and, 
after  being  treated  there,  is  sent  out  to  societies 
in  the  form  of  emulsion. 


338 


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Dress  Shirt  Factory  and  Laundry, 
Potterhill,  Paisley. 

T^HIS  industry  was  commenced  in  October 
1901,  at  Leith,  in  a  building  erected  for 
the  purpose,  on  a  site  acquired  with  Junction 
Mill.  A  pure  atmosphere  and  abundant  water 
supply  being  necessary  for  the  finishing  of  white 
goods,  the  Laundry  was  removed  to  Barrhead 
in  1904.  In  1909  more  suitable  premises,  known 
as  Stonefield  Mills,  Potterhill,  Paisley,  were 
purchased,  and  the  lyaundry  was  removed  there. 

Three  years  later  (1912)  the  Factory  was  also 
brought  from  Leith,  and  now  the  goods — dress 
shirts,  collars,  and  fronts — are  manufactured  and 
finished  in  the  building  shown  opposite. 

While  managed  and  financed  by  the  S.C.W.S. 
Ltd.,  the  Department  is  worked  under  an 
arrangement  with  the  C.W.S.  Ltd.,  Manchester, 
whereby  profits  or  losses  are  allocated  to  each  in 
proportion  to  purchases.  It  is  understood  that 
ever>^  possible  support  be  given  by  the  latter, 
and  this  has  been  loyally  adhered  to. 

The  vacated  building  in  Leith  is  now  occupied 
as  an  additional  Factorj^  for  the  manufacture  of 
hose  and  half-hose. 


341 


Calderwood  Castle  and  Estate^ 
Lanarkshire. 

ID  Y  virtue  of  powers  entrusted  to  the  Directors 
to  acquire  in  Scotland  (or  in  Ireland)  such 
estates  or  lands  as  would  be  available  for  fruit- 
growing and  general  agriculture,  the  rich  and 
beautiful  estate  of  Calderwood,  lying  about  eight 
miles  east  of  Glasgow,  passed  in  1904  into 
possession  of  the  Scottish  Co-operative  Wholesale 
Society. 

The  Estate  extends  to  1,113  acres,  and  includes 
the  village  of  Maxwellton.  About  half  of  it  is 
let  as  farms,  and  of  the  remainder  350  acres  have 
already  been  devoted  by  the  Society  to  farming 
and  the  cultivation  of  fruit,  vegetables,  flowers, 
and  plants.  One  and  a  half  acres  have  been  laid 
out  for  the  rearing  of  tomatoes  under  glass ; 
and  a  rhubarb-house  covering  half  an  acre  has 
been  erected  for  growing  the  early  or  forced 
variety  of  that  plant. 

Self-contained  cottages  have  been  erected  by 
the  Society  near  the  village  of  Maxwellton,  and 
the  capability  of  the  Estate  generally  is  receiving 
the  careful  attention  of  the  Directors. 


342 


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[sf>e:ciivibn.] 

WEEKLY   STATEMENT   OF  ACCOUNT. 

9th  Week.  Ledger  Folio,  929. 

163rd  Quarter.  95,  Morrison  Street, 

GLASGOW,  May  29th,  1909. 

The  A.  B.  C.  Co-operative  Society  Limited. 

®  i\    SPo  Tie  Scottish  Co-operative  Wholesale  Society  Limited.   Cr. 


GOODS.                              1 

CASH    AND    CREDITS. 

n-t*        '  Amouutof 
"*'*•       each  Invoice. 

Balance  last  > 
Stotement. 

Diite.              Cash.             Credit. 

1                                               1 

Totals. 

£   s.    d.  !    £      s.   d.  ; 

j     £    s.    d.       £    s.    d.  ' 

£     s.     d. 

298    7    2 

May  21....! 

0    4    3  i 

May  24 . .  i       ....            050 

.... 

„     24.... 

18  11    7  : 

»     24..        . 

10    0 

„     24.... 

29    0    8  ; 

,,     25..!       . 

0  12     9 

„     24.... 

32    4    0 

„     25. .1       . 

0  12  10 

„     24.... 

0  17     7 

„     26.. 

0     5     6 

„     24.... 

4  10    0 

„     26.. 

0     10 

„     24.... 

4     4    0 

„     26.. 

13     6 

„     24.... 

3     2    6 

„     26.. 

2     7     0 

„     25.... 

0    6    6 

„     26..: 

0  12    9 

„     25.... 

0    8    3 

„     26.. i 

0  12     9 

„     25.... 

0  10  10 

„     27.. 

0  14     9 

„     25.... 

0    8    3 

„     27.. 

0  10    0 

„     25.... 

15    0 

„     27.. 

0  15     6 

„     25.... 

0  10  11 

„     27.. 

10  11     1 

„     25 

59  16    9  , 

„     27.. 1 

0  15     6 

„     25.... 

0  11     3 

„     27.. 

1  12    0 

„     25.... 
„     26 

7     3    5 
2  10    6 

22  11  11 
298    7     2 

„    28..    298    7    2 

„     2G.... 

4  17     6 

„     26.... 

0  15    2  1 

„     27... 

0    6    6 

j 

„     27.... 

0    9    2 

„     27.... 

17  10    0 

„     27.... 

0  18    0 

„     27.... 

3  10    6 

„     27.... 

5  13     8 

„     27.... 

12  11     1 

! 

„     27.... 

4  18    7 

*.!!! 

1 

„     28.... 

5     3    6 

' 

„    28.... 

0  12    9 

„     28.... 

0     1  10 

„     28.... 

2  14    9 

„     28.... 

18    6 

„     28.... 

27  12     8 

255  10     5 

To  balance 

By  balance 
£ 

232  18     6 

1  653  17     7 

I 

553  17     7 

If  the  above  Statement  dijfers  from  ymir  Books,  we  shall  be  glad  if  you 
will  point  out  the  difference  at  once. 


BB 


361 


Terms  of  Membership. 


EXCEEPT   FEOM   SOCIETY'S  EULES. 


Admission  of  Members  and  Application  for  Shares. 

The  Society  shall  consist  of  such  Co-operative  Societies  registered  under 
the  Industrial  and  Provident  Societies  Act,  or  any  employ^  of  this  Society 
who  is  over  twenty-one  years  of  age,  as  have  been  admitted  by  the 
Committee,  subject  to  the  approval  of  a  general  meeting  of  the  Society;  but 
no  society  trafficking  in  intoxicating  liquors  shall  be  eligible  for  membership 
in  the  Society,  and  each  admission  must  be  entered  in  the  minute  book 
of  the  Society.  Every  application  for  membership,  except  in  the  case  of 
employes,  must  be  sanctioned  by  a  resolution  of  a  general  meeting  of  any 
society  making  such  application,  and  the  same  must  be  made  in  the  form  as 
on  next  page,  said  form  to  be  duly  attested  by  the  signature  of  the  president, 
secretary,  and  three  of  the  members  thereof,  and  stamped  with  such  society's 
seal.  Every  society  making  application  shall  state  the  number  of  its  members, 
and  take  up  not  less  than  one  share  for  each  member,  and  shall  increase  the 
number  annually  as  its  members  increase,  in  accordance  with  its  last  return  to 
the  Registrar ;  but  no  member  other  than  a  society  registered  under  the 
Industrial  and  Provident  Societies  Act  shall  hold  an  interest  ^  in  the 
funds  exceeding  £50.  It  shall  be  in  the  option  of  any  society  to  apply  for 
shares  in  excess  of  their  individual  membership  at  any  time ;  such  applications 
shall  be  signed  by  the  president,  secretary,  and  three  members  of  committee, 
but  the  granting  of  such  excess  shares  shall  be  at  the  discretion  of  the 
Committee  of  this  Society. 

Any  employe  applying  for  membership  must  apply  for  not  less  than  five 
shares. 


Capital  :    How  Paid  Up. 

The  capital  of  the  Society  shall  be  raised  in  shares  of  twenty  shillings 
each,  which  shall  be  transferable  only;  every  member — society  or  employ^ — on 
admission,  shall  pay  the  sum  of  not  less  than  one  shilling  on  each  share  taken 
up,  and  the  unpaid  portion  of  the  shares  may  be  paid  by  dividends,  or  bonus, 
and  interest ;  but  any  member  may  pay  up  shares  in  full  or  in  part  at  any 
time. 

362 


Application  Form. 

Whereas,  by  a  resolution  of  the Co-operative 

Society  Limited, passed  at  a  general  meeting  held  on  the.. .. day 

of it  was  resolved  to  take  up shares  (being 

(me  share  of  twenty  shillings  for  each  member),  said  shares  being 
transferable,  in  tlie  Sizailish  (JDo-ffperatibe  Wi\ioltsB\z  S^aciti^ 
%ivxiUh,  and  to  accept  tJie  same  on  the  terms  and  conditions 
specified  in  the  Rules.  Executed  under  the  seal  of  th6  society  on 
the. . .  .day  of Attested  by 


y  Three  Members. 


BENEFITS   DEEIVED   FEOM   MEMBEESHIP. 

(a)  The  liability  of  the  member  is  limited,  each  member  being  only 
responsible  for  the  value  of  the  shares  held. 

(6)  Members  receive  double  the  rate  of  dividend  on  purchases  paid  to  non- 
members. 

(c)  Share  capital  is  paid  5  per  cent,  per  annum. 

{d)  Members  have  a  share  in  the  management  of  the  Wholesale  in  pro- 
portion to  the  amount  of  goods  bought,  as  each  society  has  one  vote  in  right 
of  membership,  one  for  the  first  £1,500  worth  of  goods  bought,  and  one  other 
additional  vote  for  every  complete  £3,000  of  purchases  thereafter. 

These  advantages,  added  to  the  special  benefits  secured  by  the  leading 
position  of  the  Wholesale,  will,  we  trust,  induce  societies  as  yet  non-members 
to  carefully  reconsider  the  question,  and  take  the  necessary  steps  to  secure  to 
their  members  the  full  benefits  of  co-operative  distribution. 


COEEESPONDENCE. 

All  letters  must  be  addressed  to  the  Society,  and  not  to  individuals. 
Addressed  envelopes  are  supplied  at  cost  price.  Separate  slips  ought  to  be 
used  for  the  different  departments — the  Accountant's,  Grocery  and  Provision, 
Drapery,  Boot  and  Shoe,  Furniture.  The  slips  can  all  be  enclosed  in  the  one 
envelope.  Attention  to  this  simple  rule  will  greatly  facilitate  the  despatch  of 
goods  and  ensure  promptitude  in  answering  inquiries  ;  it  will  also  aid  in  the 
classification  of  the  letters  for  reference  in  any  case  of  irregularity  or  dispute. 

363 


Cash  Remittance. 


Cheques  must  be  made  payable  to  the  Society. 


LIST  OF  BRANCHES  OF  THE  UNION  BANK  OF 
SCOTLAND  LIMITED. 


Head  Offices: 


-Glasgow,  Ingram  Street;    Edinburgh,  George  Street. 
London  Office: — 62,  Cornhill,  E.G. 


Aberdeen,  Castle  Street. 

„  Fishmarket. 

„  George  Street. 

„  Holburn. 

„  Torry. 

West  End. 
Aberfeldy. 

Aberlour,  Strathspey. 
Alloa. 
Alva. 

Ardrishaig. 
Ardrossan. 
Auchterarder. 
Auchtermuchty. 
Ayr. 

Ballater. 
Banchory. 
Banff. 
Barrhead. 
Barrhill. 
Bathgate. 
Beith. 

Blair-Atholl  (sub  to  Pitlochry). 
Blairgowrie. 
Bo'ness. 
Braemar. 
Brechin. 
Bridge  of  Allan. 
Buckie,  Banffshire. 
Campbeltown. 
Castle-Douglas. 
Clydebank. 
Coatbridge. 
Coupar-Angus. 
Crieff. 
Cullen. 
Dalbeattie. 
Dairy,  Galloway. 
Darvel  (sub  to  Galston). 
Doune. 
Dumbarton. 
Dumfries. 
Dunblane. 
Dundee. 
Dunfermline. 
Dunkeld. 
Dunning. 
Dunoon. 
Edinburgh,  Blackball. 

„  Chambers  Street. 

„  Golden  Acre. 

„  Gorgie  Markets 

(open  on  Tuesdays 
and  Wednesdays- 
sub  to  Haymarket). 

„  Haymarket. 

„  Hunter  Square. 

„  Lothian  Road. 


BRANCHES: 

Edinburgh,  Morningside. 
Muirayfield. 
Newington, 
North  Merchiston. 
Norton  Park. 
Piershill. 
S'th  Morningside. 
Edzell. 
Elgin. 
Ellon. 
Errol. 
Fochabers. 
Forfar. 
Fraserburgh. 
Galston. 
Gatehouse. 
Girvan. 
Glasgow,  Anderston. 

Battlefield. 

Bridgeton  Cross. 

Buchanan  Street. 

Charing  Cross. 

Cowcaddens. 

Dennistoun. 

Eglinton  Street. 

Gov  an. 

Hillhead. 

Hope  Street. 

Hyndland. 

Kinning  Park. 

Maryhill. 

Partick. 

Polloksshaws  East. 

St.  Vincent  Street. 

Shawlands. 

Shettleston. 

Springburn. 

StockweJl. 

Tollcross. 

Tradeston. 

Trongate. 

Union  Street. 
Glencraig,  Fife  (open  on  Mon- 
days, Wednesdays,  and  Satur- 
days-sub to  Lochgelly). 
Gourock. 
Greenock. 
Hamilton. 
Helensburgh. 
Huntly. 
Inveraray. 
Inverness. 
Inverurie. 
Irvine. 
Johnstone. 
Keith. 
Killin. 
Kilmarnock. 


Kilmarnock,  Riccarton. 

Kincardine. 

Kirkcaldy. 

Kirkwall. 

Kirriemuir. 

Ladybank. 

Largs. 
I  Larkhall. 

Leith. 
I       „       Leith  Walk. 

Lerwick. 

Leslie. 

Lochgelly,  Fifeshire. 

Lochgilphead. 

Macduff. 

Maybole. 

Mearns  (sub  to  Barrhead). 

Millport. 

Moffat. 

Moniaive. 

Motherwell. 

New  Aberdour  (open  on  Mon- 
days and  Fridays  —  sub  to 
Rosehearty). 

New  Pitsligo. 

Paisley. 

,,        Wellmeadow. 

Perth. 

Peterhead. 

Pitlochry. 

Port-Glasgow. 

Portknockie,  Banffshire. 

Portsoy. 

Renfrew. 

Rosehearty. 

St.  Margaret's  Hope,  Orkney. 

Scalloway,  Shetland  (sub  to 
Lerwick). 

Stewarton. 

Stirling. 

Stonehouse. 

Strachur,  Lochfyne  (open  on 
Thursdays-sub  to  Inveraray). 

Stranraer. 

Strathaven. 

Stromness. 

Stronsay  (open  during  fishing 
season  -sub  to  Kirkwall). 

Tarbert,  Lochfyne. 

Tarland. 

Thornhill. 

Thornton,  Fife  (open  on  Mon- 
days and  Market  Days — sub 
to  Kirkcaldy). 

Tillicoultry. 

Troon. 

Turriff. 

Wick. 


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EMPLOYES. 


NUMBEE   OF  EMPLOYES,   JUNE  27th,  1914. 


Distributive  Departments. 

General  Office Glasgow 

Grocery „ 

Stationery „ 

Potato  (not  including  Field  Staff) „ 

Cattle  Buying „ 

Coal    

Drapery  (Mantle  and  Millinery  Workrooms  included)    „ 

Boot    

Furniture „ 

Carting  and  Fodder „ 

Waste    , 

Cleaners     „ 

Miscellaneous „ 

Dining-room „ 


ShieldhaU 


Leith — Warehouse 

„         Carting  Department     

Kilmarnock 

Dundee 

Enniskillen  and  Creameries 

Edinburgh — Chambers  Street 

Greenock — Sugar  Forwarding 

London — Drapery  Office     

Canada  (Winnipeg) — Wheat  Buying 
, ,       Elevators    


Betail  Branch  Elgin 

»>  »)        Buckie 

» »  West  Barns 


Collective 
Totals. 

293 

186 

23 

7 

7 

6 

521 

131 

183 

258 

17 

20 

9 

24 

14 

1,699 

114 

72 

35 

7 

102 

38 

1 

3 

3 

11 


386 


24 


Productive   Departments. 


Boot  Factory,  Currying,  &c Shieldhall  1,104 

Parkview Glasgow  250 

Clothing  Factory,  Ready-made Shieldhall  442 

„       Bespoke  and  Caps    Glasgow  290 

Juvenile „  124 

Artisan  ShieldhaU  207 

„       Underclothing Glasgow  148 

WooUen  Shirts „  180 

„       Dress  Shirts Potterhill  249 

Laundry    „  84 

Hosiery ShieldhaU  161 

)j            n Leith  95 

„       Mantle  Glasgow  64 

„       Waterproof   56 

„       Hat  (Silk) ,  9 

„        Umbrella „  10 


Carried  forward 
893 


3,473 
5,582 


NUMBEE   OF  EMPLOYES,   JUNE   27th,  1914. 


Productive   Departments — continued.  Collective 

Totals. 

Brought  forward 5,582 

Saddlery Glasgow  12 

„       Leith  1 

Horse  Shoeing  Glasgow  5 

„             „         Leith  2 

Cartwright Glasgow  3i 

,,           Leith  7 

Motor  Engineering  Glasgow  13 

Engineering    Shieldhall  76 

Electrical    Glasgow  40 

Tinware Shieldhall  108 

Scale  Bepair Glasgow  17 

Cabinet    Shieldhall  274 

Brush „  46 

Printing „  491 

Tobacco „  193 

Preserve ,,  234 

Confection ,,  101 

Coffee  Essence ,,  59 

Pickle „  36 

Chemical    „  264 

Miscellaneous ,,  14 

Sausage  Glasgow  23 

Ham  Curing „  21 

„          „        Leith  12 

Aerated  Water Glasgow  98 

„             „       Leith  10 

„       Stirling  12 

,,             ,, Dunfermline  13 

Chancelot  Flour  Mills Edinburgh  97 

Junction       „          „ Leith  50 

Regent           „          „     Glasgow  97 

Ettrick  Tweed        „     Selkirk  170 

Ayrshire  Blanket     „     Galston  46 

Soap  Works    Grangemouth  123                  ; 

Fish  Curing   Aberdeen  75                  ' 

Creameries — Bladnoch  and  Whithorn • Wigtownshire  84 

Farm — Carntyne Lanarkshire  1 

Estate — Calderwood „  48                  \ 

Milk  Centre — Ryelands „  8                  < 

3,015       i 


Building  Department.  •  ^ 

Tradesmen 349 

Management 12 

361 


Total 8,958 

394 


BONUS   TO   LABOUR. 


The  paymeDt  of  bonus,  since  its  institution  in  1870,  has  taken  three 
different  forms.  Till  1884  employes  received,  on  wages  earned,  double  tl^e 
rate  per  £  allocated  as  dividend  on  members'  purchases.  This  arrangement 
was  then  replaced  by  one  which  set  aside  the  double  claim  of  the  employ^, 
and,  recognising  a  difference  between  workers  in  the  distributive  and  produc- 
tive departments,  established  a  differential  rate.  The  distributive  employes 
received  the  same  rate  of  bonus  as  was  the  rate  of  dividend  on  members' 
purchases,  and  the  rate  of  bonus  to  productive  workers  was  determined  by  the 
net  aggregate  profit  made  in  the  manufacturing  departments  only.  This 
arrangement  continued  till  189^,  when  the  system  of  bonus  payment  was 
again  revised.  Hitherto  the  whole  bonus  allocated  had  been  paid  over ;  but 
the  present  system,  which  allows  a  uniform  rate  to  both  distributive  and 
productive  departments,  requires  that  one-half  of  each  worker's  bonus  be 
retained  and  put  to  his  credit,  forming  a  special  fund,  called  the  Bonus  Fund. 
This  capital  bears  interest  at  the  rate  of  4  per  cent,  per  annum,  and  is  not 
withdrawable  until  the  expiry  of  three  months  after  leaving  the  service  of  the 
Society,  unless  with  the  consent  of  the  Committee. 

EMPLOYE-SHABEHOIiDEBS. 

Simultaneously  with  the  introduction  of  the  present  scheme  of  bonus, 
arrangements  were  made  to  permit  of  employes  becoming  shareholders  in 
the  Society.  The  number  of  shares  held  by  one  individual  may  range  from 
five  to  fifty  of  twenty  shillings  each,  and  the  paid-up  capital  bears  interest  at 
the  rate  of  5  per  cent,  per  annum.  By  the  rules  of  the  Society,  the  share- 
holding employes  are  entitled  to  send  one  representative  to  the  quarterly 
meeting,  and  one  additional  for  every  150  employes  who  become  shareholders. 
At  the  present  time  there  are  593  shareholders,  which  permits  of  a  repre- 
sentation of  four  at  the  business  meetings  of  the  Society. 

The  statements  following  show  the  amount  of  bonus  paid  each  year  since 
1870,  and  the  total  amount  thus  paid  to  employes,  also  the  Bonus  Fund  and 
the  Employe-Shareholders'  Fund  at  June  27th,  1914. 

395 


Bonus  to  Labour. 
First  Bonus  Scheme. 


Amount. 
£    s.     d. 


Average 
Bate  per  £. 

s.    d. 


Quarter  ending  November  19,  1870 . 


Year 


5  11    0     0    8 

40  10    0     0  lOJ 

52    7    0     0    9^ 

90     1     8     0    9^ 

...  0     8 J 


18,  1871 

16,  1872 

15,1873 

14,1874 116    9  0  

13,1875 109  15  4  0  8 

4,1876 108  13  4  0  8 

3,1877 12110  0  0  8 

2,1878 147  17  0  0  8 

2,1879 203     3  0  0  9^ 

October      30,1880..... 322    9  3  1  1 

November    5,1881 368    3  8  1  0 

4,1882 453     9  1  Oil 

3,1883 542    3  0  0  llj 

1,1884 484     2  6  0  9J 


Second  Bonus  Scheme. 


Year  ending 

Distributive 
Amount. 

Rate 
per  £. 

Productive 
Amount. 

Rate 
per  £. 

£ 

s.    d. 

s. 

d. 

£       s. 

d. 

8.      d. 

October     31,  1885  ... 

483 

13     1   .... 

0 

61  .. 

— 

— 

December  25, 1886  .... 

873 

0     6  .... 

0 

6i  .. 

— 

— 

31,1887   ... 

603 

0     2   .... 

0 

61  .. 

..      315     2 

1 

0    4 

29,1888  .. 

683 

12     1   .... 

0 

6i  .. 

. .      628  11 

7  ... 

0    7 

28,1889  ... 

833 

16  10  ... . 

0 

6i  .. 

..  1,016  14 

10  ... 

0    8^ 

27,  1890  . . . 

1,139 

6  10  ... . 

0 

7     .. 

..   1,762  10 

6  ... 

0  11 

26,1891  ... 

.   1,208 

9     3   .... 

0 

61  .. 

. .  1,802  14 

9  ... 

0    9 

31,1892  ... 

.   1,813 

8     3   ... 
396 

0 

6^  .. 

. .  2,320  11 

4  ... 

0    9 

Bonus  to  Labour. 
Present  Bonus  Scheme. 

£        a.  d. 

Year  ending  December  30,  1893 3,775  15  0 

29,  1894 3,563  18  9 

28,  1895 4,634  14  0 

26,  1896 5,965  17  9 

25, 1897 7,431     8  8 

31,  1898 7,017     2  6 

30,  1899 8,943  12  0 

29,  1900 9,938  10  8 

28,1901 10,502     8  8 

27,1902 11,136     0  0 

26, 1903 11,832  11  9 

31,  1904 12,476  12  8 

30,1905 12,418  15  7 

29,  1906 12,849     4  8 

28,1907 13,407  14  7 

26,1908 14,276  19  10 

25,1909..... 13,892     9  0 

31,1910 14,366    9  4 

30,1911 15,433     3  3 

28,1912 15,340  13  4 

27,1913 16,583    0  0 

Half  Year  ending  June  27,  1914 8,744  10  8 


Total  amount  paid  as  bonus  to  June  27th,  1914 £253,172  10     1 

Amount  of  Bonus  Fund  at  June  27th,  1914 75,942  10    5 

Employe-Shareholders'  Fund  at  June  27th,  1914 — 593  employes  holding 
18,339  shares,  with  £16,433  paid  up. 


Rate 
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8.     d. 

0 

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0 

6 

0 

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0 

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0 

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0 

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0 

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0 

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413 


THE  CO-OPERATIVE  UNION  LIMITED. 


Head  Offices  : 

HOLYOAKE  HOUSE,  HANOVER  STREET,  MANCHESTER. 

General  Secretary:    Mr.  A.  WHITEHEAD. 


Branch  Offices  : 

GLASGOW:     263,    WALLACE    STREET,    KINGSTON. 

Sectional  Secretary :  Mr.  Jas.  Deans. 

LONDON:     99,    LEMAN    STREET,    E. 
Sectional  Secretary :   Mr.  B.  Williams. 

NEWCASTLE-ON-TYNE :     84,    WESTMORLAND    ROAD. 
Sectional  Secretary :   Mr.  W.  Clayton. 


WHAT   IS   THE   CO-OPERATIVE    UNION? 

TT  is  an  institution  charged  with  the  duty  of  keeping  alive  and  diffusing  a 
•^  knowledge  of  the  principles  which  form  the  life  of  the  Co-operative  move- 
ment, and  giving  to  its  active  members,  by  advice  and  instruction — literary, 
legal,  or  commercial — the  help  they  may  require,  that  they  may  be  better  able 
to  discharge  the  important  work  they  have  to  do. 

WHAT  HAS  IT   DONE? 

The  greater  part  of  the  legal  advantages  enjoyed  by  Co-operators  originated  in 
the  action  of  the  Central  Board  of  the  Union,  and  the  Central  Committee  which 
it  succeeded.     They  may  be  summarised  as  follows : — 

(1)  The  right  to  deal  with  the  public  instead  of  their  own  members  only. 

(2)  The  incorporation  of  the  Societies,  by  which  they  have  acquired  the  right 

of  holding  in  their  own  name  lands  or  buildings  and  property  generally, 
and  of  suing  and  being  sued  in  their  own  names,  instead  of  being  driven 
to  employ  trustees. 

(3)  The  power  to  hold  £200  instead  of  £100  by  individual  members  of  our 

Societies. 

(4)  The  limitation  of  the  liability  of  members  for  the  debts  of  the  Society  to 

the  sum  unpaid  upon  the  shares  standing  to  their  credit. 

(5)  The  exemption  of  Societies  from  charge  to  income  tax  on  the  profits  of 

their  business,  under  the  condition  that  the  number  of  their  shares 
shall  not  be  limited. 

(6)  The  authorising  one  Registered  Society  to  hold  shares  in  its  own  corporate 

name  to  any  amount  in  the  capital  of  another  Registered  Society. 

414 


The  Co-operative  Union  Limited.   . 

(7)  The  extension  of  the  power  of  mombers  of  Societies  to  bequeath  shares  by 

nomination  in  a  book,  without  the  formality  of  a  will  or  the  necessity 
of  appointing  executors,  first  from  £30  to  £50,  and  now  to  £100,  by  the 
Industrial  and  Provident  Societies  Act,  1893,  which  also  makes  this 
power  apply  to  loans  and  deposits  as  well  as  to  shares. 

(8)  The  Industrial  and  Provident  Societies  Act,  1871,  which  enables  Societies 

to  hold  and  deal  with  land  freely. 

(9)  The  Industrial  and  Provident  Societies  Act,  1876,  which  consolidated  into 

one  Act  the  laws  relating  to  these  Societies,  and,  among  many  smaller 
advantages  too  numerous  to  be  mentioned  in  detail,  gave  them  the  right 
of  carrying  on  banking  business  whenever  they  offer  to  the  depositors 
the  security  of  transferable  share  capital. 

(10)  The  Industrial  and  Provident  Societies  Act,  1893  and  1913. 

The   Union   consists    of   Industrial   and    Provident    Societies,    Joint-Stock 
Companies,  and  other  bodies  corporate. 

No  Society  is  admitted  into  Union  unless  its  management  is  of  a  representative 
character,  nor  unless  it  agree — 

(1)  To  accept  the  statement  of  principles  in  the  rules  of  the  Union  as  the  rules 

by  which  it  shall  be  guided  in  all  its  own  business  transactions. 

(2)  To     contribute     to    the    funds    of    the    Union    the    annual     payment 

following : — 

A  contribution  at  the  rate  of  I^d.  in  respect  to  each  member  of  each 
such  Society,  and  calculated  according  to  the  number  of 
members  returned  by  each  Society  in  its  last  Annual  Return 
to   the    Registrar. 

The  financial  year  commences  on  January  1st  in  each  year,  and  ends  on 
December  31st  following. 


N.B. — Secretaries  forwarding  Cheques  on  account  of  the  Union  are  requested 
to  make  them  payable  to  the  Co-operative  Union  Limited;  Money  Orders  to 
N.  H.  Cooper,  Cashier. 


SUMMAEY    OF   THE    LAW    EELATING    TO    SOCIETIES 

UNDER   THE 

INDUSTRIAL   AND   PROVIDENT    SOCIETIES   ACT,    1893. 

I.  Tlie  Formation  of  Societies — 

1.  Application  must  be  made  to  the  Registrar  of  Friendly  Societies,  in 
London,  Edinburgh,  or  Dublin,  according  to  the  case,  on  a  form  supplied 
by  the  office,  signed  by  seven  persons  and  the  secretary,  accompanied  by  two 
copies  of  the  rules,  signed  by  the  same  persons. 

2.  These  rules  must  provide  for  twenty  matters  stated  on  the  form  of 
application. 

415 


.  The  Co-operative  Union  Liinited. 

N.B. — Model  rules  on  these  twenty  matters  can  be  obtained  from  the 
Registrar's  office ;  and  the  Co-operative  Union  Limited,  Holyoake  House, 
Hanovbe  Street,  Manchester,  publishes,  at  the  cost  of  IJd.  a  copy,  general 
rules,  approved  of  by  the  Chief  Registrar,  providing  also  for  many  other 
matters  on  which  rules  are  useful ;  and  capable  of  being  adopted,  either  with 
or  without  alterations,  by  a  few  special  rules,  with  a  great  saving  in  the  cost  of 
printing. 

The  General  Secretary  of  the  Union  will  prepare  such  special  rules,  without 
charge,  on  receiving  a  statement  of  the  rules  desired. 

II.  Bights  of  a  Registered  Society — 

1.  It  becomes  a  body  corporate,  which  can  by  its  corporate  name  sue  and  be 
sued,  and  hold  and  deal  with  property  of  any  kind,  including  shares  in  other 
societies  or  companies,  and  land  to  any  amount. 

2.  Its  rules  are  binding  upon  its  members,  though  they  may  have  signed  no 
assent  to  them ;  but  may  be  altered  by  amendments  duly  made  as  the  rules 
provide,  and  registered,  for  which  a  fee  of  £1  is  charged.  The  application  for 
registration  must  be  made  on  a  form  supplied  by  the  Registrar's  office. 

3.  It  can  sue  its  own  members,  and  can  make  contracts,  either  under  its 
seal  or  by  a  writing  signed  by  any  person  authorised  to  sign,  or  by  word  of 
mouth  of  any  person  authorised  to  speak  for  it,  which  will  be  binding  wherever 
a  contract  similarly  made  by  an  individual  would  bind  him. 

4.  It  may  make  all  or  any  of  its  shares  either  transferable  or  withdrawable, 
and  may  carry  on  any  trade,  including  the  buying  and  selling  of  land,  and  bank- 
ing under  certain  conditions,  and  may  apply  the  profits  of  the  business  in  any 
manner  determined  by  its  rules ;  and,  if  authorised  by  its  rules,  may  receive 
money  on  loan,  either  from  its  members  or  others,  to  any  amount  so  authorised. 

5.  If  it  has  any  withdrawable  share  capital  it  may  not  carry  on  banking, 
but  may  take  deposits,  within  any  limits  fixed  by  its  rules,  in  sums  not  exceeding 
10s.  in  any  one  payment,  or  £20  for  any  one  depositor,  payable  at  not  less  than 
two  clear  days'  notice. 

6.  It  may  make  loans  to  its  members  on  real  or  personal  security ;  and  may 
invest  on  the  security  of  other  societies  or  companies,  or  in  any  except  those 
where  liability  is  unlimited. 

7.  It  may  make  provision  in  its  rules  for  the  settlement  of  disjDutes  between 
members  and  the  society  or  any  officer  thereof,  and  any  decision  given  in 
accordance  with  the  conditions  stated  in  the  rules  is  binding  on  all  parties  to 
the  dispute,  and  is  not  removable  into  any  court  of  law. 

8.  If  the  number  of  its  shares  is  not  limited  either  by  its  rules  or  its  practice 
it  is  not  chargeable  with  income  tax  on  the  profits  of  its  business. 

9.  It  can,  in  the  way  provided  by  the  Act,  amalgamate  with  or  take  over 
the  business  of  any  other  society,  or  convert  itself  into  a  company. 

10.  It  can  determine  the  way  in  which  disputes  between  the  society  and  its 
officers  or  members  shall  be  settled. 

416 


The  Co-operative  Union  Limited. 

11.  It  can  dissolve  itself,  either  by  an  instrument  of  dissolution  signed  by 
three-fourths  of  its  members,  or  by  a  resolution  passed  by  a  three-fourths  vote  at 
a  special  general  meeting,  of  which  there  are  two  forms — (A)  purely  voluntary, 
when  the  resolution  requires  confirmation  at  a  second  meeting ;  (B)  on  account 
of  debts,  when  one  meeting  is  sufficient.  In  such  a  winding  up  hostile 
proceedings  to  seize  the  property  can  be  stayed. 

III.  Rights  of  Members  (see  also  IV.,  4,  5,  6)— 

1.  They  cannot  be  sued  individually  for  the  debts  of  the  society,  nor  com- 
pelled to  pay  more  towards  them  than  the  sum  remaining  unpaid  on  any  shares 
which  they  have  either  expressly  agreed  to  take  or  treated  as  their  property,  or 
which  the  rules  authorise  to  be  so  treated. 

2.  If  they  transfer  or  withdraw  their  shares,  they  cannot  be  made  liable  for 
any  debts  contracted  subsequently,  nor  for  those  subsisting  at  the  time  of  the 
transfer  or  withdrawal,  unless  the  other  assets  are  insufficient  to  pay  them. 

3.  Persons  not  under  the  age  of  16  years  may  become  members,  and  legally 
do  any  acts  which  they  could  do  if  of  full  age,  except  holding  any  office. 

4.  An  individual  or  company  may  hold  any  number  of  shares  allowed  by  the 
rules,  not  exceeding  the  nominal  value  of  £200,  and  any  amount  so  allowed  as 
a  loan.     A  society  may  hold  any  number  of  shares. 

5.  A  member  may  nominate  up  to  £100  of  his  holding  in  the  society, 
whether  in  shares,  loans,  or  deposits,  by  a  writing  recorded  by  it,  and  may 
revoke  the  nomination  of  any  persons  to  take  this  investment  at  his  death ; 
and  if  he  dies  intestate,  without  having  made  any  subsisting  nomination,  the 
committee  of  management  of  the  society  are  charged  with  the  administration 
of  the  fund;  subject  in  either  case  to  a  notice  to  be  given  to  the  Coromissioners 
of  Inland  Revenue  whenever  the  sum  so  dealt  with  exceeds  £80. 

6.  The  members  may  obtain  an  inquiry  into  the  position  of  the  society  by 
application  to  the  Registrar. 

IV.  Duties  of  a  Registered  Society — 

1.  It  must  have  a  registered  office,  and  keep  its  name  painted  or  engraved 
outside,  and  give  due  notice  of  any  change  to  the  Registrar. 

2.  It  must  have  a  seal  on  which  its  name  is  engraved. 

3.  It  must  have  its  accounts  audited  by  a  Public  Auditor  at  least  once  a  year, 
and  keep  a  copy  of  its  last  balance  sheet  and  the  auditors'  report  constantly  hung 
up  in  its  registered  office. 

4.  It  must  make  to  the  Registrar,  before  the  31st  of  March  in  every  year,  a 
return  of  its  business  during  the  year  previous,  and  supply  a  copy  of  its  last 
returns  gratis  to  every  member  and  person  interested  in  its  funds  on  application. 

5.  It  must,  once  at  least  in  every  three  years,  make  out  and  send  to  the 
Registrar,  along  with  the  Annual  Return  for  the  year,  a  special  return  showing 
the  holding  of  each  person  in  the  society  (whether  in  shares  or  loans)  at  the 
date  to  which  the  said  Annual  Return  is  made  out. 

FF  417 


The  Co-operative  Union  Limited. 

6.  It  must  allow  any  member  or  person  interested  in  its  funds  to  inspect  his 
own  account  and  the  book  containing  the  names  of  the  members. 

7.  It  must  supply  a  copy  of  its  rules  to  every  person  on  demand,  at  a  price 
not  exceeding  one  shilling. 

8.  If  it  carries  on  banking,  it  must  make  out  in  February  and  August  in 
every  year,  and  keep  hung  up  in  its  registered  office,  a  return,  in  a  form 
prescribed  by  the  Act ;  and  it  has  also  to  make  a  return  every  February  to  the 
Stamp  Office  under  the  Banking  Act. 

The  non-observance  by  a  society  of  these  duties  exposes  it  and  its  officers  to 
penalties  varying  from  £1  to  £50,  which  are  in  some  cases  cumulative  for  every 
week  during  which  the  neglect  lasts. 


418 


Women  in  Industry. 


BY  JAMES   HASLAM. 


r 


WE  have  in  the  title  of  this  article  a  subject  which  brings 
us  face  to  face  with  one  of  the  most  perplexing,  and 
perhaps  one  of  the  most  arresting,  problems  in  the 
extensive  realm  of  social  and  economic  investigation.  It  is  a 
problem,  too,  that  has  been  forced  upon  us,  or  rather  impressed, 
to  some  extent,  upon  the  mind  of  the  public  only  within 
recent  years.  Prior  to  the  birth  of  the  twentieth  century 
only  a  comparatively  few  persons — persons  usually  fascinated  by 
sociological  study — displayed  any  special  interest  in  the  subject, 
and  it  was  seldom  that  they  had  an  opportunity  of  imparting  their 
knowledge  through  popular  sources.  Owing  also  to  the  fact  that 
no  investigation  of  a  really  extensive  character  had  been  made, 
information  of  women  workers,  except  in  old-estabhshed  trades, 
was  incomplete  and  incoherent,  and  consequently  unreliable.  It 
was  impossible  to  work  out  a  comprehensive  or  trustworthy  survey 
of  wages  and  conditions  of  labour  from  previous  publications. 

It  is  still  difficult  to  do  this  with  anything  like  scientific 
precision.  But  those  who  have  been  accustomed  to  pursue  the 
subject,  and  make  progressive  notes  upon  it,  must  have  been 
vastly  encouraged  by  the  overwhelming  facts  and  figures  that  have 
been  brought  to  light  during  the  sex  and  social  restlessness  of 
the  past  few  years.  The  revelation  has  been  appalling  in  its 
■sordidness.  It  has  been  encouraging  only  in  the  proof  of  an 
awakened  interest,  and  a  stimulated  public  consciousness  in 
regard  to  conditions  that  have  been  discreditable  to  civilisation, 
and  in  proof  also  of  a  determination  to  marshal  facts  in  preparation 
for  local  and  national  effort  to  remove  deep  and  widespread 
grievances,  the  evils  of  which  no  man  or  woman  could  now  fully 
trace;  they  have  gone  to  the  grave  with  the  girls  and  the  women 
v/ho  have  been  their  victims. 

There  is  no  subject  to-day  of  more  importance,  nor  one  that  is 
likely  to  have  more  effect  upon  the  conditions  of  society  in  future, 
than  that  of  women  in  industry.  How  to  deal  with  it  adequately 
in  the  space  to  be  encompassed  in  this  contribution  is  one  of  the 
difficulties  that  would  present  itself  to  any  writer  who  has  given 
much  time  to  study  and  inquiry  regarding  it.  In  recent  years  the 
subject  has  forced  itself  upon  us  with  alarming  strides;  it  has 
been  contemporary  also  with  the  rise  of  various  activities,  new 
impulses,  and  desires  on  the  part  of  females;  and  anybody  who 

419 


Women  in  Industry. 

thinks  at  all  must  be  asking  himself,  or  herself :  What  is  the  cause 
of  the  increasing  cry  of  woman  for  a  more  active  share  in  the 
work  of  the  world,  for  greater  social  and  political  liberty,  for 
industrial  conditions  of  equality  with  that  of  man — in  fact,  for 
the  right  to  regulate  and  control  her  own  life  under  conditions 
which  have  not  been  permitted  hitherto  ?  What  does  it  all  mean  ? 
Whither  is  it  leading  us?  What  is  to  be  woman's  place  in  the 
society  of  the  future? 

It  is  not  my  object  to  deal  with  these  phases,  or  to  attempt  to 
provide  an  answer  to  them.  Men  and  women  in  widely  different 
capacities  are  wrestling  with  the  grave,  yet  somewhat  fascinating, 
problem,  which  the  interrogations  involve  or  suggest.  Politicians, 
social  scientists,  trade  union  leaders,  local  governing  authorities, 
employers  of  labour,  and  others  are  finding  themselves,  day  after 
day,  being  more  bound  by  the  questions  which  the  problem,  in 
the  course  of  its  evolution,  is  thrusting  upon  them.  There  will  be 
no  escape  from  it;  it  will  have  to  be  faced.  The  past  is  dead. 
And  the  newer  activities,  and  the  newer  outlook  of  women,  are 
playing  a  greater  part  than  most  of  us  are  aware  of,  perhaps,  in 
the  preparation  and  the  formation  of  the  new  social  world  we  are 
about  to  enter. 

But  my  only  province  here  is  to  treat  of  women  in  industry. 
I  have  no  intention  of  going  into  any  "ancient"  history  of  this 
subject;  it  is  too  much  of  a  live  problem  of  to-day,  and  of  the 
immediate  future,  to  waste  time  in  constructing  readable  phrases 
of  things  no  longer  with  us.  I  want  to  endeavour  to  present  the 
living  facts  as  we  have  them  before  us  at  this  moment.  I  should 
like  to  say,  nevertheless,  that  the  advance  of  woman  in  industry 
has  now  become  so  prominent,  and  so  permanent  as  a  feature  in 
national  life,  that  even  our  biologists  are  concerning  themselves 
about  it.  In  a  joint  work  on  Sex,  only  recently  written  by  Patrick 
Geddes  (Professor  of  Botany,  University  of  St.  Andrews)  and 
J.  Arthur  Thomson  (Professor  of  Natural  History,  University  of 
Aberdeen),  the  question  is  asked,  "What  may  be  the  place  of 
woman  in  the  contemporary  transformation  of  the  industrial  age?" 
Professor  Karl  Pearson,  in  an  essay  on  Woman  and  Labour  (1894), 
contended  that  woman's  problem  of  the  future  was  "to  reconcile 
maternal  activity  with  the  new  possibilities  of  self-development 
open  to  women."  This,  he  said,  was  par  excellence  their  problem. 
"It  is  not  one,"  he  also  wrote,  "which  can  be  solved  by  'equality 
of  opportunity,'  but  solely  by  the  recognition  of  maternity  as  an 
essentially  social  activity,  by  the  institution  of  some  form  of 
national  insurance  for  motherhood,  and  by  the  correlated  restriction 
and  regulation  of  woman's  labour."  Since  these  words  were 
written,  twenty  years  ago,  the  nation  has  recognised  the  necessity 
of  national  insurance  for  motherhood  in  the  maternity  section  of 
the  National  Health  Insurance  Act,  and  the  regulation  of  labour 
in  a  very  special  sense  in  the  Trade  Boards  Act,  though  women's 

420 


Women  in  Industry. 

labour  has  been  long  regulated  by  the  Factory  Acts.  But  the 
restriction  of  women's  labour  is  another  matter  altogether. 
The  tendency  of  industrial  changes  has  seriously  lessened  this 
restriction,  and  the  probability  is  that  in  future  sex  (except  through 
physical  causes)  will  not  be  a  barrier,  as  it  has  been,  traditionally, 
in  the  past,  to  social  and  industrial  activities,  whether  of  men  or 
women.  The  point,  however,  I  wish  to  emphasise  is  that  the 
scientists'  desire  to  secure  regulation  of  labour,  with  the  object  of 
making  it  more  compatible  with  woman's  maternal  function,  does 
not  go  far  enough.  Beyond  this,  the  woman  worker  of  the  future 
will  demand  economic  justice  and  more  freedom  from  the  selfish 
and,  in  too  many  instances,  cruel  form  of  exploitation  which  has 
stained  our  pages  of  industrial  history,  so  far  as  the  employment  of 
women  is  concerned. 

No  one,  however,  can  have  gone  closely  into  the  awakening 
which  has  taken  place  during  the  past  few  years  without  having 
observed  one  great  change  that  has  come  over  any  operations 
directed  towards  the  full  emancipation  of  women ;  and  that  is,  that 
whereas  women's  subjects  were  once  investigated  and  judged  only 
by  men,  comparatively  speaking,  women  themselves  have  not  only 
come  forward  to  investigate,  to  analyse,  and  to  pass  judgment, 
but  they  are  determined  to  wrestle  with  the  problem  themselves, 
and  be  the  foremost  in  helping  towards,  and  in  urging  and 
demanding  a  solution.  This  is  important  and  will  have  a  far- 
reaching  effect ;  for  it  means  that,  however  backward  men  may  be 
either  in  understanding  or  dealing  with  the  problem,  however 
cynical,  narrow-minded,  or  parasitical  some  of  them  may  remam 
with  regard  to  the  newer  resolve  and  the  newer  outlook  of  women, 
the  women  themselves  are  determined  to  make  their  own  progress. 
Men  may  or  may  not  be  wise  enough  or  sensible  enough  to  work 
side  by  side  with  the  women  as  social  comrades ;  but  what  I  want 
to  say  is,  that  it  does  not  depend  upon  men  so  entirely  as  it  has 
done  heretofore ;  the  new  factor  in  the  problem  is  the  perception  of 
women  themselves,  that,  if  women's  wrongs  are  to  be  righted, 
women  themselves  will  have  to  understand  and  champion  the 
cause.  The  test  of  one's  value  to  society  in  the  twentieth  century 
is  not  to  be  sex  alone,  but  service  to  the  well-being  of  the 
community.  We  would  seem  to  be  on  the  brink  of  a  newly- 
constructed  society,  a  new  world,  in  which  opportunity  must  be 
given  to  women  for  larger  development ;  for  freer  exercise  of  their 
capacities;  for  better  chances  of  attaining  a  level  of  equality  with 
men,  in  extending  to  family  existence  and  the  advancement  of  the 
State  every  condition  necessary  to  the  exaltation  of  human 
character  and  the  fulness  of  life  in  any  and  every  grade  of  society. 

THE    NUMEEICAL    POSITION    OF    WOMEN    WOEKEES. 

Now,  I  am  going  to  take  the  view  that  in  no  grade  of  society 
are  the  foregoing  remarks  more  applicable  than  among  the  working 

421 


Women  in  Industry. 

classes.  They  have  the  most  to  gain  by  better  and  higher 
conditions,  at  any  rate,  of  social,  industrial,  and  political  life.  They 
have  the  most  to  obtain  from  the  true  progress  of  democracy. 
And  if  they  are  to  take  their  proper  place  in  the  society  of  the 
future  they  must  have  more  justice  extended  to  them,  more  leisure, 
more  education,  more  control  of  the  means  of  life,  regarding  either 
physical  or  mental  requirements.  And  to  no  one  is  the  subject  of 
women  workers  of  more  vital  importance.  Their  women-folk  da 
not  work  to  provide  themselves  with  a  useful  hobby,  or  to  satisfy 
some  passing  whim ;  their  working-class  women — the  child-bearers 
of  the  industrial  race — are  wage-earners  and  bread-winners  in  real 
earnest.  They  should  be  the  very  first  to  rise  against  that  practice 
which  has  prevailed  now  for  too  long — that  is,  the  practice  of 
underpaying  women  for  industrial  service  merely  because  they  are 
females;  this  custom  of  exploiting  our  wives  and  daughters  and 
sisters,  yea,  and  our  mothers  and  grandmothers,  has  had  a 
disastrous  effect  upon  the  economic  and  moral  welfare  of 
working-class  life.  Hence,  who  should  be  more  interested  in  the 
advancement  of  women  workers  than  working  men?  And  as 
women  have  realised  that  they  must  solve  their  own  problems,  so 
the  working  classes  must  deal  with  their  own  difficulties  and  aims 
in  their  own  way,  and  learn  to  utilise  the  failures  of  self-effort  as 
stepping  stones  to  success.  But  we  must,  first  of  all,  perceive 
that  there  can  be  no  really  sound  progress  in  working-class  life 
without  the  application  of  high  principles  to  women  in  industry. 

However,  let  us  see,  in  the  first  place,  what  is  the  numerical 
position  of  women  in  industry,  and  to  what  extent  they  have 
gained  upon  males  in  industry.  It  is  in  the  continually  increasing 
numbers  of  female  workers  that  we  shall  realise  we  have 
before  us  a  grave  social  problem.  In  the  industrial  life  of  the 
nation  the  place  and  power  of  females  are  growing  rapidly. 
However  much  longer  women  in  other  grades  of  society  may  be 
prepared  to  play  the  satellite  to  man  in  the  social  affairs  of  life 
(and  this  is  becoming  less  in  evidence),  women  are  becoming  a 
greater  and  greater  part  of  the  industrial  strength  of  the  nation; 
almost  every  day  England  in  particular  becomes  more  seriously 
involved  in  the  problem  of  female  labour. 

D.uring  the  past  twenty  years  females  have  been  employed  in 
occupations  that  were  previously  wholly  monopolised  by  males. 
But  if  we  go  back  to  1841,  when,  according  to  writers  like  Frederick 
Engles,  the  working  classes  of  northern  industrial  centres  lived 
under  deplorable  housing  and  sanitary  conditions,  we  find  that 
women  were  beginning  to  increase  at  a  more  rapid  rate  than  men 
in  certain  groups  of  well-defined  industries.  This  may  be 
graphically  illustrated  by  a  tabulated  series  of  figures  which  I 
have  taken  from  an  edition  of  The  Evolution  of  Modern  Capitalism, 
by  Mr.  .J.  A.  Hobson,  published'  in  1894,  and  reproduced 
herewith. 

422 


Women  in  Industry. 


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Women  in  Industry. 

The  figures,  of  course,  speak  for  themselves.  The  totals  show 
at  a  glance  the  gradual  ascendency  of  females  over  males.  This  is 
attributed  to  the  development  of  machinery  in  manufacturing 
processes,  which  could  be  tended  by  females,  and  which  were  in 
some  cases  more  adapted  to  the  industrial  qualifications  of  the 
female  sex;  but  another  factor  which  undoubtedly  helped  the 
gradual  rise  of  females  in  number  was  that  they  could  be  secured 
at  cheaper  rates.  Whilst  this  circumstance  was  an  obstacle  to  the 
economic  improvement  of  working-class  family  life,  it  was  readily 
taken  advantage  of  by  capitalists  in  competition  one  with  another. 

However,  the  table  which  I  have  given  indicating  the  progress 
of  females  in  industry  leaves  us  with  the  numerical  position  as  it 
was  in  1891.  I  shall  not  attempt  to  bring  these  identical  figures 
up  to  date,  because,  owing  to  the  variations  made  in  the  census 
returns,  the  task  could  not  be  done,  in  all  probability,  with 
accuracy.  But,  so  far  as  the  figures  go.  in  the  groups  of  trades 
enumerated,  it  is  clear  that  there  was  a  remarkable  advance  in 
regard  to  the  employment  of  female  labour.  Let  us  now  see  the 
numerical  relationship  between  males  and  females  in  nine  groups 
of  our  manufacturing  industries,  as  shown  in  the  occupational 
census  returns  of  1901  and  1911:  — 


Trades. 


Precious  Metals,  Jewels,  ] 
Watches,  Instruments,  [ 
and  Games  (including , 
Electricity  Supply ) I 

Wood  Furniture,    Fittings, 
and  Decorations  

Brick,  Cement,  Pottery,  and 
Glass  

Chemicals,       Oil,       Grease, 
Soap,  &c 

Skins,    Leather,   Hair,   and 
Feathers  

Paper,   Prints,   Books,   and 
Stationery 

Textile  Fabrics 

Workersand  Dealers  in  Dress 

Food,  Tobacco,  Drink,  and 
Lodging  


Number  of  Persons 
Employed  in  1901. 


Totals. 


Males. 
148,491 

276,591 

152,795 

118,244 

90,672 

219,621 
594,742 
492,149 

929,049 


3,022,356 


Females. 
19,853 

81,041 

37,061 

31,431 

27,194 

114,640 
867,259 
903,646 

372,027 


2,404,152 


Number  of  Persons 
Employed  in  1911. 


Males. 
122,664 

344,509 

183,896 

155,245 

97,937 

252,880 
677,177 
511,880 

1,067,164 


3,413,351 


Females. 
25,153 

36,003 

42,707 

42,748 

34,564 

145,623 
958,907 
895,298 

543,853 


2,724,856 


It  may  be  repeated  that  the  above  list  of  industriog  embraces 
nearly  the  whole  of  our  manufacturing  trades.  The  position  of 
females,  it  will  be  observed,  has  been  well  maintained  during  the 
ten  years  covered  by  the  statistics.  Males  increased  by  390,996, 
and  femaiesi  by  320,704.  However,  the  figures  clearly  indicate  to 
what  a  large  extent  we  are  dependent  upon  the  services  of  females 

424 


Women  in  Industry. 

in  the  continual  output  of  our  manufactured  goods.  I  shall 
endeavour  to  show,  later  on,  how  unfairly  we  have  rewarded  them 
in  the  form  of  wages. 

According  to  the  census  of  1911  the  following  was  the  number 
of  males  and  females  over  ten  years  of  age  occupied  as  wage-earners 
and  profit-makers  in  the  United  Kingdom :  — 


Country. 

Males.             !           Females. 

England  and  Wales   ' 

11,453,665                 4,830  734 

Scotland 

Ireland  

1,473,757                     593,210 
1,387,198                    430,092 

Totals  , 

14,314,620       ;           5,854,036 

1 

The  total  number  occupied  in  1901  was: — Males,  12,951,186; 
females,  5,309,960.  Of  the  5,854,036  females  employed  in  1911 
there  were  2,045,563  engaged  in  domestic  offices  or  services,  thus 
leaving  3,808,473  at  work  in  an  industrial,  a  commercial,  and 
professional  capacity.  It  is  surprising  how  great  has  been 
the  development  among  women  in  connection  with  many  of 
our  industries,  and  in  such  trades  in  which  females  a  few  years 
ago  were  almost  unknown.  As  iron  and  steel  workers  in  England 
and  Wales  the  growth  of  women  from  1901  to  1911  was  19'4 
per  cent.,  and  that  of  men  11"9  per  cent.  In  the  making  of  tinplate 
goods  men  decreased  by  10'5  per  cent.,  and  women  increased  by 
86'1  per  cent.  !  In  white-plated  ware  men  decreased  by  1'2  per 
cent.,  and  women  went  up  by  312  per  cent.  In  brassfounding, 
finishing,  &c.,  men  declined  by  12'9  per  cent.,  and  women 
ascended  by  20'3  per  cent.  There  was  also  a  diminution  of  men 
employed  in  the  manufacture  of  precious  metals,  jewellery, 
watches,  &c.,  to  the  extent  of  2*9  per  cent.;  on  the  other  hand, 
females  came  out  with  an  increase  of  26"3  per  cent.  Even  when 
we  come  to  the  making  of  scientific  instruments  and  photographic 
appliances,  in  which  accuracy  and  patience  are  required,  we  find 
that  women  were  added  to,  during  the  decennial  period,  at  the  rate 
of  80'1  per  cent.,  and  men  at  the  rate  of  53'0  per  cent. 

And  so  one  might  proceed  with  numerous  other  proofs  that 
females  are  entering  even  metal  trades  at  a  greater  rate  than 
males  are — trades  held  exclusively  by  males  only  a  few  years  ago. 
It  is,  in  fact,  surprising  how  our  sisters,  wives,  and  mothers  have 
been  provided  with  employment  in  almost  every  character  of 
engineering  work,  where  machinery  has  gradually  displaced  the 
strength,  endurance,  and  the  old  hand  skill  of  men.  Females  have 
to  take  their  place  in  the  making  of  nails,  rivets,  heavy  chains, 
in  "general  engineering*'  and  machine  making,  in  the  manufacture 
of  textile  fittings,  of  machine  tools,  gas-fittings,  and  of  metal 
requirements  of  various  descriptions.  In  England  and  Wales, 
from  1901  to  1911,  females  in  the  making  of  gas-fittings  increased 

425 


Women  in  Industry. 

by  170'8  per  cent,  and  men  by  1451.  Eespecting  furniture, 
fittings,  and  decorations,  women  again  had  the  greater  percentage 
of  increase,  as  they  had  in  earthenware  manufacture.  In  1881 
there  were  62  women  to  every  100  men  in  the  making  of 
earthenware,  china,  and  porcelain  goods;  this  proportion  had 
risen  to  73  to  the  100  in  1911.  Hence,  measured  by  percentage, 
the  pace  of  woman  is  quicker  than  that  of  man.  Few  occupations 
are  now  free  from  the  advance  of  our  sisters.  In  printing, 
Hthography,  and  bookbinding  they  recorded  an  increase  of  43 '9 
per  cent,  from  1901  to  1911,  compared  to  17'6  per  cent,  respecting 
men.  Woman  is  taking  the  same  course  that  man  has  done  in 
the  gradual  acquisition  of  rights  and  liberties;  year  by  year  she 
becomes  a  greater  industrial  asset;  year  by  year  she  will  realise 
strength  in  the  nation's  dependency  upon  her  industrial  skill  and 
training ;  year  by  year  she  will  rise  from  a  low  to  a  higher  economic 
position  in  social,  industrial,  and  family  life;  from  the  higher 
economic  ground  she  will  proceed  to  greater  industrial  justice  for 
herself  and  her  sisters ;  and  by  the  extension  of  her  industrial 
position,  and  her  indispensable  place  in  factory  and  workshops 
organisation,  she  will  enlarge  her  perception  of  the  value  of  trade 
union  and  political  power.  We  are  told  that  in  the  census  of 
1831  (the  year  preceding  the  passing  of  the  great  Eeform  Act)  many 
householders  made  no  attempt  to  eftter  their  women-folk  in  the 
population  columns  as  separate  beings  from  themselves.  They 
were  the  little  lords  of  creation.  They  lumped  their  wives  and 
children  and  female  servants  together,  and  counted  them  as  one 
person  along  with  the  householder.  In  many  cases  females  were 
returned  as  belonging  to  neither  agricultural,  industrial,  nor 
commercial  classes;  there  were  not  a  few  instances  in  which 
females  were  left  out  of  the  returns  altogether  as  being  of  no 
account.  But  times  have  changed !  Woman  has  continued  to 
push  her  way  into  various  activities  of  life  and  work,  and  in  no 
class  is  her  advance  more  persistent  than  in  that  of  the  industrial 
necessities  of  the  nation.  What  does  it  all  mean?  What  will  be 
the  outcome  of  it  in  regard  to  the  sex  and  economic  circumstances 
of  society?  In  The  Evolution  of  Modern  Capitalism,  Mr.  J.  A. 
Hobson  wrote :  — 

Modern  manufacture  with  machinery  favours  the  employment  of  women 
as  compared  with  men.  Each  census  during  the  last  half  century  shows  that 
in  England  women  are  entering  more  largely  into  every  department  of 
manufacture,  excepting  branches  of  metal  work,  machine  making,  and 
shipbuilding,  &c.,  where  great  muscular  strength  is  a  prime  factor  in  success. 

It  is  twenty  years  since  that  was  written,  and  since  then 
women  have  entered  several  of  the  metal  trades  from  which  they 
were  barred  at  that  time. 

AVERAGE  EARNINGS   OF  FEMALES   IN   EMPLOYMENT. 

From  the  foregoing  pages  we  have  seen,  or  measured,  the 
numerical  position  of  women  in  industry.    We  have  perceived  that 

426 


Women  in  Industry. 

in  many  trades  females  are  increasing  at  a  greater  percentage  rate 
than  men  are.  We  have  next  to  gather  some  particulars  about 
the  way  that  our  women  workers  are  compensated  in  actual  wages 
for  their  industrial  service.  The  whole  of  the  pages  of  this 
contribution  might  very  well  have  been  occupied  with  the  gloomy 
facts  of  this  section  of  the  subject  alone.  From  the  point  of  view 
of  wages  society's  treatment  towards  the  women  is  not  one  of 
which  we  can  be  justly  proud.  Of  late  years  the  economic 
conditions  of  females  in  industry  have  improved,  and  that 
improvement  continues.     Let  us  hope  that  it  will  not  be  set  back. 

In  1906  the  Board  of  Trade  made  a  very  wide  and  detailed 
investigation  into  the  wages  of  workers  in  almost  every  industry 
in  the  United  Kingdom.  On  the  whole,  wages  are  not  much 
different  to-day.  In  some  instances  they  are  slightly  higher,  and  in 
other  instances  slightly  lower,  according  to  the  periodical  rising  and 
falling  of  wages  rates  in  all  industries.  There  has,  perhaps,  been  a 
greater  tendency  towards  higher  rates  among  females  than  among 
males,  owing  to  the  awakening  of  public  consciousness,  and  the 
interference  with  wages  rates  among  sweated  industries — mainly 
composed  of  women,  forsooth — by  the  Government.  The  effect  of 
the  Trade  Boards  Act  of  1909  has  been  encouraging.  But  I  shall 
allude  to  this  at  greater  length  when  dealing  with  the  lowest-paid 
trades. 

The  figures  which  I  now  wish  to  present  are  based  upon  the 
earnings  of  women  for  one  full  week — the  last  pay-day  week — in 
September  of  1906.  I  am  relying  upon  this  week  of  1906,  because 
we  can  get  from  it  tlie  most  complete  return  on  earnings  and  hours 
of  labour  that  has  ever  been  issued  by  any  organisation  or  any 
State  department.  And,  in  order  to  indicate  the  low  estimate  that 
has  been  put  upon  girls  and  women  as  industrial  workers,  I  shall 
compare  their  earnings  with  those  of  boys  and  lads.  It  will  be 
seen  that  the  wages  of  women  over  eighteen  years  of  age  are 
much  the  same  as  lads  under  twenty;  as  a  matter  of  fact,  in 
some  cases  they  do  not  reach  the  standard  paid  to  mere  boys. 

At  this  time,  when  many  people  are  claiming  for  women  who 
perform  work  equal  to  that  of  men  a  wage  equal  to  men's  wages, 
it  is  important  that  we  should  realise  that  they  have  been  up  to 
the  present  rated  with  boys.  Even  if  we  leave  aside  the  relative 
value  of  the  work  performed  by  women  and  by  boys  of 
comparatively  tender  age,  it  may  still  be  argued  that  a  worker 
employed  in  any  industrial  pursuit  during  the  full  working  hours 
of  the  week  should  be  paid  a  sufficient  wage  to  provide  food, 
clothing,  and  shelter.  A  very  large  percentage  of  adult  women 
workers  do  not  earn  that  life's  sufficiency;  they  cannot  provide 
themselves  with  a  decent  livelihood,  and,  in  spite  of  a  hard  week's 
work,  they  must,  perforce,  rely  upon  charity,  or  the  help  of 
relatives  at  every  emergency  that  arises.  The  measure  of  injustice 
meted  out  to  adult  women  is  further  emphasised  when  we  remember 

427 


Women  in  Industry. 

that  whilst  a  lad  receives  a  greater  wage  than  she,  he,  when  he 
becomes  an  adult,  has  the  opportunity  in  skilled  trades  of  having 
his  wages  advanced  to  anything  from  100  to  over  200  per  cent, 
in  excess  of  the  earnings  of  grown-up  women.  The  outlook  of 
the  woman  worker  is  seriously  handicapped  in  this  respect :  as 
girls  they  are  rated  at  a  lower  standard  than  boys.  As  adult  women 
they  occupy  the  level  'of  lads  from  fourteen  to  twenty  years  of  age. 
And  they  remain  in  that  position  whilst  lads  go  ahead. 

However,  in  order  to  show  clearly  the  position  of  girls  and 
adult  women  as  compared  with  boys  and  lads,  I  have  compiled 
three  tables.  The  first  shows  industries  in  which  the  wages  of 
women  are  fairly  higher  than  the  wages  of  lads ;  the  second 
tabulates  trades  in  which  lads  and  women's  wages  are  pretty 
much  alike;  the  third  deals  with  industries  in  which  adult  women's 
wages  are  lower  than  those  paid  to  lads.  Each  table  gives  the 
wages  for  a  full  week's  work.    The  first  table  is  as  follows :  — 


Trades. 


Lads  and 
Boys. 


Women. 


Girls. 


Printing  

Bookbinding. 

Paper,  Stationery  Manufacture 

Wallpaper :  Process  Block  Making 

Baking  and  Confectionery 

Chocolate  Workers 


s.  d. 

8  7 

8  8 

8  6 

9  7 
9  6 
9  8 


Musical  Instrument  Manufacture |  9 

Umbrella,  Parasol,  and  Stick  Making... |        10 


s.  d. 
12  3 
12  10 

11  11 
18     9 

12  8 

14  10 
(Piece 
Rates.) 

15  9 
15     7 


6  6 

9  5 

6  5 

6  7 


8     3 
6  11 


We  will  now  take  the  second  table: 


Trades. 


Lads  and 
Boys. 


Women. 


Girls. 


C!ardboard,Canvas,&c.,BoxManufacture 

Earthenware,  &c 

Chemical  Manufacture 

Lime,  &c.,  Works  

Soap  and  Candle  Makers 

Saltworks  

Olass  Industry  

Preserve  Foods,  Jam,  Pickles,  «fec 

Biscuit  Manufacture  

Aerated  Water  Manufacture  

Tobacco,  &c.,  and  Snuff  Manufacture  ... 

Leather  Tanning  and  Dressing  

Brush  and  Broom  Makers 

India-rubber,  Gutta-percha,  &c 

Linoleum,  Oilcloth 

Miscellaneous  Leather  Goods  

Miscellaneous  Industries  


s.    d. 
10     3 


11 
10 


11     9 

11     0 

9     8 

9     1 

10  4 
9  10 
9  6 
9     9 

11  0 
9  11 
9  11 

10  5 
10  5 
10     7 


s.    d. 

12  3 
11  11 
10     8 

13  1 


12 
10 


10  6 
10  11 
10  10 
9  7 
12  0 
12  11 
10  6 
12  8 
12  9 
12  8 
12     5 


s.  d. 

6  1 

6  2 

7  4 

8  6 
6  11 
6  11 

6  7 


7 

7 

6 

9 

6 

7 

7 

6     6 

6    9 


428 


Women  in  Industry. 

The  third  table  (showing  in  which  trades  women  receive  less 
wages  than  lads  and  boys)  is  as  follows:  — 


Trades. 


Brick,  Tile,  Pipe,  Fire-clay  Ware 11 

Glass  Bottle  Makers i  12 

Explosives  Manufacture |  15 

Grain  Milling i  11 

Malting  and  Brewing j  10 

Chocolate  Workers i  9 

Confectionery  Workers :  9 

Sugar  Refining I  12 

Spirit  Distilling !  12 

Oil-seed  and  Oil-cake  Manufacture i  13 


In  all  the  above  trades  female  workers  are  poorly  organised  as 
regards  trade  unionism;  in  many  of  the  trades  there  is  no  trade 
union  at  all.  It  is  in  the  textile  industries  where  females  are  the 
best  organised,  and  where,  on  the  whole,  there  is  a  greater  disparity 
between  the  wages  of  lads  and  women,  to  the  advantage  of  the 
women.  In  order  to  make  our  comparisons  complete  I  have 
compiled  the  following  table  of  textile  trades :  — 

Trades.  Lads  &  Boys.      Women.  Girls. 

:  s.  d.  3.  d.  s.  d. 

Cotton  I  11  6  18  8  10  1 

Woollen  and  Worsted ;  8  10  13  10  8  4 

Linen i  7  8  10  9  6  7 

Jute  10  11  13  5  9  8 

Silk i  8  2  11  2  6  4 

Hosiery I  9  5  14  3  7  9 

Lace j  12  8  13  5  7  1 

Fustian  and  Cord  Cutting |  9  8  10  10  8  1 

Bleaching,  Dyeing,  &c. ..I  10  8     ,       12  4  8  2 

Other  trades  that  may  be  cited  are :  — 


Trades. 


Lads  &  Boys. 

Woraen.     | 

Girls. 

s.    d. 

s.  d.    ! 

s.    d. 

9   11 

15     5 

6     4 

8  11 

11   10 

5     1 

6   11 

14    2     : 

5     5 

8     9 

13     4 

6     9 

10     4 

12     4     i 

6     9 

12     7 

16     4     i 

7     8 

10     7 

13  10 

7     2 

8     9 

12  10     i 

6     6 

9     4 

12     9 

6     7 

Dress,  MilUnery,  &c.  (factory) 

Tailoring  (ready-made) 

Tailoring  (bespoke) 

Shirt,  Blouse,  Underclothing  .. 

Boot  and  Shoe  

Silk  Hat  and  Felt  Hat 

Dyeing  and  Cleaning 

Laundry  (factory)  

Laundry  (workshop)  


429 


t  Women  in  Industry. 

These  figures  give  a  clear  indication  of  the  general  lowness  of 
women's  wages,  even  in  trades  that  are  mainly  on  a  higher  level 
than  those  that  are  branded  as  "sweated."  But  they  do  not  tell 
the  whole  of  the  sorry  story.  At  any  rate,  they  demonstrate  the 
economic  position  of  grown-up  women  as  compared  with  male 
3^ouths  in  a  remarkable  way.  The  position,  too,  is  worse  than  the 
figures,  bad  as  they  are,  would  lead  one  to  perceive.  For  instance, 
the  average  wages  for  "boys  and  lads"  are  lumped  together — 
that  is,  the  average  is  one  made  up  from  the  total  earnings  of  all 
males  below  twenty  years  of  age.  With  regard  to  women  the 
average  is  that  of  all  women  above  eighteen  years  of  age.  Hence, 
if  the  average  for  all  females  were  based  on  the  same  age  condition 
as  that  of  boys  and  lads,  women  would  compare  still  worse  with 
males  who  are  below  the  age  of  domestic  responsibility.  What  it 
means  is  that  the  mother  of  a  family,  who,  through  one 
circumstance  or  another,  may  be  the  principal  bread-winner,  is 
rated,  as  a  wage-earner,  on  no  higher  level  than  the  majority  of 
youths  at  any  age  from  sixteen  to  twenty  years. 

In  the  factories  and  workshops  of  the  United  Kingdom,  or,  at 
any  rate,  of  Great  Britain,  there  are  well  over  2,000,000  girls 
and  women  employed.  The  Duchess  of  Marlborough  recently 
estimated,  after  an  investigation,  that,  in  all  probability,  300,000 
women  in  "organised"  industries  receive  less  than  12s.  per 
week.  This  alludes  to  "women,"  not  girls.  But  if  you  take  the 
average  earnings  shown  in  the  tables  above,  and  consider  that 
deductions  are  being  constantly  made  through  sickness,  breakdowns 
of  machinery,  trade  depression,  seasonal  slackness,  shortness  of 
raw  material,  general  and  statutory  holidays,  it  will  be  seen  that 
a  very  great  number  of  our  adult  women  workers  do  not  obtain 
12s.  per  week  the  year  round.  It  has  been  estimated  by  the 
Women's  Industrial  Council  that  the  minimum  sum  necessary  to 
meet  the  minimum  requirements  of  a  desirable  life  of  a  single 
woman  is  15s.  per  week.  This  is  for  a  single  woman.  What 
about  the  thousands  of  married  women  and  widows,  who  have 
dependents  in  the  way  of  underpaid  or  unemployed  husbands, 
infirm  or  unemployable  husbands,  or  young  children?  But  the 
15s.  standard  is  certainly  low  enough.  It  was  stated  by  Mr. 
Barnes  (an  officer  of  the  Board' of  Trade)  before  a  Select  Committee 
of  the  House  of  Commons,  in  July,  1913,  that  out  of  500,000 
women  whose  wages  had  been  estimated  by  the  Board  of  Trade, 
19  per  cent,  earned  less  than  10s.  per  week.  Take  the  groups  I 
have  enumerated  above ;  there  are  fifty-four  of  them.  The  average 
earnings  for  a  full  week's  work  was  less  than  15s.  per  week  in 
forty-eight  of  the  groups;  it  was  under  14s.  in  forty-five 
of  the  groups;  it  was  under  12s.  in  twenty-three  of  the 
groups;  it  was  under  lis.  in  seventeen  groups.  Hence, 
when  you  consider  the  deductions  to  which  I  have  alluded, 
it  will  be  perceived  that  there  is  very  much  yet  to  be  done  before 

430 


Women  in  Industry. 

a  standard  of  economic  independence  can  be  secured  for  adult 
women  workers.  If  we  next  look  at  the  wages  of  girls  (females 
under  eighteen  years  of  age)  we  shall  find  that  they  occupy  a 
very  poor  place  in  our  industries  as  compared  with  boys.  The 
labour  they  perform  in  many  trades,  however,  is  not  necessarily  of 
less  value  to  the  life  and  upkeep  of  the  nation;  their  outlook  at 
present  is  not  encouraging ;  they  proceed  from  a  low  standard  as 
girls  to  a  low  standard  as  women.  With  boys  it  is  the  other  way 
about.  There  is  nothing,  perhaps,  that  tends  to  destroy  the 
dignity,  the  health,  virtue,  and  the  independence  of  workers  so 
much  as  inadequate  wages  or  earnings  that  will  not  purchase  the 
common  requirements  of  the  week.  To  many  young  women  it 
means  moral  ruin.  If  women  must  work,  either  out  of  sheer 
necessity,  or  for  the  purpose  of  maintaining  personal  independence, 
or  even  for  the  cheapness  of  production,  it  is  not  fair  to  expect  a 
high  standard  of  dignity,  refinement,  and  morality  from  them  if 
they,  as  adult  creatures,  are  kept  to  the  level  of,  or  below,  the 
economic  plane  of  lads.  To  leave  them  in  this  position  is  to 
perpetuate  a  grave  national  discredit.  Of  course,  it  should  be 
explained  that  one  does  not  get  a  full  understanding  of  the 
economic  circumstances  of  women  workers  by  viewing  the  subject 
from  the  basis  of  average  earnings  given  in  the  form  of  bare 
statistics.  Obviously,  some  obtain  a  higher  wage  than  the 
calculated  average,  whilst  many  fall  below  that  standard.  If  you 
were  to  go  through  the  voluminous  returns  from  which  I  have 
compiled  the  above  tables,  you  would  observe  that  thousands  of 
women  workers — adult  women  workers — do  not  earn  10s.  per  week 
for  full  employment.  Indeed,  many  are  rewarded  for  the  week's 
task  with  so  little  a  sum  as  7s.  6d.,  and,  shame  to  say,  some  even 
come  so  low  as  5s.  A  bare  recital  of  the  figures  should  be  sufficient 
to  condemn  them  ! 


SWEATED       AND  LOW-PAID  INDUSTRIES. 

Below  the  level  of  earnings  already  dealt  with  there  is  an 
underworld  of  women  workers  whose  conditions  are  indescribable. 
These  are,  perhaps,  among  the  less  organised  industrial  servants, 
among  whom  exploitation  for  private  profit  and  competitive 
purposes  has  been  untrammelled.  It  would  be  impossible  to 
investigate  the  terrible  results.  There  was  no  hope  at  all  for  these 
workers  when  left  absolutely  under  a  laissez-faire  policy.  But, 
happily  for  some  of  them,  Parliamentary  interference  came  to 
their  assistance,  and  all  past  traditions  regarding  the  free  right  of 
employers  to  exploit  whom  they  may,  and  where  they  may,  were 
swept  aside  by  the  establishment  of  a  minimum  wage  through  the 
Trade  Boards  Act.  As  a  result  of  the  persistent  work  of  the 
National  Anti- Sweating  League,  this  Act  passed  through  both 
Houses  of  Parliament  without  opposition  in  1909.    Its  free  passage 

431 


Women  in  Industry. 

was  one  of  the  clearest  signs  we  have  had  of  an  awakening  pubHc 
conscience  in  behalf  of  under-paid  and  semi-starved  women 
workers.  It  took  some  time,  of  course,  to  get  the  Parliamentary 
measure  into  operation.  I  am  not  concerned  here,  however,  with 
the  Act  and  its  mode  of  procedure,  so  much  as  with  the  results 
of  its  application.  Its  object  was,  briefly,  to  establish  a  minimum 
wage  for  workers  whose  earnings  wer6  indisputably  low  and  were 
inadequate  for  the  commonest  necessaries  of  life.  It  was  directed, 
in  the  first  place,  to  four  trades  in  which  the  rates  of  pay  were 
exceptionally  low.  These  were  chain  making,  lace  finishing, 
paper-box  making,  and  ready-made  and  wholesale  bespoke  tailoring. 
These  trades  comprised  about  250,000  workers,  mostly  women. 
Numerous  difficulties  presented  themselves  in  the  endeavour  to 
make  the  legislation  operative,  and  to  fix  the  minima  for  the 
various  sections  of  the  workers  affected.  But  most  of  these  were 
overcome,  and  it  may  be  stated  that,  generally  speaking,  the 
Wages  Boards  that  were  formed  and  established  under  the  Act 
succeeded  in  raising  the  earnings  of  women  in  chain  making  from 
5s.  and  6s.  to  10s.  6d.  a  week,  and  in  some  cases  higher.  This 
cannot  be  considered  a  luxurious  weekly  income  for  such  an 
arduous  task,  but  it  is  better  than  a  mere  pittance  of  53.  and  6s. 
Female  outworkers  in  this  grimy  and  laborious  occupation  were 
similarly  advanced.  Although  the  minimum  arranged  for  lace 
and  net  finishers  amounted  only  to  2fd.  per  hour,  it  was  from 
80  to  100  per  cent,  more  than  had  been  paid  before  the  compulsory 
powers  of  the  Act.  Under  favourable  conditions  of  trade  females 
occupied  in  the  manufacture  of  paper  and  cardboard  boxes  used 
to  earn  from  8s.  to  9s.  a  week,  and  many  less  than  the  lower 
sum.  It  was  estimated  that  the  average  wage  for  a  full  week's 
work  was  8s.. per  week.  The  legalised  minimum  is  now  13s.  per 
week.  In  ready-made  and  wholesale  bespoke  tailoring  the  wages 
have  been  raised  from  8s.  to  10s.  a  week  to  a  minimum  of  14s.  Id. 
for  adult  women  workers.  These  are  simply  bare  statements  of 
what  the  Act  has  achieved  in  regard  to  adult  workers.  The  effect 
has  been  to  raise  the  efficiency  of  the  workers,  to  improve  the 
administration  of  the  trades,  to  advance  the  commercial  methods 
of  the  employers,  and  to  increase  the  numerical  strength  of  trade 
unions.  The  Act  has  fixed  wages  rates  for  learners  and  juvenile 
operatives,  and  has,  in  consequence,  achieved  more  for  the  moral 
and  physical  welfare  of  girls  than  most  people  can  be  aware  of; 
in  this  respect  its  worth  to  the  nation  can  be  perceived  only  by 
scanning  through  the  list  of  wages  which  are  so  meagre  that  it  is 
not  to  be  wondered  at  that  many  young  and  unprotected  girls  are 
tempted,  and  fall  into  sin  years  before  they  can  understand  how 
deep  and  black  is  the  pit  into  which  they  have  stumbled,  or  have 
been  pushed  into  by  economic  conditions  that  are,  without  doubt, 
a  shame  to  British  industry.  Prior  to  the  Trade  Boards  Act  there 
were  women  chain  workers  labouring  at  heavy,  dirty,  depressing 

432 


Women  in  Industry. 

work  for  4s.  6d.  a  week;  added  to  the  wearying  toil  in  the  forge 
was  the  incessant  burden  of  domestic  duties  under  the  most  trying 
and  the  most  impoverished  conditions.  In  tailoring  the  lowest 
weekly  wage  for  grown-up  females  is  14s.  Id.  per  week.  Before 
the  interference  of  legislation  10  per  cent,  of  the  women  tailors 
received  less  than  8s.  per  week,  20  per  cent,  less  than  10s.  In 
paper-box  making  over  10,000  women  over  eighteen  years  of  age 
received  less  than  10s.  a  week.  Hence,  the  Act,  so  far  as  it  has 
been  applied,  has  been  a  blessing  to  women  and  children. 
Employers  now  praise  it;  it  has  increased  the  standard  of  their 
production,  or  has  had  that  effect.  The  nation  should  now  insist 
upon  its  extension. 

In  March  of  1914  Mr.  Sydney  Buxton  (then  President  of  the 
Board  of  Trade)  announced  in  the  House  of  Commons  that  the 
Govermnent  had  decided  to  include  four  other  trades.  These  were 
sugar  confectionery  and  food  preserving,  shirt  making,  hollow-ware 
making,  and  linen  and  cotton  embroidery.  The  number  of  persons 
employed  in  these  occupations  are,  approximately,  150,000.  It 
has  been  suggested  that  the  extension  should  include  laundry 
workers;  if  so,  110,000  workers  would  be  added  to  the  list. 
However,  the  employes  connected  with  the  trades  in  question  are 
mainly  females,  and  in  far  too  many  cases  the  conditions  of  their 
labour  are  very  bad.  One  does  not  like  to  hear  of  "filthy  details" 
in  connection  with  sugar  confectionery  and  food  preserving 
occupations.  But  such  is  the  case,  although  many  concerns 
provide  excellent  conditions  and  superior  workers.  The  trades 
under  this  heading  include  the  manufacture  of  cocoa,  chocolate, 
jam,  marmalade,  preserved  fruits,  fruits  and  table  jellies,  meat 
extracts,  meat  essences,  sauces  and  pickles,  and  the  preparation 
of  a  variety  of  flesh  meats.  It  is  essential  for  the  sake  of  public 
health  that  the  operatives  should  be  clean  and  exercise  the  great-est 
care  with  regard  to  cleanliness.  But  how  can  that  be  accomplished 
when  their  environment  in  too  many  instances  is  discouraging  from 
this  point  of  view  ?  The  reports  of  Home  Office  factory  inspectors 
not  infrequently  testify  to  the  uncleanly  state  of  the  workrooms. 
The  economic  standard  of  the  workers  is  no  better.  In  these 
trades,  and  also  in  t^a  packing  and  biscuit  making,  Mr.  J.  J. 
Mallon  (secretary  of  the  Anti- Sweating  League)  says  that  an 
inquiry  of  the  Christian  Social  Union  showed  that  their  earnings 
were: —  s.   d. 

Girls,  14  years  4     9 

Girls,  15  years  to  18  years 6     4 

Girls,  18  years  and  over 11     5 

Married  Women  8  11 

Continuing,  Mr,  Mallon  writes:  — 

We  may  profitably  compare  with  these  the  still  more  authoritative  fissures 
of  the  Board  of  Trade  inquiry  of  1906,  which,  however,  apply  to  the  whole  of 
the  United  Kingdom. 

GG  433 


Women  in  Industry. 


Women 
(over  18). 


Cocoa,  Chocolate,  and  Sugar  Confectionery. 
Preserved  Food,  Jam,  Pickle,  Sauce,  &c 


s.  d. 
11  9 
10  11 


Girls. 


s.  d. 
6  7 
6     7 


But  what  is  wrong  with  a  trade  is  often  concealed  in  average  figures. 
Looking  beneath  them  in  this  instance  we  find  that  in  the  first  of  the  two 
given  groups  40  per  cent,  of  women  received  less  than  10s.,  nearly  30  per  cent, 
less  than  9s.,  and  actually  one  woman  in  five  less  than  8s    a  week. 

In  the  food  preserving  group  the  percentage  receiving  less  than  10s.  is 
higher,  44*3,  but  the  other  percentages  are  less. 

But  probably  the  most  enlightening  figures  of  the  Board  of  Trade  inquiry 
are  those  in  which  the  earnings  of  workers  are  classified  in  occupation  groups  : — 


Women  (over  18)» 

Average 
Earnings. 

Lower 
Quartile. 

s.    d. 

s.    d. 

Confectionery  Workers  

Time 

Piece 

9     1 
11     8 

7  6 

8  6 

Chocolate  Workers 

Time 

9     2 

7     0 

,,                ,^         

Piece 

14  10 

11     6 

Weighers,  Fillers,  Wrappers, 

Labellers, 

Packers, 
Time 

9     8 

8     0 

»»                >>                »> 

>> 

Piece 

11     8 

8     6 

Other  Women 

Time 

10     6 

— 

»»            >»        

Piece 

11     8 

Indeed,  it  is  computed  that  one-fourth  of  the  time  workers  in 
the  confectionery  trade  receive  less  than  7s.  6d.  a  week.  I  am 
very  much  tempted  to  enter  into  a  long  treatise  on  the  economic 
conditions  of  adult  women  workers  who  may  be  described  as  being 
on  this  scandalous  wages  level.  But  even  a  bare  enumeration  of 
the  list  of  trade  and  wages  would  take  up  too  much  of  the  space 
here  at  my  disposal.  I  dare  not  peep  into  the  documents  before 
me  fear  lest  I  should  be  induced  to  reproduce  the  dispiriting 
facts.  Shirt  making  alone  is  full  of  tragic  details  in  the  fields  of 
women's  labour.  In  some  respects  it  may  not  be  so  bad  as  it 
was  when  Tom  Hood  aroused  the  sympathy  of  England  with  the 
"Song  of  the  Shirt,"  written  for  the  Christmas  number  of  Punch 
in  1843.  But  it  is  still  stained  with  "poverty,  hunger,  and  dirt" 
to  a  degree  that  ought  to  shock  the  refinement  of  civilisation. 
Except  in  co-operative  establishments,  wages  for  shirt  making  are 
on  a  very  low  scale,  and  in  some  parts  of  the  United  Kingdom, 
notably  in  Ireland,  they  range,  generally,  from  one  penny  to 
twopence  per  hour. 

434 


Women  in  Industry. 

In  dealing  with  shirt  makers  one  has  to  remember  that  it  is 
an  occupation  which  includes  a  large  number  of  home-workers, 
among  whom  wages  are  seldom  above  10s.  per  week;  usually,  they 
vary  from  5s.  to  8s.  per  week  of  long  hours  and  strenuous  labour. 
In  factories  many  shirt  makers,  working  at  piece  rates  on  power 
driven  machines,  can  earn  15s.  and  16s.  a  week.  The  effect  of  the 
Trade  Boards  Act  would  be  to  place  the  rates  of  home  and  factory 
workers  on  a  better  and  a  more  equal  basis.  It  is  difficult  to 
estimate  the  changes  in  life  and  character  that  would  be  wrought 
by  the  economic  improvement.  But  to  let  home-workers  stop 
where  they  are  and  as  they  are  is  foolish,  dishonourable,  and  costly. 
To  find  them  one  has  always  to  wander  through  a  labyrinth  of 
mean  streets;  they  dwell  either  on  the  hem  or  in  the  heart  of 
areas  of  petty  crime  and  blackest  poverty :  the  veritable  Jago  of 
dirty  streets  and  courts  and  backyards,  sloppy  with  filth.  Indeed, 
far  too  many  of  us  are  unaware  of  the  wretched  surroundings  in 
which  quantities  of  the  goods  we  wear  are  made.  We  should 
shudder  if  we  could  always  realise  the  truth  when  we  put  them  on. 
I  have  brought  upon  myself  fits  of  anger  and  depression  in  visiting 
the  dark  city  regions  of  home-workers  in  England,  Ireland, 
Scotland,  and  Wales.  I  have  come  away  more  than  once  swearing 
that  I  would  never  go  again.  Only  a  few  weeks  ago  I  paid  a  visit 
to  one  or  two  of  these  social  Hades  within  a  short  distance  of  the 
palatial  premises  of  the  C.W.S.  in  and  about  Balloon  Street, 
Manchester.  In  one  domestic  prison — it  was  nothing  else — I 
found  one  woman  making  shirts.  She  had  six  bedraggled  children, 
half -clothed,  half -fed,  rarely  ever  clean,  and  never  wearing  a  new 
garment.  Her  husband  had  deserted  her.  Many  days  she  worked 
from  very  early  morning  till  late  at  night,  stitch,  stitch,  stitch  aU 
the  time.  And  what  do  you  think  she  earned  in  the  week  previous 
to  the  one  I  spoke  to  her  in  company  with  a  lady  social  worker? 
Only  7s.  I  went  into  a  lonely  house  at  the  end  of  a  court.  There 
were  no  curtains  to  the  windows.  It  was  a  dark,  wet  afternoon. 
Sitting  in  the  centre  of  the  only  living-room  in  the  house  was  an 
elderly  woman,  making  elastic  bands  and  tassels  for  umbrellas. 
In  this  gloomy  abode  the  woman,  aged  sixty-two,  hved  and  worked 
alone,  day  after  day  and  night  after  night.  And  for  what?  For 
4s.  6d.  to  OS.  6d.  a  week !  She  paid  3s.  6d.  for  the  miserable, 
diminutive  hut,  the  very  sight  of  which  ought  not  to  be  tolerated 
by  any  Christian  nation.  How  did  she  live  ?  Only  in  this  way — 
that  what  society  failed  to  give  her  for  her  incessant  labour,  charity 
came  to  the  rescue.  But  why  on  earth  should  we  permit  a  system 
of  profit-making  out  of  workers  who  could  not  be  kept  ahve  to 
perform  the  never-ending  task,  if  charity  did  not  step  in?  Was  it 
ever  intended  that  either  charity  or  the  Poor  Law  doles  should 
have  been  distributed  for  the  aid  of  employers?  I  could  cite 
innumerable  cases  of  sweated  workers  living,  or  existing,  on  the 
dual  income  of  labour  and  public  assistance.     I  have  seen  it  in 

435 


,  Women  in  Industry. 

Manchester,  Liverpool,  London,  Glasgow,  Belfast,  Birmingham, 
Leeds,  not  to  speak  of  smaller  places.  And  I  have  been  supplied 
with  the  names  of  employers,  mostly  living  in  an  extravagant 
manner,  and  not  infrequently  dwelling  in  the  beauty  areas  and 
health  resorts  of  the  kingdom.  This  condition  of  British  industry 
is  not  only  grossly  unjust  to  the  sweated,  blood-sucked  workers, 
but  it  is  an  imposition  upon  the  public  who  have  to  provide  what 
employers  fail  to  do — that  is,  the  barest  necessities  of  life.  Why 
should  there  be  the  slightest  hesitation,  therefore,  in  applying 
the  Trade  Boards  Act? 

I  have  in  my  possession  ample  evidence  to  indicate  that  the 
rates  paid  to  these  home-workers  have,  in  many  cases,  declined,  as 
public  assistance  and  prices  of  food  have  been  increased.  I  have 
watched  women,  assisted  by  their  children,  make  up  shirts  at 
8d.  per  dozen;  and,  whilst  in  pursuance  of  my  facts,  I  have  seen 
working-men  trade  unionists  purchasing  them.  It  is  this  kind  of 
indifference  to  the  welfare  of  their  own  lower  classes  that  the 
workers  themselves  make  it  very  difficult  to  raise  the  standard 
of  life  among  such  women  as  home  shirt  makers,  earning  6s.,  7s., 
and  8s.  per  week,  for  hours  of  labour  to  which  no  trade  unionist 
would  submit.  And  it  is  a  mistake  to  assume  that  articles  of 
labour  manufactured  in  the  way  I  have  indicated  are  necessarily 
cheap  goods.  They  are  not.  I  have  seen  linen  goods  made  up  in 
the  slums  of  Belfast  for  less  than  one  yenny  'per  hour.  I  have 
been  shown  these  goods  in  wholesale  houses  and  retail  establish- 
ments, marked  at  prices  that  could  be  paid  only  by  the  wealthy 
classes.  And  this  burden  of  sweating  falls  chiefly  upon  girls  and 
women — girls  on  the  border  of  womanhood,  and  women  who  are 
mothers  and  grandmothers,  women  who  have  lamented  the 
functions  of  motherhood  because  they  interfered  with  their 
wearying  labour  and  the  earning  of  poverty  wages.  To  say  that 
we  can  do  no  more  for  these  women  than  has  been  done 
heretofore  is  to  admit  that  the  civilising  influence  of  social  reform 
is  hopeless  as  far  as  these  denizens  of  the  industrial  gutter  are 
concerned.  But  how  and  when  are  we  going  to  remove  the  foul 
stain  from  the  escutcheon  of  British  industry?  The  time  should 
be  now,  and  the  best  weapon  we  have  is  the  Trade  Boards  Act. 
It  should  be  used  unsparingly.  And  when  we  have  achieved  all 
we  can  by  its  operation  we  may  then  proceed  to  a  still  higher 
standard. 

Now  one  of  the  objects  of  the  Trade  Boards  Act  is  to  set  up 
a  standard  average  wage  for  women  workers  of  13s.  per  week.  If 
you  will  compare  this  standard  with  the  average  wages  I  have 
already  enumerated  in  connection  with  organised  factory  labour, 
you  will  perceive  that  it  is  in  some  instances  even  higher;  it  is 
higher  than  the  averages  earned  in  several  groups  of  trades  where 
women  are  protected  by  trade  unions,  composed  either  of  females 
only,  or  females  and  males.     Indeed,  the  regulation  of  wages  by 

436 


16 

17 

ls 

19 

20 

21 

9- 

Il- 

13/- 

15/- 

17/- 

20/- 

Women  iyi  Industry. 

legislation  has  accomplished  more  in  regard  to  trades  already  under 
the  Act  than  might  have  been  won  by  other  means  in  a  generation 
almost.  But  this  13s.  standard  is  still  2s.  below  what  has  been 
estimated  by  experts  to  be  necessary  for  the  maintenance  of  a 
single  woman.  And  in  every  city,  and  in  many  large  towns,  there 
are  thousands  and  thousands  of  women  whose  earnings  are  below 
the  13s.  standard.  Liverpool  may  be  taken  as  a  typical  example. 
Not  long  ago  the  Rev.  H.  D.  Roberts  investigated  the  conditions 
of  women  workers  in  this  great  shipping  city.  He  estimated  that 
100,000  females  were  employed  in  shops,  factories,  and  warehouses. 
He  was  led  to  the  conclusion  that  50,000  of  these  earned  less 
than  13s.  per  week.  His  figures  were  supported  by  the  Liverpool 
Anti-Sweating  League.  As  a  contrast  it  may  be  remarked  that  the 
City  of  Liverpool  Co-operative  Society  now  pay  the  following  scale 
of  wages  for  females :  — 

Ages 14         \t 

Girls 0-        7- 

The  payment  to  manageresses  of  branch  shops  is  23s.  per  week, 
and  if  buyers  as  well  27s.  per  week. 

Now  contrast  this  with  the  wages  of  females  investigated  by 
Mr.  Roberts.  Female  riveters  at  a  tin-canister  factory  obtain  an 
average  of  5s.  and  6s.  per  week.  He  gives  instances  of  shop  girls, 
aged  eighteen  years,  working  at  pay-desks  for  5s.  a  week.  In  a  soap 
factory  the  average  is  9s.  In  a  confectionery  business  the  average 
is  from  8s.  to  9s.  Bottle  washers  get  6s.  6d.  per  week  and  work 
nine-and-a-half  hours  per  day.  Rope  workers  have  an  average  of 
9s.  And  so  one  could  go  on  filling  pages  with  the  mere  recital  of 
miserable  wages — all  below  the  Trade  Boards'  standard.  In  a 
*'most  respectable  wholesale  concern"  the  wages  are  8s.  and  9s. 
a  week  for  women  from  nineteen  to  twenty-six  years  of  age. 
And  mark  this :  women  at  this  place,  up  to  forty  years  of  age, 
get  no  more  than  9s.  per  w^eek,  and  some  of  these  have  put  in 
twenty  years'  service.  Furthermore,  for  this  each  worker  has  to 
produce  a  testimonial  from  a  Sunday  school  teacher,  a  clergyman, 
or  a  minister.  Here  you  must  go  provided  with  Christian  virtues 
and  try  to  live  on  wages  that  send  scores  of  women  to  the  Hades 
of  the  prostitute.  There  are  firms  in  Liverpool  paying  an  average 
wage  of  8s.  lid.  to  women  whose  ages  average  twenty-two  years. 
I  am  not  concerned  with  the  industrial  conditions  of  these  women's 
employment,  which,  in  too  many  instances,  are  bad  enough  in  all 
conscience.  I  am  not  concerned  at  the  moment  with  the 
temptations  which  a  city  of  entertainment  and  luxury  offers  to 
those  women.  I  could  add,  if  I  had  the  space,  to  Mr.  Roberts' 
short  list,  a  very  long  list  of  low- wage  cases  in  Liverpool,  which 
Miss  Eleanor  F.  Rathbone,  M.A.  (a  member  of  the  Liverpool 
City  Council)  has  been  good  enough  to  send  to  me.  I  have 
another  list  of  Manchester,   partly  collected  by  myself.     Pages 

437 


Women  in  Industry. 

could  be  filled  with  a  bare  tabulation  of  low  wages  in  Birmingham, 
which  I  have  extracted  from  the  inquiries  of  Mr.  Edward  Cadbury, 
M.  O^cile  Matheson,  and  Mr.  George  Shann,  M.A.  In  nearly  all 
cases  this  long  list  cites  occupations  of  women  that  m.ostly  come 
below  the  Trade  Boards'  cardboard  box  standard  of  13s.  a  week. 
The  trades  in  which  these  women  work  are  such  as  the  making 
of  ammunition,  bedsteads,  belts  and  buckles,  brass  buttons,  bolts, 
chains,  chandeliers,  copper,  cycles,  electric  fittings,  enamelling, 
fenders,  gas-fittings,  guns,  hair-curlers,  hairpins,  hinges,  hooks, 
horse  combs  and  clippers,  lamps,  metal  plates,  nails,  needles, 
pens,  pins,  perambulators,  rules,  screws,  spoons  and  forks,  tacks, 
thimbles,  toys,  umbrellas,  &c.  The  list  extends  into  clothing  and 
sewing  trades,  into  food  trades,  jewellery,  printing,  stationery, 
leather,  and  about  forty  other  groups.  I  have  named  the  first 
groups,  because  they  indicate  the  kind  of  useful  work  that  women 
are  doing.  Except  in  a  comparatively  few  cases  the  average  wage 
of  women  over  eighteen  comes  below  the  13s.  standard.  The 
wages  of  women  in  the  cycle  trade  average  10s.  6d.  for  workers 
over  twenty-one  years  of  age,  of  whom  nearly  50  per  cent,  are 
married  women  earning  lis.  weekly.  Between  seventeen  and 
twenty-one  the  average  wage  is  9s.  2d. ;  below  seventeen,  7s.  Id. 
My  space  is  filling,  and  I  must  omit  the  statistics  compiled  by  the 
Women's*  Industrial  Council  with  relation  to  women's  wages  in 
Liverpool,  and  read  before  the  Statistical  Society  in  1908.  It  is 
a  record  of  sordid  conditions  and  scandalous  wages.  I  have  also 
before  me  a  dark  picture  of  the  conditions  in  the  low-paid  trades, 
principally,  employing  women  in  Belfast,  Dublin,  and  the  North 
of  Ireland.  Margaret  H.  Irwin,  secretary  of  the  Scottish  Council 
for  Women's  Trade,  has  issued  condensed  particulars  of  women 
workers  in  Ireland.  I  have  before  me  as  I  write  149  cases,  with 
their  black  details,  drawn  from  a  variety  of  occupations,  of  which 
each  group  of  cases  is  typical.  Everywhere  in  England  and 
Wales,  in  Ireland  and  in  Scotland,  come  voluminous  evidence 
of  wages  altogether  incapable  of  keeping  body  and  soul  together. 
I  am  sorry  I  cannot  stay  to  reproduce  examples  from  Miss  Irwin's 
inquiry,  or  from  my  own  personal  notes  collected  from  the  lips  of 
Irish  workers  themselves.  Wages  of  4s.,  or  5s.,  or  6s.,  or  7s. 
are  not  at  all  uncommon  in  shirt  making  and  linen  embroidery, 
even  in  instances  where  not  only  long  hours  are  needed,  but  a 
high  degree  of  skill.  The  crimson  facts  have  been  endorsed  by 
inquirers  of  every  description,  including  lady  factory  inspectors, 
medical  men,  and  medical  officers  of  health.  Proof  is 
overwhelming,  and  the  list  of  low-paid  occupations  for  women 
seems  almost  inexhaustible.  They  form  a  depressing  record. 
But  what  must  their  black  details  mean  to  those  who  have  to 
bear  them  from  day  to  day?  They  are  connected  with  the 
manufacture  of  articles  that  are  ever  before  us  in  our  homes, 
used  or  worn  by  us  all.     Some  of  us,  however,  would  nearly  lose 


Women  in  Industry. 

our  senses  if  we  or  our  children  had  to  sink  to  the  conditions  and 
the  slavery  of  those  who  make  and  finish  them.  A  few  years 
ago  it  seemed  almost,  impossible  to  improve  their  circumstances, 
but  that  is  much  less  so  to-day.  The  nation  has  a  weapon  at  its 
disposal.  This  is  the  Trade  Boards  Act,  which  we  might  all  do 
something,  by  word  or  deed,  to  hasten  in  its  extension.  It  is  not 
pleasant  to  spend  one's  time  in  writing  about  these  things;  it  is 
undoubtedly  gloomy  to  read  about  them.  But  we  may  at  least 
derive  some  enjoyment  from  the  knowledge  that  we  are  engaged 
in  a  good  work  once  apparently  hopeless,  but  now  made  possible 
of  achievement. 

WIVES,  MOTHERS,  AND  WIDOWS. 

It  is  generally  assumed  that  females  are  usually  indifferent  to 
their  industrial  outlook,  because  they  are  always  looking  forward 
to  marriage.  This  is  no  reason  why  they  should  be  persistently 
underpaid,  although  it  is,  no  doubt,  one  of  the  principal  causes  of 
the  economic  plight  in  which  so  many  females  find  themselves 
from  day  to  day.  In  many  respects  females  themselves  are 
responsible  for  the  freedom  with  which  they  are  exploited.  So 
long  as  they  live  in  the  hope  of  marriage,  they  pay,  in  consequence, 
less  attention  to  reform,  either  in  the  direction  of  wages,  hours 
of  labour,  or  factory  conditions.  Why  that  should  be  so  is 
astonishing.  But  it  is  so,  and  employers  of  labour  reap  the 
advantage  of  woman's  indifference  to  industrial  welfare.  Females 
suffer  in  two  ways.  First  of  all,  small  earnings  provide  a  less 
opportunity  of  making  provision  for  marriage;  secondly,  a  great 
number  of  women  have  to  continue  working  even  after  marriage, 
and  others  have  to  return  to  factory  labour  on  the  death  of  their 
husbands.  Women  marry  younger  and  live  longer  than  men. 
Widows  become  proportionately  considerable;  Mr.  B.  L.  Hutchins 
estimates  that  "something  like  one  woman  in  every  eight  over 
twenty  years'  old  is  a  widow." 

At  any  rate,  marriage  in  working-class  life  does  not  form  the 
security  against  industrial  employment  as  most  people  w^ould 
assume.  As  a  matter  of  fact,  about  one  woman  out  of  every  four 
females  industrially  employed  is  either  a  widow  or  a  married 
woman.  In  some  trades  the  percentage  is  higher  than  that. 
However,  the  number  of  females  sccupied  in  England  and  Wales 
in  1911  was  4,830,734  (compared  to  11,453,665  males).  Of  these 
females,  680,191  were  married  and  411,011  were  widows — the 
total  number  of  married  and  widowed  women  being  1,091,202. 
This  amounts  to  nearly  one-third  of  the  total  females  occupied 
who  are  twenty  years  of  age  and  over.  The  proportion  is  not  so 
great  in  Scotland,  where  there  were  593,210  girls  and  women 
occupied  in  1911.  Of  this  number  31,465  were  married,  this  being 
5"3  per  cent,  of  the  total.  There  were  44,063  widows,  or  7'4  per 
cent,    of  those  occupied.      The   age   at  which  most   females   are 

439 


Women  in  Industry. 

occupied  in  industry  is  from  twenty  to  twenty-five  years.  Up  to 
forty-five  years  of  age  there  are  more  females  in  employment  than 
there  are  at  any  group  of  ages  below  twenty.  In  fact,  the  census 
of  1911  shows  that  there  were  more  women  returned  as  being 
occupied  at  the  age  of  fifty-five  than  at  any  age  below  twenty. 
There  is  no  limit  to  the  occupational  age  of  women.  In  ]911 
there  Were  122,532  in  England  and  Wales  working  for  a  living  at 
sixty-five  years  of  age  and  over.  Hence,  neither  marriage  nor 
womanhood,  including  motherhood,  is  a  guarantee  against  females 
not  having  to  enter  the  economic  struggle  in  the  factory,  or  in 
domestic  service,  or  in  the  labour  of  outworkers  and  charwomen. 
There  are  126,061  charwomen,  of  whom  37,441  are  married  and 
61,720  are  widows — that  is,  99,161  married  and  widowed  out  of 
126,061.  Charwomen  have  increased  from  111,841  in  1901,  when 
86,463  were  married  and  widowed.  In  nearly  all  cases  these 
women  are  driven  to  this  occupation  because  they  are  dependent 
entirely  upon  their  own  earnings,  or  because  they  have  themselves 
and  others  to  maintain,  or  because  their  husbands  are  infirm, 
underpaid,  or  are  the  victims  of  vice.  We  may  gather  from  the 
undergoing  table  a  knowledge  of  the  age  groups  at  which  females 
are  employed  as  wage-earners:  — 


Ages.  Numbers. 

10 10,243 

13 39,033 

14 133,217 

15 193,285 

16 225,287 

17 241,988 

18 252,696 


Ages.  Numbers. 

19 243,322 

20 1,037,321 

25 1,057,275 

35 604,422 

45 422,642 

55 247,029 

65  and  over 122,532 


Now  these  figures  do  not  cover  the  total  number  of  females  of 
adult  age  who  are  dependent  upon  wage-earning  employment  at 
one  time  or  another.  Women  are  more  irregularly  employed  than 
men;  women,  owing  to  their  duties  in  life,  are  constantly  falling 
out  of  employment  for  a  period,  and  returning  at  a  later  stage. 
Hence,  the  range  of  figures  from  which  industrial  women  is 
drawn  is  greater  than  is  usually  indicated  by  the  census  returns. 
We  may  safely  assume,  therefore,  that  there  is  much  more 
necessity  for  young  female  workers  fighting  for  improved  conditions 
than  is  generally  assumed.  If,  marriage  causes  a  break  in  their 
industrial  employment,  family  economic  causes  compel  a  fair 
percentage  of  them  to  return.  In  some  occupations  the  percentage 
of  married  and  widowed  women  is  always  considerable.  For 
instance,  in  the  manufacture  of  china,  earthenware,  and  porcelain 
goods  there  were  25'8  per  cent,  of  the  females  married  when 
returns  were  obtained  in  1911.  Among  marriageable  women  the 
percentage  must  have  been  much  greater,  as  the  calculation  was 
based  upon  females  of  all  ages.  In  these  trades  the  tendency  has 
been  for  the  number  of  married  females  to  increase.     Take  an 


440 


Women  in  Industry. 

example.  In  1901  there  were  6,984  in  the  state  of  marriage  and 
widowhood,  and  8,795  in  1911.  A  special  inquiry  made  by  the 
Home  Office  in  1907  into  the  marriage  state  of  women  in  all  textile 
trades  revealed  the  fact  that  there  were  24  per  cent,  of  women 
over  eighteen  years  of  age  who  were  married,  and  4  per  cent, 
widows.  In  non-textile  factories  there  were  163  per  cent,  married 
and  4'4  per  cent,  were  widows.  In  the  textile  mills  in  all  parts 
of  the  United  Kingdom,  but  mainly  within  a  comparatively  small 
radius  of  Manchester,  the  married  women  and  widows  numbered 
about  142,000.  It  has  been  estimated  that  in  the  cotton  trade 
alone  about  33  per  cent,  of  the  females  engaged  in  the  various 
processes  are  married,  or  are  widows.  The  total  number  of  married 
women  workers  in  Lancashire  is  211,000. 

Industry,  under  individualism,  has  displayed  no  chivalry 
towards  women.  Ever  since  the  commencement  of  the  factory 
system  their  industrial  and  domestic  labours  have  continued  to 
increase.  Men,  at  least,  have  had  the  choice  of  freedom,  either 
before  or  after  the  factory  hours  of  the  day.  But  this  has  been 
denied  to  females,  and  particularly  those  who  are  married,  whether 
they  have  become  mothers  or  evaded  the  duty  of  perpetuating  the 
race.  It  is  not  necessary  to  quote  figures  or  to  carry  on  any 
academical  investigation  in  proof  of  this,  especially  to  anyone  who 
has  lived  among  it  and  witnessed  its  appalling  results  among  the 
womanhood  of  our  industrial  populations.  That  it  yields  dire 
effects  upon  women,  upon  mothers,  and  upon  families,  the  victims 
of  this  continuous  strenuous  life  would,  in  too  many  cases,  be 
the  last  to  admit.  But  it  is  because  they  have  become  blind  to 
their  true  conditions  in  comparison  to  what  the  life  and  environment 
of  a  mother  and  child  should  be.  Eaphael's  "Madonna  and  Child" 
is  often  presented  to  us  as  a  picture  of  motherhood  and  childhood 
to  be  imitated,  with  its  suggestion  of  health,  freedom,  happiness, 
and  the  sacred  task  of  motherhood.  But  how  is  this  domestic 
picture  to  be  at  all  realisable  within  the  industrial  cauldron  of 
Lancashire,  with  so  many  mothers  enslaved  to  mill  conditions  from 
early  morning  to  evening,  and  afterwards  enslaved  for  the  night  to 
every  call  of  a  working-class  home?  This  human  blot  upon  the 
wealthiest  industrial  county  of  the  kingdom  increases  rather  than 
decreases.  And  the  burden  of  the  married  woman  worker  is  part 
of  the  continuous  strain  that  has.  been  imposed  upon  her  as  a 
female  throughout  her  youthhood.  I  have  worked  side  by  side 
with  these  women,  and,  on  the  other  hand,  I  have  since  had 
ample  opportunity  of  observing  the  girlhood  and  womanhood  in 
grades  of  society  presumably  occupying  a  higher  economic  plane. 
But  I  have  not  "the  space  to  go  into  the  details  of  the  daily  life  of 
the  married  woman  worker,  with  its  never-ending  demands  upon 
her  wasting  strength.  Nor  is  it  necessary  to  tr\^  to  prove  anything 
in  this  respect  by  figures.  One  can  rely  upon  experience  and 
observation  alone.     The  life  of  the  married  woman  is  hard  and 

441 


Women  in  Industry. 

harsh,  and  not  infrequently  cruel,  when  compared  with  the  lives 
of  other  women  who  live  upon  incomes  largely  derived  from  the 
labour  of  females  in  industry.  And  if  I  had  facility  for  a 
substantial  record  of  proof  I  could,  by  the  mere  use  of  scissors 
and  paste,  overload  pages  of  this  Annual  with  copious  extracts 
from  a  heap  of  examples  I  have  cut,  from  time  to  time,  from  the 
concrete  reports  of  lady  factory  inspectors.  These  extracts  relate 
to  every  industrial  region  of  the  United  Kingdom,  whether  in 
connection  with  the  manufacture  of  cotton  in  Lancashire,  of 
woollen  in  Yorkshire,  of  linen  in  Ulster,  of  jute  in  Forfarshire,  of 
pots  in  Staffordshire,  of  metal  goods  in  Worcestershire,  of  tinplate 
in  Glamorganshire.  And  so  with  other  trades  and  other  places. 
As  I  sit  writing  these  lines  I  can  see  no  less  than  ten  females 
from  sixteen  to  twenty  years  of  age  sitting  or  playing  in  the 
sunshine,  gaining  strength  and  beauty.  If  they  were  the  daughters 
of  working  men  and  women  they  would  be  in  the  factory,  or  the 
forge,  or  the  warehouse,  wasting  strength  for  the  wealth  of  others. 
For  if  there  are  two  things  I  have  shown  in  this  contribution  it  is 
the  extent  to  which  the  daughters  of  working-class  families  are 
employed  in  industry,  as  youths  and  adults,  and  the  extent  to  which 
they  are  inadequately  paid,  except  in  a  comparatively  few  instances. 
One  cannot  say  that  females  must  not  work.  It  is  the  fashion 
in  these  days  to  advocate  and  demand  an  extension  of  female 
employment.  The  demand  is  just  and  necessary  to  the  economic 
requirements  of  working-class  and  lower  middle-class  life;  and 
honest  work  would  not  do  the  females  of  other  classes  any  harm. 
And  one  could  adduce  numerous  facts  proving  that  where  married 
women  are  employed  in  industry  it  is  because  they  are  compelled 
to  do  one  of  two  things :  they  must  either  neglect  the  family  or 
their  dependents  by  going  to  the  workshop,  or  by  staying  at  home 
they  must  starve  themselves  and  their  children  through  having  no 
weekly  income.  However,  if  married  women  have  to  undertake 
the  triple  task  of  wage-earner,  child-bearer,  and  mother,  then  it 
should  be  the  duty  of  society  to  see  that  their  wages  are  just  and 
their  conditions  of  labour  more  compatible  than  they  are  to-day 
with  a  higher  development  of  womanhood  and  motherhood.  It  is 
not  at  all  uncommon  to  see  in  our  great  textile  towns  the  women 
going  to  work  in  a  morning  earlier  than  the  men  employed  in 
engineering  works,  and  returning  home  later  in  the  evening.  And 
the  industrial  conditions  of  these  women  are  more  physically 
exhausting  and  strenuous.  Yet  you  may  see  these  women, 
especially  the  older  ones,  tramping  wearily  through  the  streets 
from  the  mills,  long  after  the  men  have  reached  home.  Is  it  fair? 
Is  it  sensible  when  we  come  to  consider  all  things  that  are  essential 
to  the  welfare  of  working-class  society?  I  am  not  putting  the 
case  of  the  women  from  any  mood  of  compassion.  But  it  should 
be  plain  enough  to  the  man  in  the  street  even  that,  so  long  as  so 
many  of  these  women  have  to  drag  themselves  from  the  factory 

442 


Women  in  Industry. 

labour  to  equally  hard  labour  at  home,  some  consideration  should 
be  given  to  them  that  would  tend  to  make  their  hoiurs  of  labour  at 
the  mills  less  rather  than  more  than  the  hours  of  men  in  mechanical 
occupations.  This  was  suggested  not  long  ago  by  one  of  the 
members  of  Parliament  of  a  large  manufacturing  town — himself 
being  a  millowner — but  the  suggestion  fell  on  dead  ground.  Even 
women  reformers  themselves  paid  no  heed  to  it. 

The  question  of  women  in  industry  raises  m.any  problems  which 
scarcely  come  within  the  scope  of  this  article  to  discuss ;  nor  would 
my  space  be  sufficient  for  the  purpose.  But  of  recent  years  there 
has  been  among  women  social  workers  a  determination  to  exercise 
hostility  against  any  interference  with  the  industrial  employment 
of  married  women.  In  view  of  the  economic  conditions  of  too 
many  families  there  is  much  to  be  said  for  this  opposition.  But 
in  some  cases  it  has  been  carried  too  far,  and  has  tended  to  check 
the  desire  to  prevent  the  publication  of  truthful  pictures  of  the 
reprehensible  conditions  of  the  employment  of  married  women 
and  the  evils  arising  from  it.  There  has  been  a  fear  that  if  too 
much  is  said  and  written  about  the  disadvantages,  attempts  would 
be  made  to  put  an  end  to  the  factory  engagements  of  married 
women.  But  the  reliance  upon  females  of  all  ages  for  the  upkeep 
of  British  manufacturing  industries  has  now  gone  too  far  for  such 
a  sweeping  action  to  be  enforced.  Take  the  processes  of  the 
preparing,  spinning,  and  weaving  of  cotton  goods.  If  one  were  to 
prevent  married  women  working  at  these  occupations  it  would 
almost  completely  disorganise  the  cotton  industry,  reduce  its 
present  supremacy,  and  stifle  its  future  progress.  But  that  should 
not  be  permitted  to  stand  in  the  way  of  any  exposure  of 
the  objectionable  conditions  of  these  women's  employment. 
Condemnation  should  be  utilised  to  prepare  and  enforce  improve- 
ments. If  married  women  were  turned  away  from  the  mills  of 
Lancashire  it  would  minimise  female  operatives  to  the  extent  of 
one-third  of  the  total  number.  Unless  they  were  replaced  by 
males  the  industry  would  be  partially  ruined.  Nevertheless,  it 
has  been  contended  of  recent  years  that  the  employment  of  mothers 
in  factories  does  not  result  in  heavy  infantile  mortahty  and  neglect 
of  children  that  survive  the  first  twelve  months'  existence.  This 
attitude  has  been  adopted  in  order  to  arrest  any  campaign  for  the 
abolition  of  the  married  woman  as  an  industrial  worker.  But, 
whatever  may  be  the  slaughter  of  innocents  in  other  counties, 
we  are  still  face  to  face  with  the  fact  that  Lancashire,  which 
employs  more  married  women  in  factories  than  any  other  area  in 
the  kingdom,  has  the  greatest  annual  death-roll  of  babies.  In  a 
shaded  map  of  infantile  mortality  recently  issued  by  the  Local 
Government  Board  the  darkest  spot  was  that  of  Lancashire.  The 
next  blackest  patches  were  other  industrial  regions  in  England 
and  Wales.  And  of  twenty-five  of  the  towns  with  the  largest 
death-rates  of  children  below  the  age  of  one  year  ten  were  in 

443 


Women  in  Industry. 

Lancashire,  and  six  others  in  industrial  towns  near  the  borders 
of  this  over-strenuous  industrial  county.  And  one  must  add  to 
this  yearly  list  of  dead  children  the  number  of  miscarriages  brought 
about  through  industrial  employment.  For  proof  of  this  read  the 
reports  of  lady  factory  inspectors  for  the  past  few  years.  I  have 
seen  pregnant  women  in  the  pottery  manufactories  of  Staffordshire 
climbing  tables  and  ladders  with  heavy  weights,  and  in  ihat  way 
endangering  their  own  lives  and  the  lives  of  their  unborn  children. 
The  result  is  that  miscarriage  is  not  at  all  infrequent  in  these 
towns  where  china  and  earthenware  goods  are  manufactured. 
Many  a  woman  ''with  child,"  in  industrial  districts,  has  been 
advised  to  seek  factory  employment  if  she  desired  to  get  "rid 
of  it."  These  are  incontrovertible  facts,  which  have  been  recently 
lessened  not  so  much  by  an  improvement  in  the  actual  factory 
conditions  as  by  the  beneficent  effects  of  the  maternity  allowances 
in  the  National  Insurance  Act.  But  they  still  exist  to  an  extent 
that  should  induce  us  never  to  tire  of  seeking  advancement  in  two 
ways  respecting  the  employment  of  females  in  industry: — (1)  By 
increased  wages  to  enable  expectant  mothers  to  secure  rest  and 
leisure  when  they  most  need  them;  (2)  by  special  consideration 
being  given  to  the  usual  working  hours  of  women,  and  their 
industrial  conditions.  These  achievements  are  not  only  essential 
to  married  women,  but  to  all  women  during  the  age  of  potential 
motherhood — say,  between  the  ages  of  fifteen  and  thirty-five.  We 
know  that,  by  the  application  of  advanced  sanitation,  mfantile 
mortality  can  be  reduced.  But,  when  all  that  has  been  done,  in 
the  districts  in  which  women  are  mostly  employed  after  marriage 
the  child  death-rate  would  remain  the  largest;  the  latest  figures 
issued  by  the  Local  Government  Board  verify  this,  and  they  relate 
to  the  years  from  1907  to  1910.  In  industrial  towns  the  average 
deaths  per  thousand  of  those  born  were  less  than  they  had  been  at 
any  time  previously,  since  the  industrial  revolution  had  turned 
women  from  the  fields  or  the  domestic  workshop.  It  is  gratifying 
to  observe  this  reduction;  but  the  fact  remains  that  by  far  the 
highest  rates  are  always  to  be  found  in  crowded  industrial  areas 
where  women  are  numerously  employed  in  factories.  Burnley, 
the  greatest  cotton  manufacturing  town  in  Europe,  has  the  most 
occupied  women — and  the  highest  infantile  mortality  in  Great 
Britain ! 

SUGGESTED  REMEDIES. 

The  one  thing  I  am  conscious  of  in  the  foregoing  pages  is  the 
omission  of  numerous  examples  I  might  have  given  in  proof  of  the 
audacious  manner  m  which  women  have  been  economically 
exploited  and  made  to  serve  the  purpose  of  cheap  labour.  In  view 
of  the  innumerableness  of  the  facts  this  has  been  impossible. 
But  from  the  statements  I  have  made,  and  the  figures  I  have 
reproduced  from   authoritative  sources,   it  will  be  seen  that  the 

444 


Women  in  Industry. 

questions  arising  around  the  conditions  of  women  workers  form 
one  of  the  gravest  and  one  of  the  most  pressing  problems  of  the 
day.  This  is  emphasised  by  the  truth  that  there  is  a  steadily 
growing  determination  to  improve  the  circumstances  of  women 
workers  concerning  wages,  hours  of  labour,  respectful  treatment, 
health,  and  sanitation.  Generally,  their  phght  at  present  can  be 
only  briefly  described  as  degrading. 

But  in  what  way  are  remedies  to  be  sought?  Mainly,  perhaps, 
by  the  adoption  of  methods  similar  to  those  which  have  been  used 
by  men — namely,  trade  union  organisation  and  political  action. 
At  present,  however,  women  lack  both  forces.  They  are  most 
inadequately  organised,  and  they  have  no  political  power  through 
the  ballot-box — that  is,  of  a  national  character.  There  is  another 
method  by  which  the  actual  conditions  of  their  labour  can  be 
improved ;  that  is,  by  the  supervision  and  influence  of  lady  factory 
inspectors;  but  in  this  respect,  as  in  others,  they  are  insufficiently 
served.  The  present  female  inspectors  perform  their  duties 
admirably;  and  only  those  who  read  their  reports  from  year  to 
year  can  have  anything  like  a  fair  idea  of  the  amount  of  good 
work  they  are  constantly  effecting.  But  they  are  not  numerous 
enough. 

Eeverting  to  trade  unionism,  women's  position  is  w^eak.  They 
look  forw^ard  to  the  marriage  union  rather  than  to  trade  unionism. 
One  can  hardly  say  why  they  should  take  this  view  in  face  of  the 
vast  numbers  of  adult  women  always  in  industrial  employment. 
Perhaps  they  have  never  yet  realised  the  greatness  of  this  number, 
but  still  nurse  the  fond  hope  that  female  industrial  employment 
ceases  with  marriage.  But  this  is  a  delusion.  Anyhow,  if  we 
take  the  latest  returns  concerning  trade  unionists  issued  by  the 
Board  of  Trade,  we  shall  see  that  at  the  end  of  1913  there  were 
3,993,769  members  of  trade  unions.  Of  this  number  there  were 
only  356,763  females.  This  was  an  increase  from  129,084  in 
1904;  so  that,  until  quite  recently,  women  in  a  sense  were  even 
not  amenable  to  organisation.  However,  as  the  figures  now  stand, 
nearly  three-quarters  of  them  are  females  connected  with  textile 
trades,  the  textile  membership  being  258,732.  A  further  look 
into  the  figures  show^s  us  that  even  in  the  textile  trades  212,534,  or 
60  per  cent.,  of  the  female  trade  unionists  are  employed  in  the 
cotton  trade  alone.  Hence,  of  the  total  number  of  female  trade 
unionists  in  the  United  Kingdom,  amounting  to  356,763,  the 
cotton  trade  itself  claims  212,534.  Now  this  is  significant;  for 
in  this  centre  of  female  trade  unionism  we  get  the  best  economic 
conditions  and  the  most  attention  to  labour  considerations.  If 
you  will  return  to  the  tables  I  have  given  of  women's  wages 
you  will  perceive  how  far  females  in  the  cotton  trade  stand  at  the 
top.  Their  outstanding  position  is  more  pronounced  to-day  than 
it  was  at  any  period  covered  by  my  figures.  Advances  have  been 
gained  through  trade  union  action.     The  wages  of   16,000  ring 

445 


Womeji  hi  Industry. 

spinners,  for  instance,  have  been  granted  increases  of  recent  date 
varying  from  Is.  to  5s.  per  week.  But  another  striking  condition 
that  accompanies  the  strong  trade  unionism  of  females  in  the  cotton 
industry  is  that  female  cotton  operatives  are  the  only  females 
employed  in  industrial  occupations  who  are  paid  the  same  rates 
of  wages  as  men  are  paid  for  the  same  class  of  work.  Even  in 
the  sister  woollen  industry  women  do  not  enjoy  this  right.  Hence, 
the  remedy  for  women's  wrongs  through  trade  unionism  is  an 
effective  one. 

It  is,  perhaps,  not  the  proper  place  here  to  suggest  that  the 
finest  remedy  for  the  wrongs  of  women  workers  would  be  a 
universal  system  of  co-operative  capital  and  labour.  But  there  is 
much  to  be  said  in  its  favour.  We  have  gained  some  idea  from 
the  foregoing  pages  of  how  women  workers  are  treated,  for 
instance,  in  establishments  outside  the  co-operative  movement. 
Co-operation,  of  course,  has  not  yet  attained  immeasurable  heights 
in  this  respect.  There  are,  in  fact,  still  some  local  co-operative 
societies,  controlled  even  by  trade  unionists,  that  are  as  laggard  as 
some  of  the  worst  private  employers  of  labour  in  their  economic 
treatment  of  their  female  servants.  They  are  not  performing  their 
duty  neither  to  the  cause  nor  to  their  generation.  But  let  us  turn 
to  the  Co-operative  Wholesale  Society,  which  we  may  regard  as 
the  largest  co-operative  trading  concern  in  the  world.  We  may 
obtain  from  the  treatment  of  women  workers  under  the  C.W.S. 
an  example  of  what  can  be  achieved  by  sound  democratic  action 
and  control.  To  some  extent  I  must  apologise  for  occupying  space 
with  details  of  wages  in  the  Co-operative  Wholesale  movement, 
because  it  may  seem  to  many  readers  like  carrying  coals  to 
Newcastle.  But  I  want  to  state  the  co-operative  case  briefly  to 
form  a  contrast  with  examples  of  wages  I  have  tabulated 
concerning  women  outside.  And  it  is  essential  that  we  should 
remember  that  the  fixed  minimum  scale  of  wages  regarding 
female  workers  under  the  C.W.S.  is,  in  many  cases,  paid  to  a 
class  of  workers  wlio,  outside  the  co-operative  movement,  are 
included  among  those  who  are  rewarded  with  the  most  abominably 
low  wages  I  have  quoted  in  this  article.  These  females  are  to 
be  found  in  the  shirt-making  trade,  in  the  manufactory  of  jam, 
confectionery,  tobacco,  &c.  And  so  on.  We  must  remember  that 
in  many  occupations  females'  earnings  do  not  average  more  than 
5s.  to  7s.  6d.  a  week;  yet  for  a  similar  class  of  work  the  C.W.S. 
apply  their  minimum  scale. 

What  is  this  minimum  scale  to  which  the  C.W.S.  have  been 
bound  by  the  body  politic  of  the  members  who  constitute  their 
shareholders  (mostly  working  men  and  women),  and  which  must 
be  paid  to  females  employed  in  any  capacity  whatever?  It  is  as 
follows :  — 


Age  .. 
Wage. 


14 

5/- 

15          16 

7/-        9/- 

446 

17 
11/- 

18 
13/- 

19 
15/- 

20 

17/- 

Women  in  Industry. 

The  Co-operative  Wholesale  Society  are  large  employers.  The 
number  of  females  employed  at  the  various  works  and  departments 
is  7,350.  These  comprise  3,830  day-workers  and  3,520  piece- 
workers. Regarding  the  position  of  wages,  the  following 
summarised  account  has  been  supplied:  — 

(a)  Female  Employes  other  than  Piece-workers. 

The  whole  of  these  are  now  receiving  wages  at  not  less  than 
the  Congress  minimum  scale  of  wages. 

(b)  Piece-workers. 

The  "log  list"  is  now  fixed  on  such  a  basis  as  will  enable  at 
least  85  per  cent,  to  earn  not  less  than  the  scale  rate  mentioned. 

According  to  the  last  return  prepared  in  connection  with  this 
matter,  the  number  of  females  receiving  wages  in  excess  of  the 
minimum  scale  rate  was  2,950,  the  approximate  amount  being 
£18,000  per  annum. 

It  may  be  mentioned  that  the  health  and  comfort  of  all  the 
workers  have  had  the  first  consideration,  as  will  be  seen  from  the 
following,  viz.  :  — 

1.  Good  healthy  workrooms. 

2.  Trade  union  wages  in  every  case  where  trade  unions  exist. 

3.  Best  wages  in  districts  where  no  trade  unions  exist. 

4.  Short  hours  of  labour  (5,400  females  working  forty-eight 

hours  or  less  per  week). 

5.  Payment  for  time  absent  through  sickness  and  holidays  to 

those  on  fixed  wages,  and  who  are  not  paid  for  overtime. 

6.  Overalls  provided  for  females  in  certain  packing  departments. 

7.  Commodious  dining-rooms,  with  meals  at  reasonable  prices. 

8.  Facilities  for  recreation  and  entertainment. 

9.  Annual  picnic,  with  a  grant  for  each  employe  attending. 
10.  Thrift  fund,  which  is  generously  subsidised  by  the  society. 

Practically  the  wages  and  conditions  that  obtain  in  the  English 
Co-operative  Wholesale  Society's  works  also  obtain  in  the  factories 
and  workshops  of  the  Scottish  Co-operative  Wholesale  Society. 
It  is  quite  true  that  many  private  employers  are  not  unmindful  of 
the  provision  of  healthy  conditions  and  good  wages  for  their  female 
employes.  But,  generally  speaking,  the  circumstances  of  women  in 
industry  are  not  to  be  compared  with  those  under  the  charge  of  the 
two  great  Co-operative  Wholesale  Societies.  I  will  say  no  more 
about  that  here,  except  that  I  speak  from  a  wide  experience  of 
women  workers  in  the  factories  and  workshops  of  the  United 
Kingdom. 

My  task  of  trying  to  indicate  the  numerical  growth  of  women 
in  industry,  and  the  ignominious  rewards  granted  to  females  for 
industrial  service,  must  now  be  drawn  to  a  conclusion.  The 
numerical  advance  will  continue.     Low  wages  must  be  increased. 

447 


Women  in  Industry. 

Doubtlessly,  with  the  numerical  development,  fresh  domestic 
problems  and  new  social  sentiments  will  arise.  New  legislation 
will  be  enforced  by  the  organisation  of  women  workers  in  trade 
union  and  political  objects.  But  no  matter  whatever  be  woman's 
advance  in  industrial  or  professional  directions,  she  must  be  also 
the  child-bearer  of  the  race,  if  the  race  is  to  be  perpetuated.  So 
far  as  the  advance  of  woman  has  proceeded  in  wage-earning 
occupations,  no  specific  attempt  has  yet  been  made  to  combine  on 
anything  like  ideal  lines  her  industrial  conditions  with  the 
necessities  associated  with  her  maternal  functions.  In  many  cases 
she  works  harder  and  longer  hours  than  men,  and  is  invariably 
paid  much  less  in  wages.  But,  just  as  bad  social,  economic,  and 
industrial  circumstances  of  young  men  tend  to  render  them  less 
efficient  as  fathers,  or  soldiers,  so  the  depressing  conditions  of 
female  workers  make  them  less  proficient  as  mothers  or  bearers  of 
the  nation's  children.  Society  itself  reaps  the  soiled  fruit  of  its 
own  sowing.  Heretofore,  women  in  industry  have  been  the 
victims  of  gross  injustice  and  selfish  profit-seeking.  Our  object, 
however,  should  not  be  to  banish  them  from  occupational  positions, 
but  to  improve  their  industrial  conditions  and  make  these  more 
compatible  with  the  requirements  of  healthy  womanhood,  strong 
motherhood,  noble  citizenship.  Our  policy  should  be  freedom  of 
choice  for  both  sexes,  with,  such  capital  and  labour  conditions  that 
would  help  to  make  that  freedom  a  blessing  rather  than  a  danger 
to  mankind. 


448 


Our  National  Wealth :    The  Conditions 
of  its  Continuance. 


BY  L.    G.    CHIOZZA   MONEY,    M.P. 


I.  Of  the'  Three  Nations  who  Lead  Industry. 

OUE  British  State  has  reached  in  the  second  decade  of  the 
twentieth  century  a  point  in  its  development  and  in  its 
relation  to  the  world  at  large  at  which  it  will  be  well  for 
its  future  if  those  responsible  for  its  governance  take  stock  of  the 
national  undertaking  and  weigh  carefully  the  conditions  which 
have  raised  Britain  to  her  present  position  and  the  measures  which 
are  necessary  to  secure  the  material  future  of  the  British  people. 
It  is  my  purpose  here  to  trace,  in  broad  outlines  the  circumstances 
which  have  made  Britain  what  she  is,  and  to  show  in  their  true 
perspective  the  factors  which  constitute  our  strength  or  our 
weakness.  We  shall  be  concerned  with  fundamental  matters, 
some  of  which  are  within  our  control,  while  others,  unfortunately, 
are  quite  beyond  it.  We  shall  see  that,  in  one  sense,  it  is  as 
difficult  for  a  nation  to  become  wealthy  by  taking  thought  as  for  a 
man  to  add  a  cubit  to  his  stature.  Nevertheless,  within  the 
practical  possibilities  of  human  effort,  we  shall  see  that  there  is 
much  that  may  be  done  and,  indeed,  much  that  must  be  done  to 
safeguard  the  material  welfare  of  the  people  of  the  British  Isles 
and  to  fit  them  to  remain  the  head  and  front  of  a  great  Empire. 

Let  us  begin  by  observing  that  it  is  by  no  means  a  matter  of 
chance  that  the  people  of  the  world,  regarded  as  a  whole,  are  to 
be  found  collected  together  in  great  groups  in  certain  areas.  In 
ancient  days  the  distribution  of  the  world's  population  was  largely 
conditioned  by  the  difficulties  of  locomotion.  In  modern  times 
the  railway  and  the  steamship,  combined  with  a  growing  knowledge 
of  the  world's  surface,  have  made  it  possible  for  the  people  of  the 
most  advanced  races  to  settle  in  naturally  rich  areas.  In  our 
day  millions  of  people  transplant  themselves  in. the  world  in  the 
course  of  a  single  year,  and  before  the  world  is  very  much  older 
claims  will  have  been  pegged  out  in  all  the  world's  choicest  spots 
by  enterprising  emigrants.  What  is  it,  under  these  conditions, 
that  decides  the  distribution  of  population  in  -the  world?  The 
answer  is  that  there  are  two  great  factors.  The  first  is  Fertility, 
and  the  second  is  Power.     The  great  areas  of  virgin  soil  in  the 

HH  449 


Our  Natioyial  Wealth:  The  Conditions  of  its  Continuance. 

New  World  draw  upon  the  teeming  agricultural  populations  of 
old  countries,  and  we  see  some  poor  peasant  from  Galicia  or 
Tuscany  taking  up  a  free  grant  of  land  on  the  Western  Prairie. 
More  potent  still  as  a  factor  in  attracting  and  hoJding  population 
is  a  country's  natural  gifts  in  point  of  power.  These,  when  a 
country  is  fortunate  enough  to  possess  them,  afford  the  means  of 
creating  wealth  in  enormous  quantities  and  to  support  at  a  high 
standard  of  comfort  great  and  prosperous  populations.  The  fact 
that  three  countries  of  the  world — two  of  them,  the  United 
Kingdom  and  the  German  Empire,  old  civilisations,  and  one,  the 
United  States  of  America,  a  "new"  country — lead  the  world  in 
point  of  wealth  production  is  due  to  their,  possession  in  an 
extraordinary  degree  of  the  main  source  of  the  chief  means  of 
power  production  at  present  known  to  mankind,  viz.,  Coal.  By 
virtue  of  their  magnificent  coal-mines  these  three  nations  are  able 
to  manufacture  upon  a  large  scale  under  the  most  favourable 
conditions.  Other  nations  are  handicapped  in  competition  by  their 
inferior  resources,  and  have,  indeed,  in  respect  of  many  great 
industries,  no  chance  to  compete  on  level  terms  with  the  three 
industrial  leaders. 

To  realise  the  extraordinary  predominance  in  coal  production 
of  the  three  countries  named,  let  us  consider  the  world's  coal 
output  in  1912,  the  latest  year  for  which  we  have  particulars 
available  for  all  countries.  Here  are  the  curious  and  significant 
facts  of  the  case:- — 

THE  world's  coal  PRODUCTION  IN  1912. 

(The  figures  include  the  inferior  brown  coal  known  as  lignite.) 

Tons. 

United  States   477,000,000 

United  Kingdom  260,000,000 

Germany    253,000,000 

990,000,000 
All  the  rest  of  the  World  210.000,000 

All  the  World  1,200,000,000 

Nature,  it  will  be  seen,  has  been  anything  but  impartial  in  her 
distribution  of  a  most  important  world  asset.  With  all  the  world 
producing,  in  1912,  1,200,000,000  tons  of  coal,  we  see  that 
America,  Britain,  and  Germany  produced  between  them 
990,000,000  tons,  or  over  82  per  cent,  of  the  whole.  To  put  it 
more  simply  still,  the  three  great  coal  nations  produced  between 
them  more  than  eight  out  of  every  ten  tons  of  coal  produced  in 
all  the  world.  It  is  impossible  to  argue  with  facts  like  that;  they 
are  too  hard  to  be  resisted  by  the  nations  who  have  not  the  fortune 

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Our  National  Wealth:  The  Conditions  of  its  Continuance. 

to  be  great  coal  countries.  In  trades  demanding  the  use  of  large 
quantities  of  cheap  power  it  is  impossible  for  France  to  contend 
with  England,  or  for  Holland  or  Italy  to  contend  with  Germany. 

II.  The  Rise  of  Britain  as  an  Industrial  Power. 

The  rise  of  Britain  to  eminence  in  industry  and  trade  was  the 
result  of  the  discovery  by  a  few  gifted  men  of  the  means  to  utilise 
<;oal  power.  It  is  indeed  strange  that  for  so  many  centuries  coal 
had  remained  for  practical  purposes  unused  in  these  islands,  and 
that  not  until  the  eighteenth  century  did  anyone  take  sufficient 
thought  upon  the  extraordinary  heat-producing  qualities  of  coal 
and  the  common  and  visible  phenomenon  of  the  boiling  of  water. 
The  world  had  to  wait  so  long  for  thoughtful  men  to  consider 
these  things  that  it  might  easily  have  had  to  w^ait  a  century  or 
two  longer.  It  is  a  curious  thought  that  we  ow^e  to  a  few  persons 
the  facile  printing  of  these  w^ords  by  power  machinery  in  1914. 
When  the  very  obvious  powers  of  heat  and  steam  at  last  thrust 
themselves  upon  the  thinker,  Britain  was  enabled  to  make  use  of 
the  wealth  which  she  had  all  along  possessed  during  long  centuries 
of  poverty. 

We  hardly  realise  to-day  how  short  a  remove  separates  us 
from  the  poor  Britain  with  a  stagnant  population.  The  year  1750 
was  only  one  hundred  and  sixty-five  years  ago,  or,  as  nearly  as 
possible,  five  generations — the  days  of  our  gi^andfathers'  great- 
-grandfathers. In  1750  all  England  and  Wales,  which  now 
contains  over  thirty-six  million  people,  had  a  population  of  little 
more  than  six  millions,  while  what  is  now  the  United  Kingdom, 
with  a  population  of  about  forty-six  millions  of  people,  contained 
about  ten-and-a-half  millions  of  people.  And  not  only  was  the 
Britain  of  five  generations  ago  poor  in  point  of  numbers;  the 
almost  stagnant  population  lived  at  a  very  low  standard  of  life, 
and  the  main  occupation  of  the  people  was  a  poor  agriculture. 
Industries  were  few  and  unprogressive.  A  big  iron  industry  was 
impossible,  for  we  had  no  timber  left  with  which  to  smelt  iron, 
and  the  little  iron  produced  in  the  world  was  naturally  produced 
in  the  North  of  Europe,  where  there  was  plenty  of  good  timber 
to  make  charcoal.  We  could  in  no  better  way  illustrate  the 
poverty  of  the  world  as  a  whole  at  that  day,  and  the  comparative 
poverty  of  Britain  in  that  poor  world,  than  by  pointing  out  that 
in  the  middle  of  the  eighteenth  century  the  entire  world  produced 
about  one  hundred  thousand  tons  of  iron  and  that  England 
contributed  about  fifteen  thousand  tons  to  that  very  poor  total. 
Iron  is  man's  chief  tool,  and  when  the  world  had  very  little  ii'on 
it  was  necessarily  poor.  The  chief  English  industry  in  the  middle 
of  the  eighteenth  century  was  the  woollen  trade,  but  it  was  a 
poor  thing  at  the  best,  and  the  English  manufacturers  had  to 
send  their  cloths  to  the  Continent  to  be  dyed  and  finished  for  lack 
of  the  knowledge  and  skill  which  existed  elsewhere. 

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Our  National  Wealth:  The  Conditions  of  its  Continuance. 

When. coal  was  made  to  yield  its  power,  and  we  discovered 
how  to  get  it  in  great  quantities  and  to  use  it  to  advantage,  the 
currents  of  British  endeavour  were  almost  completely  changed. 
In  1750  Abraham  Darby  discovered  how  to  smelt  iron  with  coal, 
and  that  fact  changed  Britain  from  one  of  the  least  of  the  iron 
countries  to  one  of  the  greatest,  giving  her  a  lead  in  the  iron 
manufacture  which  she  was  destined  to  hold  for  many  years.  In 
the  same  year  James  Watt  began  his  wonderful  work  with  the 
steam  engine.  When  coal  power  was  realised,  and  when  plentiful 
quantities  of  iron  came  to  be  produced  cheaply,  invention  was 
given  a  great  impetus.  The  age  of  machinery  was  ushered  in, 
and  production  by  power  began.  Towards  the  end  of  the  eighteenth 
century  the  factory  system  was  established.  The  country  which 
at  the  middle  of  the  eighteenth  century  had  had  for  several 
generations  an  almost  stagnant  population  began  to  increase  by 
leaps  and  bounds.  Between  1700  and  1750  the  population  of 
England  and  Wales  grew  by  no  more  than  about  500,000  people; 
in  the  next  fifty  years  the  population  increased  by  about  50  per 
cent.,  numbering  about  nine  millions  in  1801.  We  may  regard 
the  middle  of  the  eighteenth  century  as  a  turning-point  in  British 
progress.  Before  that  date  Britain  was  an  agricultural  country 
largely  exporting  food  and  materials  and  importing  manufactures. 
After  that  date  Britain  began  to  draw  upon  the  world  for  materials 
to  work  with  the  great  sources  of  power  which  she  possessed  in 
her  coal-mines,  and  where  before  she  had  imported  manufactures 
she  began  to  export  and  to  build  up  a  great  foreign  trade  in  the 
products  of  her  new  coal-based  industries. 

III.  How  Our  Forty- six  Million  People  Live. 

Production  by  power,  which,  as  we  have  seen,  began  in  the 
eighteenth  century,  made  rapid  progress  in  the  nineteenth  century. 
Whereas  in  1801  the  total  population  of  the  United  Kingdom  was 
15,500,000,  one-half  of  that  number  having  been  added  in  the 
last  fifty  years  of  the  eighteenth  century,  at  the  end  of  the 
nineteenth  century  the  British  Isles  had  a  population  of  over 
forty-one  millions,  a  figure  which  has  now  risen  to  over  forty-six 
millions.  The  same  isles,  which  so  recently  found  it  difficult  to 
sustain  a  small  population  even  upon  terms  of  an  almost  universal 
poverty,  are  now  the  home  of  a  population  so  great  that  it 
scarcely  notices  the  sailing  of  hundreds  of  thousands  of  emigrants 
in  a  single  year.  It  is  very  important  that  we  should  clearly 
understand  the  economy  which  sustains  so  great  a  population  in 
so  small  an  area.  The  conditions  of  our  existence  are  exceedingly 
complex,  and  it  is  not  difficult,  therefore,  for  a  man  in  our  modern 
days  to  be  a  cog  in  the  great  machine  without  understanding  either 
his  own  position  or  that  of  the  great  working  machine  of  which 
he  forms  an  insignificant  part. 

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Our  National  Wealth:  The  Conditions  of  its  Continuance. 

The  United  Kingdom  is  naturally  a  poor  country  save  in  respect 
of  the  gifts  of  its  people,  its  geographical  position,  and  its 
extraordinarily  good  stores  of  mineral  fuel.  We  may  sum  up 
our  first-class  material  possessions  in  two  words — Coal  and 
Seaboard.  If  we  consider  the  materials  with  which  our  work  is 
done  we  realise  how  true  is  this  broad  generalisation.  Whether 
we  regard  metals,  or  timber,  or  textile  materials,  or  hides  and 
skins,  or  such  miscellaneous  materials  as  rubber  and  asbestos, 
we  find  that  our  native  supplies  are  either  inferior  or  altogether 
lacking.  As  to  native  metals,  only  iron  and  tin  are  of  any 
consequence ;  of  such  important  metals  as  copper,  lead,  and  zinc 
we  have  negligible  supplies.  As  to  timber,  it  is  our  own  fault 
that  we  have  not  good  native  supplies,  and  the  nation  vainly  waits 
for  an  enterprising  Government  to  establish  the  great  State 
forests  we  ought  to  have.  As  to  many  materials,  such  as  cotton, 
jute,  rubber,  &c.,  we  are  altogether  dependent  upon  oversea 
supplies,  while  as  to  wool,  hides,  skins,  and  many  other  things, 
it  is  quite  impossible  for  us  to  raise  in  these  islands  more  than  a 
small  part  of  the  enormous  quantities  required  to  maintain  the 
manufacturing  industries  which  are  based  upon  them.  Our 
natural  poverty  in  industrial  materials  has  to  be  atoned  for  by 
doing  work  to  earn  supplies  of  them  from  abroad.  Hence  our 
great  export  trade.  We  manufacture  for  the  export  market,  and 
earn  in  exchange  for  the  manufactured  products  we  send  out  the 
foods  and  materials  which  we  do  not,  or  cannot,  produce  at  home. 
As  to  food,  be  it  observed,  we  raise  at  home  about  one-half  of  our 
consumption  of  the  kinds  of  food  which  can  be  raised  in  our 
climate;  the  other  half  we  earn  by  our  export  trade. 

But  let  the  conditions  of  the  successful  conduct  of  this 
national  economy  be  carefully  observed.  We  are  able  to  prosecute 
successful  manufacturing  because  we  have  in  our  little  Britain 
magnificent  stores  of  fuel  which  in  no  case  are  situate  more 
than  about  one  hundred  miles  from  the  sea,  and  are  often  actually 
adjacent  to  tide  water.  Good  coal  thus  situated  means  Cheap 
Power,  and  Cheap  Power  means  the  command  of  raw  materials. 

A  good  coal-mine  well  situated  acts  upon  industries  like  a 
magnet.  Eaw  materials  are  drawn  to  the  coal,  because  near  the 
coal  they  can  be  most  successfully  worked  upon.  Coal  is  so 
heavy  and  bulky  that  its  carriage  is  a  very  costly  matter,  and  it 
does  not  pay,  in  the  general  case,  to  take  coal  to  materials  as  well 
as  it  pays  to  take  materials  to  coal.  It  will  be  understood, 
therefore,  what  a  peculiar  advantage  it  is  to  a  nation  to  possess 
such  good  coal  as  ours,  and  especially  to  have  that  coal  not  far 
from  good  ports,  so  that  raw  materials  can  be  brought  from  any 
port  of  the  world  just  to  the  place  where  they  can  be  best  used. 

Now  we  have  the  British  economy  in  a  nutshell.  With 
cheap,  well-situated  coal  as  a  base,  large-scale  manufacturing  is 

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Our  National  Wealth:  The  Conditions  of  its  Continuance. 

successfully  conducted  chiefly  upon  foreign  materials.  With  part 
of  the  manufactures  produced  the  imports  are  paid  for  without 
which  we  could  not  exist  in  these  islands  as  a  great  people. 

It  should  also  be  observed  that  British  shipping,  as  well  as 
British  manufacturing  industry,  owes  its  present  position  to  the 
coal  asset.  If  we  consider  the  kinds  of  goods  we  bring  in,  and 
compare  them  with  the  kinds  of  goods  we  send  out,  we  see  that 
the  foods  and  raw  materials  which  we  have  to  import  are  bulky 
or  heavy  or  both,  whereas  the  goods  we  send  out  are  chiefly 
manufactured  articles,  which,  pound's  worth  for  pound's  worth, 
take  up  much  less  room  in  a  ship  than  foods  or  raw  materials.  It 
follows,  therefore,  that,  so  far  as  our  imports  of  food  and  materials 
on  the  one  hand  and  our  exports  of  manufactured  goods  on  the 
other  hand  are  concerned,  we  need  many  ships  for  our  imports 
and  fewer  ships  for  our  exports.  That  is  awkward  for  shipping, 
because  it  means  full  cargoes  inwards  and  many  ships  compelled 
to  go  out  in  ballast  for  lack  of  a  cargo.  Fortunately  for  British 
shipping,  our  coal  redresses  the  balance,  coal  exports  furnishing 
a  heavy  and  bulky  outward  cargo,  which  compensates  the 
shipowner.  As  coal  exports  have  been  increasingly  needed  with 
the  growth  of  steamships  to  maintain  coaling  stations  abroad,  the 
coal  export  trade,  by  furnishing  good  outward  cargoes,  has  helped 
to  build  up  British  shipping  and  make  it  profitable. 

It  will  be  understood,  then,  how  all-important  to  the  United 
Kingdom  is  its  coal  supply,  and  if  we  desire  to  understand  what 
the  loss  of  coal  would  mean  to  Britain  we  have  only  to  turn  to 
those  parts  of  the  United  Kingdom  which  lack  coal,  such  as 
Ireland,  or  such  English  counties  as  Norfolk  or  Oxfordshire  or 
Wiltshire.  These  coal-less  parts  of  the  country  we  find  to  be 
poor  and  with  an  inferior  standard  of  wages.  So  true  it  is  that 
m  our  modern  days  a  district  without  a  power  supply  is  sorely 
handicapped  in  the  production  of  wealth. 

Without  the  magic  influence  of  our  wonderful  natural  power 
stores  it  would  be  impossible  for  forty-six  millions  of  people  to 
live  in  these  islands  except  upon  conditions  of  great  poverty. 
It  is  upon  manufacturing  and  the  commerce  arising  out  of  it  that 
the  majority  of  our  people  live,  and  if  the  secret  of  coal  had  not 
been  discovered,  or  if  our  power  supply  had  been  as  poor  as  that 
of  France,  there  would  not  be  twenty  millions  of  people  living 
in  these  islands  at  the  present  time. 

IV.  The  Eise  of  Foreign  Competition. 

In  the  early  years  of  British  coal  development  we  had  things 
all  our  own  way.  As  has  been  pointed  out  above,  there  are  only 
two  other  white  countries  in  the  world  which  possess  coal  resources 
comparable  with  our  own,  but  neither  of  these  countries  was  in 

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Our  National  Wealth:  The  Conditions  of  its  Contintiance. 

a  position  to  utilise  their  power  in  the  early  days  when  we  began 
to  smelt  iron  with  coal  and  to  use  steam-driven  machinery. 

The  United  States,  of  course,  lacked  population,  and  it  was 
not  until  1860  that  the  United  States,  which  will  soon  have  one 
hundred  millions  of  people,  had  a  population  of  thirty -one  millions. 
Iron  was  not  smelted  with  coal  in  the  United  States  until  1840, 
or  ninety  years  after  Abraham  Darby  successfully  performed  the 
feat  in  England.  The  ultimate  destiny  of  the  United  States  was 
well  understood  by  competent  observers  two  generations  ago. 
The  American  coal  is  infinitely  superior  to  our  own,  or,  indeed, 
to  that  of  any  other  country  in  the  world,  and  it  was  certain, 
therefore,  that  as  soon  as  she  had  sufficient  population  she  would 
be  able  to  surpass  us  easily  in  production.  That  has  proved  to 
be  the  case,  and  at  the  present  time  America  produces  in  a  year 
about  three  times  as  much  iron  as  is  produced  in  the  United 
Kingdom.  America,  however,  has  not  become  a  great  exporter 
of  manufactures.  There  are  two  reasons  for  this.  The  first  is 
that  she  has  gained  people  so  rapidly  through  the  two  factors 
which  we  have  seen  to  be  the  determinants  of  population — fertility 
and  power — that  she  has  been  engaged  in  building  up  within  her 
own  borders  the  material  framework  of  a  great  new  civiHsation. 
Most  of  the  goods  she  has  produced  have  been  needed  by  her 
own  rapidly  multiplying  people.  She  has  herself  many  of  the 
raw  materials  which  we  have  to  import.  She  is  the  greatest  iron 
country,  the  greatest  lead  country,  the  greatest  oil  country,  the 
greatest  copper  country  in  the  world.  She  needs  imports,  but 
she  has  not  the  imperative  need  of  Britain.  Also,  she  has  practised 
a  restrictive  commercial  policy  which  has  prevented  her  in  obtaining 
a  great  hold  upon  foreign  markets.  She  will,  however,  be  a  much 
greater  competitor  in  the  future. 

As  to  Germany,  we  have  but  to  remind  ourselves  of  her  history 
to  understand  why  it  was  that  her  gifted  people  were  doing  so 
little  during  the  early  period  of  British  industrial  development. 
While  Britain,  the  island  power,  protected  from  invasion  by  her 
Navy,  was  undergoing  the  industrial  revolution  and  busily  building 
up  industries  and  wealth  to  sustain  a  greatly  increased  population, 
Germany  was  not  merely  divided  but  was,  during  a  long  period 
of  years,  a  theatre  of  war.  Her  people,  under  their  many  rulers, 
were  often  politically  divided,  and  until  quite  recent  years 
commercially  divided  by  hostile  tariffs,  different  systems  of 
coinage  and  of  weights  and  measures.  It  was  not  until  the 
formation  of  the  German  Empire,  under  the  leadership  of  the 
Prussian  King  as  German  Kaiser,  that  Germany,  less  than 
forty-five  years  ago,  won  the  peaceful  internal  conditions  w^hich 
enabled  her  to  apply  her  great  gifts  to  her  fine  resources.  \Yhen 
at  last  she  was  free  to  devote  her  energies  to  the  arts  of  peace, 
coal  power  soon  did  for  Germany  what  at  an  earlier  period  it 

455 


Our  National  Wealth:  The  Conditions  of  its  Continuance. 

did  for  Britain.  It  built  up  fine  industries  which,  backed  by 
education  and  scientific  research,  have  carried  Germany  with 
incredible  swiftness  to  the  position  of  the  second  export 
manufacturing  country. 

Neither  America  nor  Germany  could  have  done  so  much 
without  the  aid  of  the  natural  resources  which  have  been  the 
secret  of  our  own  success  in  modern  times.  If  we  again  turn  to 
the  remarkable  figures  as  to  the  world's  coal  output  given  on  a 
previous  page,  we  understand  that,  while  it  needed  intelligence 
and  skill  to  develop  natural  resources,  each  of  the  three  leading 
industrial  nations  owes  its  position  to  the  great  and  peculiar 
advantage  of  a  magnificent  coal  supply.  By  taking  thought  a 
nation  can  add  to  the  physical  well-being  and  to  the  culture  of 
its  people,  but  it  cannot  add  a  single  ounce  to  its  native  stores  of 
minerals.  Skill  and  intelligence  are  needed  to  make  the  most  of 
any  country,  but  that  cannot  atone  for  lack  of  natural  resources ; 
indeed,  the  recorded  history  of  the  world  shows  that  where  skill 
and  intelligence  are  possessed  by  any  race  that  race  migrates  in 
search  of  the  best  natural  resources  that  it  knows  of  in  the  world. 
The  building  up  of  a  nation  of  nearly  one  hundred  millions  of 
people  in  the  United  States  is  a  major  illustration  of  the  fact. 
The  great  American  people  is  a  heterogeneous  collection  of 
enterprising  persons  of  all  races  (or  the  descendants  of  these)  who 
have  had  the  courage  to  leave  their  native  lands  in  search  of  the 
virgin  fertility  and  the  power  afforded  by  cheap  fuel.  Always  in 
comparing  nation  with  nation  we  ought  to  remember  the  profound 
principles  of  which  I  have  spoken,  and  yet  how  often  they  are 
completely  neglected. 

V.  British  Wealth  as  It  Is. 

By  reason  of  the  economy  we  have  considered  in  broad  outline 
the  great  British  population  has  accumulated  capital  roundly 
estimated  to  be  worth  about  sixteen  thousand  milHon  pounds 
(£16,000,000,000),  and  enjoys  an  annual  income  of  not  less  than 
two  thousand  one  hundred  million  pounds  (£2,100,000,000). 
These  figures  appear  enormous  when  thus  written  down  on  paper, 
but  let  it  not  be  forgotten  that  they  refer  to  over  forty-six  millions 
of  people. 

Even  the  smallest  affairs  of  a  great  people  bulk  largely  in  the 
aggregate,  and  we  shall  do  well  not  to  allow  ourselves  to  be 
dazzled  by  hundreds  or  thousands  of  millions  when  we  are 
considering  tens  of  millions  of  people.  It  needs  an  enormous 
amount  of  food  in  the  aggregate  to  supply  even  a  starvation  diet 
to  forty-six  millions  of  men,  women,  and  children;  it  needs  an 
enormous  amount  of  capital  in  the  aggregate  to  house  them  ever 
so  poorly;  it  needs  an  enormous  income  in  the  aggregate  merely 
to  provide  them  with  the  barest  comforts.     If  we  want  to  view 

456 


Our  National  Wealth:  the  Conditions  of  its  Continuance. 

the  facts  I  have  given  in  a  proper  perspective  let  us  consider  our 
national  income  of  about  £2,100,000,000  for  what  it  is  as  the 
aggregate  year's  fund  of  these  people  for  all  purposes,  i.e.,  for 
maintaining  the  central  and  local  governments,  for  repairing  and 
renewing  old  capital,  for  adding  new  capital,  and  for  current 
consumption.  When  we  divide  £2,100,000,000  by  forty-six 
million  people,  we  see  that  it  works  out  at  about  £45  per  head, 
or  about  £225  per  family  of  five  persons.  And  that  £225  average 
per  family  is  not,  as  I  have  remarked,  available  for  current 
consumption;  it  has  to  furnish  national  and  civic  needs,  repair 
old  capital,  and  supply  new  capital.  Our  national  peace 
expenditure  (less  the  Post  Ofi&ce  outgo  which  is  not  really 
expenditure)  is  now  (1914),  in  round  figures,  £180,000,000,  while 
local  expenditure  out  of  rates  is  about  £80,000,000.  If  we  suppose 
no  more  than  £340,000,000  to  be  saved  for  capital  purposes  in 
a  year  we  have  £600,000,000  to  deduct  from  the  £2,100,000,000 
to  arrive  at  the  yearly  sum  available  for  personal  expenditure, 
reducing  the  £2,100,000,000  to  £1,500,000,000,  or  less  than  £33 
per  head.  That  being  the  average  per  head,  need  we  wonder,  in 
view  of  the  bad  and  inequitable  distribution  of  what  income  there 
is,  that  there  is  so  much  poverty  in  our  midst? 

As  a  matter  of  fact,  the  national  income  of  £2,100,000,000  is 
so  inequitably  distributed  that  about  one-half  of  it  has  to  serve 
the  needs  of  forty  million  people,  while  the  other  half  is  taken, 
approximately,  by  the  remaining  six  million  people.  We  may 
sum  up  the  facts  as  to  income  by  saying  that  the  national  income 
is  surprisingly  small  in  view  of  the  powers  of  production  conferred 
upon  us  by  modern  science  and  invention,  and  that  what  income 
there  is  is  very  badly  distributed. 

Let  us  turn  to  the  national  capital,  which  we  have  said  is 
approximately  £16,000,000,000.  Much  of  this  (about  one-fourth 
of  the  whole)  is  invested  in  British  possessions  and  foreign 
countries,  producing  income  for  the  well-to-do  persons  who  own 
it.  The  remainder  (about  £12,000,000,000)  represents  the 
commercial  valuation  of  British  land,  and  all  our  farms,  mines, 
quarries,  railways,  canals,  tramways,  docks,  harbours,  warehouses, 
offices,  houses,  shops,  roads,  sewers,  lighting  systems.  Government 
buildings,  stores,  military  and  naval  plant  and  material,  telegraphs, 
telephones,  &c.  Apart  from  land  value,  we  may  perhaps  put 
the  British  capital  employed  within  the  British  Isles  at  somethi4g 
less  than  £10,000,000,000.  What  does  that  amount  to  for  forty- 
six  millions  of  people?  To  about  £200  per  head,  or  -to  about 
£1,000  for  each  British  family. 

Again  we  are  struck,  not  with  the  magnitude,  but  with  the 
paucity  of  the  figure.  It  is  astonishing  that,  after  all  these  years 
of  manufacturing  by  power  and  of  producing  wealth  with  tie  aid 
of  scientific  apphances,  the  British  capital  employed  at  home  for 
each   British   family,   including  every   sort  and  kind  of   capital, 

457 


Our  National  Wealth:  The  Conditions  of  its  Continuance. 

should  amount  to  no  more  than  about  £1,000.  In  these  days  it 
takes  £1,000  to  build  thoroughly  well  a  small  comfortable  house. 
What  a  flood  of  light  this  single  consideration  throws  upon  wealth 
as  it  is.  How  clearly  it  appears  that  we  have  not  very  much  to 
be  proud  of  in  what  we  have  so  far  accomplished.  There  ought 
to  be  far  more  capital  employed  in  our  country,  and  an  enormous 
addition  is  needed  merely  for  one  purpose,  and  one  purpose  alone — 
the  housing  of  our  people  in  beautiful  and  comfortable  dwellings. 

The  ancient  and  proper  meaning  of  wealth  is  well-being.  If 
we  rate  British  wealth  in  relation  to  that  true  and  proper  meaning, 
how  much  we  have  to  deplore.  Our  cities  are,  for  the  most  part, 
collections  of  ugly,  uncomfortable,  and  crowded  buildings,  which 
rob  their  inmates  of  health,  while  they  deprive  them  of  the  proper 
enjoyment  of  some  of  those  things  in  life  which  are  best  worth 
having  and  which  are  not  to  be  bought  for  any  price  whatever. 
If  we  walk  in  the  streets  of  our  great  towns,  and  examine  the 
contents  of  the  shops,  we  realise  that  for  the  most  part  our 
manufacturing  activities  are  directed  to  turning  out  knowingly 
rubbish  for  the  consumption  of  persons  who  cannot  afford  to  pay 
for  well-made  articles  to  which  good  material  has  been  devoted. 
If  we  observe  streets  in  their  work-a-day  aspect  we  realise  that 
the  majority  of  our  people  are  ill-clad,  and  that  no  small  proportion 
of  them  bear  visible  traces  of  physical  deterioration.  If  we  listen 
to  the  accents  of  the  children  we  realise  that  an  enormous 
proportion  of  them  have  not  even  been  given  the  opportunity  to 
learn  to  speak  properly  their  own  beautiful  language. 

There  is,  of  course,  an  intimate  connection  between  wealth 
in  the  corrupted  sense  of  material  property  and  wealth  in  the  true 
sense  of  well-being.  But  it  is  a  curious  fact  that  the  blind  pursuit 
of  wealth  regardless  of  well-being  has  its  own  punishment,  not 
only  in  the  loss  of  the  latter,  but  even  in  the  loss  of  the  power  to 
produce  material  things.  It  was  the  failure  of  Britain  in  the  late 
eighteenth  century  and  in  the  nineteenth  century  to  understand 
this  truth  which  gave  us  the  physical  deterioration  of  our  day, 
and  stultified  wealth  production  so  successfully  that  we  have 
attained  to  no  more  than  the  poor  product  which  we  have  examined. 
Because  the  pursuers  of  wealth  in  our  manufacturing  centres  forgot 
that  the  lives  they  employed  to  produce  goods  were  the  true 
wealth  of  the  nation,  our  cities  arose  in  ugliness  and'squalour, 
those  who  built  and  controlled  them  having  no  conception  of  the 
fact  that  they  were  sacrificing  the  chief  form  of  property  that 
mattered.  There  would  have  been  no  difficulty  in  building  up 
beautiful  and  healthy  cities  instead  of  ugly  and  unhealthy  ones, 
and  if  the  proper  course  had  been  taken  the  beauty  and  healthiness 
would  have  reacted  upon  the  mass  of  the  people,  and  to-day  the 
stature,  the  physical  powers,  and  the  aptitude  for  labour  of  the 
people  would  be  enormously  greater,  and  their  output  of  material 
wealth  enormously  more  than  it  is  now. 

458 


Our  National  Wealth:  The  Conditions  of  its  Continuance. 
VI.  The  Comparative  Failure  of  Production. 

If  we  relate  production  as  it  is  to  production  as  it  was  before 
manufacturing  by  power  arose,  then  we  get  an  exaggerated  view 
of  modern  accomplishment.  The  world  of  1750  had  little  or  no 
iron  to  work  with.  When  all  the  nations  had  between  them  a 
ridiculous  100,000  tons  of  iron  with  which  to  work,  how  could 
wealth  production  be  expected?  The  conditions  of  to-day  must 
be  judged  and  weighed,  not  by  comparing  them  with  the  days 
when  modern  science  had  not  arisen;  they  must  be  judged  in 
relation  to  the  powers  we  possess.  It  is  as  idle  to  compare 
production  now  with  production  in  1750  as  to  excuse  the  poor 
product  of  an  adult  and  healthy  man  by  pointing  out  that  it  is 
very  much  greater  than  that  of  an  infant.  Our  modern  civilisation 
must  be  judged  by  reference  to  the  magnificent  equipment  of  gi'eat 
and  fruitful  ideas  which  have  been  placed  at  its  disposal  by  its 
clever  men. 

To-day  the  production  of  wealth  by  methods  unprotected  by 
patents  and  open  to  everyone  to  use  has  become  a  mere  matter 
of  simple  routine.  The  production  of  material  commodities  of  all 
kinds  by  clever  machines  and  appliances  is  little  more  than  child's 
play.  "All  can  grow  the  flowers  now,  for  all  have  got  the  seed." 
Why,  then,  are  there  not  more  flowers?  What  stands  in  the  way 
of  a  full  and  adequate  production  of  houses  and  furnishings,  of 
clothes  and  boots,  of  instruments  of  sport  and  pleasure,  of  books 
and  pictures — of  the  thousand  and  one  things  which  go  to  the 
equipment  of  a  cultured  existence?  That  is  the  supremely 
important  question  which  every  intelligent  person  should  ponder. 

If  we  inquire  into  the  application  of  inventions  it  is  not 
difficult  to  find  an  answer  to  the  question  that  has  been  propounded. 
We  find  at  every  point  that  known  processes  and  inventions  are 
either  partly  applied  or  ill  applied.  We  find  that,  although 
wood-working  machinery  has  been  brought  to  such  beauty  of 
perfection,  it  is  quite  an  easy  thing  to  construct  sound  and  beautiful 
furniture  cheaply.  The  greater  part  of  the  small  amount  of 
furniture  actually  produced  is  sheer  rubbish,  known  to  be  rubbish 
by  the  people  who  make  it.  We  find  that,  while  weaving 
machinery  is  as  wonderful  and  as  perfect  as  wood -working 
machinery,  a  large  proportion  of  looms  in  the  woollen  and  worsted 
trades  are  deliberately  and  knowingly  applied  to  the  production  of 
inferior  and  shoddy  goods,  one-eighth  of  the  material  used  in  the 
British  woollen  and  worsted  industries  being  shoddy.  We  find 
that,  while  the  making  of  boots  merely  consists  of  the  running  of 
a  number  of  clever  machines  to  produce  the  various  parts  at  an 
astonishingly  rapid  rate,  it  is  only  the  minority  of  the  people  of 
our  country  who  are  supplied  with  decent  footwear  made  out  of 
good  material.  No  matter  at  what  point  we  examine  production 
as  it  is,  we  find  an  astounding  and  deplorable  contrast  between, 
•  459 


Our  National  Wealth:  The  Conditions  of  its  Continua7ice. 

on  the  one  hand,  what  are  beautiful  and  wonderfully  clever  and 
rapid  and  simple  methods  of  production,  and,  on  the  other  hand, 
a  poor,  attenuated,  and  rubbishy  product.  It  is  not  the  machines 
that  are  at  fault;  it  is  the  misuse  of  the  machines  by  commerce 
as  it  is.  And  can  we  be  surprised  that  it  is  so  ?  How  is  production 
managed,  controlled,  ordered?  How  do  people  find  themselves 
engaged  in  it  at  this  •  moment  ?  There  is  no  proper  control  or 
organisation.  The  entire  mass  of  output  is  the  product  of  chance, 
qualified  by  the  pursuit  of  individual  gain.  No  one  sets  out  to 
make  clothes  for  the  British  people.  No  one  embarks  upon  the 
enterprise  of  making  boots  for  the  British  people.  No  one  orders 
or  directs  these  or  any  other  similar  functions.  As  to  the  masters, 
here  or  there  some  individual  thinks  he  perceives  an  opening  for 
gain,  and  follows  that  opening  blindly  with  necessarily  imperfect 
information.  He  has  to  proceed  in  competition  with  other  persons 
no  better  informed  than  himself,  and  whose  object  is  the  same 
as  his  object,  which  is  not  to  produce  the  best  goods  to  serve  the 
best  purpose,  but  to  make  as  much  profit  for  himself  individually 
as  he  possibly  can.  It  is  mere  chance  whether,  at  any  given 
moment,  an  opportunity  is  taken  up.  The  class  which  supplies 
more  or  less  enterprising  units  of  partial  and  imperfect  command 
is  notoriously  badly  educated  in  commercial  and  industrial  method, 
the  nation  being  content  to  leave  such  matters  as  much  to  chance 
as  it  leaves  the  ordering  and  control  of  the  great  ideas  which  might 
be  its  fairest  and  most  fruitful  inheritance. 

Or  turn  to  the  unit  of  industry,  the  humble  private  in  the 
ranks.  How  does  he  enter  the  game?  The  answer  is  that  he 
is  not  even  dealt  a  single  card.  H6  sits  at  the  table  of  Chance 
blindfold.  He  is  trained  to  be  at  the  mercy  of  the  world  into 
which  he  has  to  enter,  as  a  rule,  at  thirteen  years  of  age,  when  he 
is  only  just  entering  upon  that  period  of  physiological  and 
psychological  development  which  makes  true  education  possible. 
Uninstructed  and  helpless,  he  passes  out  from  the  elementary 
school  to  enter  humbly  some  industry  or  occupation.  If  he  is  a 
child  in  London  or  one  of  the  many  residential  towns  of  our 
country  his  case  is  parlous  indeed,  for  there  are  few  real  industries 
in  them  in  which  he  can  even  be  a  useful  cog.  In  such  places 
we  see  him  becoming  not  even  a  blind  instrument  in  the  use  of 
splendid  ideas,  but  a  mere  shopboy,  or  door  opener,  or  billiard 
marker,  or  vanboy — a  unit  which  may  become  at  the  best  a  shop 
assistant,  or  unskilled  labourer,  or  lift  attendant,  or  ticket  puncher, 
or  carman,  or  something  of  that  kind,  and  which  at  the  worst 
develops  into  a  hanger-on,  a  loafer,  a  lounger  at  street  corners. 
If,  more  happily,  the  child  is  born  in  a  mining  village,  a  cotton 
city,  a  pottery  town,  a  hardware  centre,  a  boot  -town,  then  at 
thirteen  years  of  age,  or  even  at  twelve  as  a  half-timer,  he 
naturally  follows  the  footsteps  of  his  father  and  passes  into  the 
local  industry  if  there  is  room  for  him,  with  the  glorious  prospect 

460 


Our  National  Wealth:  The  Conditions  of  its  Continuance. 

of  working  in  a  single  groove  while  he  retains  health  and  the 
power  to  work,  and  while  employment  is  good.  How  do  the  great 
ideas  and  inventions  appeal  to  him?  What  chance  has  he  to 
take  part  in  the  direction  or  the  use  of  the  wonderful  ideas,  some 
little  phases  of  which  are  commonplaces  of  his  life  ?  What  chance 
has  a  boy  in  a  boot  factory  to  think  of  boot-making  as  a  wonderful 
art,  and  of  how  it  might  be  exercised  to  make  good  boots  for  a 
big  population?  In  the  ordinary  case  the  worker  in  the  modern 
factory  has  work  presented  to  him  as  a  dull  and  deadening  routine. 
Work  which  is  so  necessary,  and  which  might  be  so  noble,  comes 
to  be  regarded  not  as  a  part  of  hfe,  but  as  a  subtraction  from  life. 
While  a  man  works,  that  is  not  Life — that  is  something  to  be 
tolerated  until  the  siren  announces  the  moment  of  cessation. 
Whoever  else  is  to  blame,  we  cannot  blame  the  unenlightened 
unit  of  industry  for  the  poor  products  of  labour  in  our  time.  The 
average  working  man  is  merely  clay  in  the  hands  of  the  potter. 
He  is  given  work  to  do,  and  he  does  it.  It  is  not  his  to  reason 
why.  Let  us  imagine,  if  we  can,  what  would  become  of  the 
working  man  who  asked  intelligent  questions  as  to  what  he  was 
doing — as  to  either  its  propriety,  its  usefulness,  or  its  timeliness. 
The  average  working  man  is  lucky  to  get  work,  and  he  knows  it. 
If  he  as  much  as  dreamed  of  questioning  the  conduct  of  industry, 
or  the  quality  of  the  materials  given  him,  or  the  commercial 
methods  of  his  firm,  I  shudder  to  think  what  would  become  of  his 
wife  and  family. 

The  remarkable  records  of  the  census  of  production,  conducted 
in  the  year  1907,  show  clearly  in  detail  tTie  poverty  of  production 
which  results  from  our  poor  use  of  science.  The  factory  value  of 
the  entire  produce  of  our  mines,  quarries,  mills,  factories,  and 
workshops,  apart  from  the  value  of  the  materials  employed  by 
them,  is  roundly  £712,000,000.  (The  products  are  sold  for  much 
more,  because  of  the  fictitious  values  added  by  our  wasteful  and 
clumsy  distributive  system.)  The  census  of  production  is  nothing 
short  of  an  indictment  of  competitive  industry. 

VII.  Thj:' Waste  OF  Labour. 

The  tremendous  fact  which  is  brought  out  by  the  census  of 
production  is  that  of  our  working  population  a  curiously  small 
proportion  is  engaged  in  the  direct  production  of  material 
commodities.  The  misdirection  of  labour  is  so  great  that  the  work, 
not  of  thousands  or  of  hundreds  of  thousands,  but  of  milHons, 
is  poured  out  in  waste  as  though  water  were  spilled  upon  sand. 

In  the  United  Kingdom  at  this  moment  we  have  about  twenty 
million  men,  women,  boys,  and  girls  who  are  engaged  in  what 
the  census  calls  "occupations  for  gain."  That  is  to  say,  they  are 
either  really  or  nominally  earning  their  livings  for  remuneration 
large  or  small.     How  many  of  these  twenty  million  persons  are 

461 


Our  National  Wealth:  The  Conditions  of  its  Continuance. 

employed  by  our  mines,  quarries,  mills,  factories,  and  workshops? 
Here  is  the  answer  derived  from  (1)  the  compulsory  census  of 
production  (1907),  and  (2)  the  voluntary  census  of  agriculture 
conducted  by  the  Board  of  Agriculture  in  1908:  — 

BRITISH  PRODUCERS  (DIRECT  PRODUCERS  OF  MATERIAL  COMMODITIES), 

1907-8. 

Persons   employed   in    industry,    and   included    in    schedules     7,000,000 

Persons  not  included  in  schedules   1,000,000 

Persons  employed  in  agriculture,  including  farmers  2,500,000 

Total  10,500,000 

We  see  therefore  that,  broadly  speaking,  only  about  one-half 
of  those  who  work  for  gain  in  this  country  are  engaged  in  making 
or  producing  things.  It  is  a  fact  which  is  as  astonishing  as  it  is 
significant. 

Let  it  not  be  supposed  that  these  producers  are  adults.  As 
far  as  the  seven  million  persons  included  in  the  first  item  of  the 
above  table  are  concerned,  we  are  able  to  give  an  official  analysis, 
and  here  it  is :  — 

UNITED  KINGDOM   INDUSTRIAL  EMPLOYMENT,    1907. 

Wage-earners  : 

Males,  aged  18  years  and  upward  4,250,000 

Females,  aged  18  years  and  upward  1,200,000 

Boys   and   Girls   under   18   950,000 

Outworkers,   chiefly   Women    100,000 

6,500,000 
Salaried    Persons    500,000 

Total  7,000,000 

It  will  be  seen  that,  if  we  term  a  "man"  a  male  person  aged 
eighteen  years  and  upwards,  there  were  in  1907  only  4,250,000 
men  wage-earners  included  in  the  seven  million  industrial  workers. 
That  means,  of  course,  that  the  number  of  men  aged  twenty-one 
years  and  upwards  was  far  short  of  four  millions.  The  more  this 
fact  is  pondered  the  more  astonishing  it  appears.  How  many  men 
are  there  aged  twenty-one  years  and  upwards  in  the  United 
Kingdom  at  this  hour?  The  answer  is,  in  round  figures,  twelve 
millions. 

Therefore,  out  of  twelve  millions  of  grown  men  in  this  coU7itry 
there  are  less  than  four  million  employed  in  the  direct  production 
of  either  minerals  or  manufactures. 

Of  course,  we  must  not  lose  sight  of  the  fact  that  distribution 
is  necessary  and  important,  and  that  we  have  not  only  to  make 
goods,  but  to  carry  materials  and  goods  on  railways  and  to  store 

462 


Our  National  Wealth:  The  Conditions  of  its  Continuance. 

them,  and  to  sell  them.  Further,  we  have  to  remember  that  a 
certain  number  of  men  must  necessarily  be  employed  in  teaching,  in 
carrying  letters,  and  so  forth.  Nevertheless,  when  every  reasonable 
allowance  is  made  for  these  things,  it  remains  a  thing  most 
significant  and  remarkable  that  so  few  of  our  men  should  be 
engaged  in  actually  making  things.  Think  of  the  position.  There 
are  over  forty-six  million  men,  women,  and  children  in  this 
country.  To  produce  minerals  for  all  of  them,  and  to  make  goods 
for  all  of  them,  employs  less  than  four  miUion  grown  men,  aided,  as 
the  foregoing  table  shows,  by  a  certain  number  of  women,  youths, 
boys,  and  girls.  Can  we  wonder,  then,  that  the  production  of 
material  commodities  is  so  inadequate?  Is  it  surprising  that  the 
clever  ideas  and  the  clever  machines  produce  so  little? 

The  fact  is  that,  as  science  and  invention  have  furnished  us 
with  industrial  processes  and  machines  capable  of  turning  out  goods 
with  great  facility,  we  have  released  a  larger  proportion  of  our 
population  from  real  work.  An  army  of  people  in  our  country 
at  this  moment  is  engaged  in  work  that  need  not  be  done,  so  that 
the  work  that  ought  to  be  done  remains  unaccomplished.  That  is 
a  true  and  broad  generalisation  which  goes  to  the  root  of  the 
problem  of  poverty  in  our  midst.  Let  us  see  quite  clearly,  and 
not  shirk  the  facts  of  the  case.  ^Ye  have  either  to  get  a  better 
production  of  wealth  and  a  better  distribution  of  the  products  of 
that  production,  or  we  must  be  content  for  an  enormous  proportion 
of  our  population  to  lack  the  commodities  which  we  have  the 
actual  means  to  produce. 

It  matters  everything  to  a  nation  that  its  people  should  be  not 
only  employed,  but  well  employed.  Whether  twenty  million 
persons  engaged  in  occupations  for  gain  are  doing  well  or  doing  ill 
depends  upon  the  nature  of  the  work  they  are  doing.  The  fact  of 
the  matter  is  that  instead  of  one-half  of  them  being  engaged  in 
direct  production,  fully  three-quarters  of  them,  if  not  more,  ought 
to  be  so  engaged.  That  would  mean  that  if  we  had  fifteen  million 
direct  producers,  and  if,  further,  the  work  of  those  fifteen  million 
direct  producers  was  well  organised  and  directed  to  produce  things, 
then  the  production  of  material  wealth  in  our  country  might  easily 
be  many  times  as  great  as  it  is  now.  Not  only  have  we  too 
few  people  engaged  in  production;  the  work  of  a  considerable 
proportion  even  of  these  is  wasted,  for  many  of  them  are  turning 
out  stuff  which  had  better  not  be  made  at  all,  while  of  those  who 
are  making  useful  goods  a  considerable  proportion  of  their  work 
is  employed  in  connection  with  obsolete  and  inefficient  machinery 
and  plant.  For  my  own  part,  I  think  it  an  understatement  of 
facts  to  say  that  if  the  work  of  our  twenty  million  persons  nominally 
engaged  in  occupations  were  properly  organised  and  directed  to  the 
best  ends,  aided  by  the  best  known  processes  and  the  finest 
machinery,  the  production  of  wealth  in  our  country  would  be  ten 

463 


Our  National  Wealth:  The  Conditions  of  its  Continuance. 

times  as  great  as  it  is  to-day.  In  short,  the  proper  co-operative 
organisation  of  work  would  not  only  abolish  poverty  in  its 
common  sense,  but  give  us  such  a  degree  of  general  comfort  as  is 
now  not  even  possessed  by  what  we  call  our  well-to-do  people. 
For  what  is  it  to  be  ** well-to-do"?  Is  a  man  rich  when  he 
cannot  go  abroad  in  his  expensive  motor  car  without  having  his 
senses  assaulted  by  scenes  of  deplorable  and  sordid  poverty  and 
destitution  ?  Your  alleged  rich  man  of  to-day  cannot  even  go  to 
a  public  railway  station  without  witnessing  scenes  which,  if  he 
possesses  sensibility  at  all,  must  deprive  him  of  happiness.  The 
approaches  to  most  of  our  great  railway  termini  are  sordid  in  the 
extreme,  and  no  money  can  buy  for  the  richest  man  amongst  us 
the  avoidance  of  them.  In  the  real  sense  there  is  not  one  well-to-do 
man  in  Britain  to-day,  for  no  one  can  avoid  being  part  of,  and 
partaker  in,  the  general  muddle.  Within  the  private  precincts  of 
some  great  park  a  millionaire  may  for  a  time  forget  the  world 
of  which  he  is  a  unit,  but  he  may  not  emerge  from  his  estate 
without  quickly  coming  into  contact  with  the  sorry  scheme  of 
things  in  which,  while  he  is  a  favoured  mortal,  he  must  take  his 
share  of  unnecessary  disorder  and  pain. 

0/:  :Let  me  by  a;  single  illustration  carry  this  conception  a  little 
further.  .  Take  the  matter  of .  our  railway  termini.  So  poverty- 
stricken  in  the  real  sense  are  our  arrangements,  so  lacking  in 
common-sense  and. so  wasteful  of  labour,  that,  whether  we  are 
nominally  ,  rich .  or  nominally  poor^  we  .  cannot  journey  from 
railway  to  railway  in  any  of  our  towns  without  being  really 
and  actually  impoverished  through  the  waste  of  our  time  and 
convenience,  which  means'  the  Waste  of  precious  moments  of 
our  lives.  Whether  the  town  be  London  or  Manchester  or 
Liverpool,  if  we  desire  to  pass  from  terminus  to  terminus  we  find 
obstacles  "placed  in  our  way  as  though  they  had  been  calculated. 
Often  hours  have  to  be  wasted  through  the  gross  stupidity  of  the 
disconnections.  We  are  bundled  out  at  one  terminus  with  our 
luggage,  and,  if  we  can  afford  it,  we  are  taken  through  the  town 
in  a  usually  dirty  cab  to  the  other  terminus,  to  wait  a  longer  or 
shorter  time  for  a  train  connection  which  ought  to  have  been 
arranged  to  fit,  but  is  not  so  arranged.  The  rich  man  is  as  poor 
in  this  connection  as  the  poorest  man,  save  that  he  can  hire  the 
dirty  cab,  whereas  the  poor  man  must  walk.  Lest  it  be  thought 
that  I  have  exaggerated  in  this  connection,  let  me  quote  what  was 
said  by  the  chairman  of  a  great  railway  company  on  this  very 
subject  a  few  years  ago.  Speaking  to  the  shareholders  on 
December  20th,  1907,  Lord  Allerton  said:  — 

■  You  can  hardly  conceive  the  disadvantages  that  exist  by  two  unnecessary 
and  separate  train  services,  not  always  taking  the  shortest  road,  not  always 
making  connection  at  a  particular  junction  so  that  trains  may  meetj  and  very 
oft-en  making  the  arrangements  such  that  they  shall  not  meet.  I  know,  as  a 
matter  of  .fact,  that  this  is  the  case.  ..     :    . 

464 


Our  National  Wealth:  The  Conditions  of  its  Continuance. 

But  let  it  not  be  thought  that  such  dehberate  manufacturing  of 
poverty  is  confined  to  railways.  On  the  contrary,  our  railways, 
clumsily  as  they  are  arranged,  are  shining  examples  of  order  as 
compared  with  the  services  we  get  in  connection  with  business 
in  general.  At  every  point  labour  is  misdirected  and  wasted 
through  lack  of  co-operation  and  co-ordination.  Workers  are 
condemned  to  work  hard  in  exhausting  occupations,  only  to  have 
their  labour  rendered  fruitless  by  lack  of  co-operation. 

VIII.  Co-operation  and  Conservation. 

We  have  seen  that  what  wealth  we  enjoy  in  these  our  modern 
days  has  arisen  chiefly  through  our  exceptional  possession  of 
some  of  the  best  coal  in  the  world.  Our  fuel  forms  an  asset 
which  gives  us  an  exceptional  advantage  as  compared  with  all  but 
two  of  the  other  white  nations.  When  one  has  such  an  exceptional 
advantage  one  can  afford  to  do  many  foolish  things  and  yet  possess 
more  wealth  than  those  who  have  not  great  coal-mines  beneath 
their  feet.  Let  us  not  delude  ourselves,  however,  into  the  belief 
that  coal  is  an  impregnable  rock  which  will  for  ever  avail  us. 
I  well  remember  not  long  ago  being  in  a  small  Midland  town 
which  had  lost  a  considerable  part  of  its  population.  Why  had 
the  population  diminished?  Because  the  coal-mines  there  had 
reached  the  limit  of  paying  output,  and,  as  a  consequence,  miners 
had  had  to  drift  away  to  other  places.  Slowly  but  surely  that 
will  be  the  fate  of  mining  village  after  mining  village.  Within 
fifty  years,  within  the  lifetime  of  many  people  now  living,  the 
cream  of  the  magnificent  coalfields  of  South  Wales  will  have 
disappeared.  Within  one  hundred  years  we  shall  be  working  coal 
very  much  dearer  and  more  difficult  to  get  than  that  which  is  now 
being  produced  from  our  mines.  That  will  mean  that  it  will  be 
more  and  more  costly  to  get  coal,  and  that,  consequently,  the  cost 
of  production  will  rise.  Some  people  think  that  it  is  a  mere 
matter  of  how  long  the  coal  will  last.  The  real  point  is  that 
the  cost  of  producing  coal  will  rise  greatly  long  before  exhaustion 
is  reached,  and  as  the  cost  of  production  rises  we  shall  lose  more 
and  more  of  our  special  advantage  as  compared  with  countries 
which  have  now  little  or  no  coal. 

And  that  is  not  all.  The  great  feature  of  our  time  is  the  rapid 
scientific  advance.  Long  before  one  hundred  or  even  fifty  years 
have  passed  coal  may  be  rendered  obsolete  by  the  discovery  of 
a  great  source  of  power.  It  is  most  improbable  that  that  new 
source  of  power  will  be  peculiarly  advantageous  to  us  as  coal  is 
peculiarly  advantageous,  and  such  a  discovery,  therefore,  would 
mean  probably  level  terms  in  industry  and  the  destruction  of  the 
extraordinary  advantage  we  now  possess. 

The  moral  of  the  story  is,  therefore,  that  whether  coal  lasts 
for  a  long  period  or  for  a  short  period,  we  must  regard  it  as  a 

II  465 


Our  National  Wealth:  The  Conditions  of  its  Continuance. 

matter  of  profound  importance  to  prepare  our  people  and  our 
institutions  in  the  present  for  a  time  to  come  when  we  shall  have 
to  do  without  the  special  advantage  we  now  enjoy. 

This  duty  of  preparation  would  be  incumbent  upon  us  in 
any  case,  and  if  we  could  always  rely  upon  our  great  asset  it 
would  surely  still  be  necessary  to  make  the  most  of  it.  As, 
however,  we  cannot  help  but  know  that  our  present  position  is 
transitory,  it  becomes,  from  a  national  point  of  view,  a  matter 
of  the  utmost  importance  to  conserve  that  which  we  have  and  to 
train  and  prepare  our  people  for  the  great  economic  changes 
which  lie  before  them  in  what  must  be  a  not  ver}^  remote  future. 
We  saw  at  the  beginning  of  this  article  that  our  modern  wealth 
is  only  about  one  hundred  and  fifty  years  old.  The  lapse  of  a 
similar  period  may  see  the  end  of  that  wealth,  if  we  do  not 
realise  its  basis,  and  do  not  comprehend  and  do  our  duty.  Three 
centuries  is  but  a  breathing  space  in  history,  and  if  we  desire  to 
understand  how  it  may  come  to  be  looked  upon  in  the  future,  let 
us  remind  ourselves  that  Eoman  rule  in  this  country  lasted  for 
four  centuries,  and  seems  to  us  to-day  but  a  brief  page  in  the 
annals  of  these  islands. 

Fortunately,  the  measures  which  are  needed  to  conserve  the 
national  welfare  indefinitely  are  precisely  of  the  same  order  as 
are  needed  to  increase  our  welfare  in  the  immediate  present. 
They  may  be  summed  up  in  the  simplest  words,  by  saying  that 
as  to  our  natural  resources  it  is  our  duty  to  study,  to  control, 
and  to  conserve  them,  and  that  as  to  our  people,  it  is  our  duty  in 
respect  of  personnel  to  consent  to  a  higher  standard  of  culture, 
and  in  respect  of  industry  to  work  co-operatively.  Let  us  consider 
these  things  in  their  proper  order. 

First,  as  to  our  national  assets.  We  have  seen  that  the 
United  Kingdom  has  some  natural  advantages  and  many  natural 
disadvantages.  We  cannot  alter  these  things,  but  we  can  develop 
and  improve  what  we  have.  If  we  consider  what  measures  we 
have  taken  in  this  connection,  and  contrast  them  with  what  has 
been  done  in  Germany,  we  cannot  but  feel  ashamed  of  our 
conceptions  of  conservation.  We  live  on  small  islands,  which 
means  that  we  have  a  big  coastline  in  relation  to  area,  and  that  it 
is  a  simple  matter  therefore  to  arrange  a  splendid  system  of  internal 
communications  by  rail  and  by  water.  Possessing  this  advantage, 
we  have  allowed  private  individuals  to  deprive  us  of  a  large  part 
of  it.  We  have  actually  handed  the  care  and  control  of  our 
great  highways  to  private  bodies  of  shareholders,  whose  only 
desire  is  to  make  dividends  out  of  us.  As  a  consequence,  our 
internal  waterways  are  a  disgrace,  not  only  to  our  country  but 
to  Europe.  They  have  been  not  only  neglected,  but  deliberately 
strangled  in  the"  interests  of  railway  shareholders.  As  for  the 
railways,  we  enjoy  the  highest  railway  fares  and  the  highest  railway 

466 


Our  National  Wealth:  The  Conditions  of  its  Continuance. 

rates  in  Europe,  so  that  the  country  which  invented  railways  gets 
less  out  of  them  than  any  other  of  the  Western  nations.  You 
can  travel  in  Germany,  or  Denmark,  or  Switzerland,  or  Belgium, 
or  Norway  in  a  comfortable  carriage  as  good  as  our  second  class 
for  about  the  EngHsh  third-class  fare,  and,  be  it  remembered,  our 
tliird-class  or  "Parliamentary"  fare  was  forced  upon  the  railways 
(who  declared  that  it  would  ruin  them)  only  by  the  intervention 
of  Parhament. 

As  to  freight  rates,  the  value  of  our  coal  is  lessened  by  the 
fact  that  it  has  to  pay  exorbitant  charges  if  we  desire  to  take  it 
from  place  to  place  in  our  little  country.  The  manufacturer  finds 
himself  handicapped  at  every  point  by  excessive  charges  for  the 
■carriage  of  materials  from  the  ports  and  for  the  conveyance  of 
his  finished  articles. 

When  we  turn  to  Germany  we  find  a  country  which  in  this 
respect  had  great  disadvantages  as  compared  with  our  own.  A 
glance  at  the  position  of  Germany  on  the  map  reminds  us  that 
■she  has  a  very  small  coastline.  What  has  she  done  in  face  of  this 
natural  handicap?  She  has  constructed  a  great  national  system 
of  railways  and  magnificent  waterways,  spending  scores  of  millions 
of  pounds  upon  the  latter  alone.  This  dual  system  of  transport 
is  worked  co-ordinately,  one  being  used  to  help  the  other,  as  it 
ought  to  be  used.  Heavy  goods  such  as  minerals  and  timber  are 
carried  upon  the  great  waterways  of  Germany  at  nominal  rates, 
and  the  national  railways  are  correspondingly  relieved  of  such 
merchandise,  and  are  therefore  better  able  to  perform  their  proper 
functions.  Whereas  in  England  the  railways  strangle  the 
waterways  in  order  to  get  as  much  traffic  to  carry  themselves  at 
•exorbitant  prices,  the  German  transport  system,  being  national 
and  patriotic  in  the  best  sense,  seeks  to  make  itself  the  instrument 
and  not  the  taxer  of  trade.  It  is  the  German  national  railway 
•system  which  has  enabled  Germany  to  fight  as  well  as  she  has  a 
war  on  two  frontiers. 

Or  let  us  turn  to  another  department  of  the  national  affairs. 
The  British  Isles  have  been  almost  completely  denuded  of  trees. 
We  have  millions  of  acres  suitable  but  neglected.  Private  capital 
does  not  stir  itself,  for  trees  grow  slowly,  and  while  nothing  could 
"be  more  profitable  in  the  long  run  than  afforestation,  nothing 
•could  be  less  profitable  for  the  individual  entrepreneur.  A  Royal 
Commission  has  advised  us  to  do  what  we  ought  to  have  done 
long  ago  without  the  prompting  of  a  Royal  Commission,  viz.,  to 
lake  the  matter  in  hand  on  a  national  scale,  and  to  provide  timber 
for  the  future  of  our  country.  In  vain  is  the  appeal  made  to  us. 
The  years  pass  during  which  timber  might  be  growing  upon 
ten  million  acres,  to  be  not  only  a  great  national  asset  in  respect 
of  an  important  raw  material,  but  to  be  the  foundation  of  many 
subsidiary  industries.     While  we  do  nothing  in  this  connection, 

467 


Our  National  Wealth:  The  Conditions  of  its  Continuance. 

Germany  possesses  magnificent  national  forests  which  are  carefully 
conserved,  and  in  which  sylviculture  has  been  raised  to  a  science. 

As  to  coal,  we  cannot  alter  the  fact  that  every  ton  taken  from 
our  mines  means  one  ton  less  in  the  national  coffers,  but  we  can 
most,  surely,  recognising  the  vital  importance  of  fuel,  determine 
to  survey,  control,  and  conserve  the  resources  we  have.  This, 
our  main  asset,  ought  to  be  guarded  most  jealously,  and  a 
permanent  Power  Commission  should  be  established  to  study  it 
continuously  and  to  apply  every  known  scientific  resource  to  power 
production. 

I  pass  to  the  preparation  of  the  national  personnel  for  the 
great  changes  which  will  take  place  in  this  twentieth  century. 

With  ever-increasing  rapidity  modern  industry  is  becoming 
scientific.  In  the  early  days  of  rapid  British  advance  we  made 
our  wealth  by  rough  and  ready  large  scale  work.  The  days  are 
passing,  however,  when  rough  and  ready,  or  rule  of  thumb,  can 
avail  a  nation  or  its  industries.  Industry  after  industry  is  passing 
into  the  control  of  scientific  managers.  It  is  to  be  feared  that  this 
is  not  sufficiently  realised  by  those  responsible  for  the  national 
welfare,  and  that  it  may  not  be  realised  soon  enough  to  save  us 
from  industrial  decline.  The  outbreak  of  the  Great  War  found 
us  short  of  many  materials  of  industry  made  by  the  scientific 
Germans,  and  the  Government  hastily  appointed  a  Committee  to 
consider  dyes  and  chemicals !     What  a  commentary  ! 

It  is  a  thing  most  notable  that  with  one  or  two  exceptions, 
such  as  the  turbine  of  Parsons,  the  majority  of  modern  inventions 
and  improved  industrial  processes  have  arisen  in  foreign  countries. 
Such  things  as  motor  cars  and  flying  machines,  artificial  silk  and 
indigo,  the  incandescent  gas  light  and  wireless  telegraphy,  ferro- 
concrete building  construction  and  modern  blast  furnace  practice, 
have  come  to  us  from  foreign  inventors.  We  have  the  humiliation 
of  seeing  the  British  Parliament  passing  a  new  Patent  Law  to 
compel  foreign  inventors  to  work  their  patents  in  this  country — 
"a  thing  which  was  not  needed  in  the  early  days  of  British  industrial 
growth,  when  British  inventors  were  placing  all  the  world  in  their 
debt. 

There  is  no  reason  to  suppose  that  British  native  qualities  have 
diminished  since  the  days  of  the  great  British  inventions,  and 
there  is  good  reason  to  suppose  that  it  is  our  neglect  of  education 
which  is  responsible  for  our  poor  output  of  the  great  ideas  in 
recent  years.  The  modern  inventor  is  not  a  man  who  can 
conceive  a  great  new  idea  while  shaving  himself  in  the  morning. 
In  nearly  every  line  of  effort  there  is  now  accumulated  an  enormous 
amount  of  accomplishment,  and  if,  therefore,  a  new  discovery  is 
to  be  made,  a  man  has  first  of  all  to  learn  what  has  already  been 
accomplished.  Take,  for  example,  the  colour  industry,  in  which 
Germany  has  become  so  triumphant  that  she  may  be  said  to  be 

468 


Our  National  Wealth:  The  Conditions  of  its  Continuance. 

the  colouring  agent  of  the  modern  world.  It  is  not  possible  for  a 
bright  and  untrained  young  man,  however  capacious  his  intellect, 
to  improve  upon  what  the  Germans  have  done  without  learning 
what  they  have  done,  and  that  means  that  to  qualify  himself  to 
make  further  advance  in  producing  coal-tar  colours  he  must 
become  a  skilled  practical  chemist.  Then,  and  only  then,  has  he 
the  chance  to  become  a  new  inventor  in  that  particular  line.  And 
so  it  is  with  nearly  every  branch  of  human  effort  at  this  hour. 
We  have  not  enough  scientific  students,  and  we  cannot  therefore 
expect  to  produce  a  good  crop  of  inventions. 

And  we  must  get  rid  of  the  conception  that  our  people  can  be 
educated  while  we  consent  to  education  ceasing  for  the  greater 
number  of  children  at  thirteen  years  of  age.  It  was  shown  by 
the  recent  Departmental  Committee  appointed  by  the  Board  of 
Education  to  inquire  into  the  numbers  of  children  attending 
schools  that,  out  of  4,084,000  children  aged  between  ten  and 
sixteen  years,  of  all  classes,  only  2,113,000  were  attending  day 
school  in  1906-7 !  That,  be  it  observed,  is  to  include  the  children 
of  both  rich  and  poor.  If  we  take  the  working  classes  alone,  it 
is  true  that  the  great  majority  of  boys  and  girls  finish  training 
for  ever  at  thirteen  years  of  age — at  the  very  time,  that  is,  at 
which  education,  in  the  proper  sense  of  the  word,  can  begin. 
This  means  that,  for  practical  purposes,  we  are  leaving  the 
national  material  untrained,  and  depriving  it  of  its  birthright.  In 
a  world  which  is  ever  growing  more  advanced,  we  are  allowing 
the  majority  of  the  children  to  fall  relatively  behind.  As  the  mass 
of  acquired  knowledge  increases,  relative  ignorance  increases. 
The  average  boy  finds  himself  projected  at  thirteen  years  of  age 
into  an  extraordinarily  complex  civilisation  which  it  is  not  possible 
for  him  to  understand,  and  he  has  forthwith  to  engage  in  work 
the  meaning  of  which  is  never  revealed  to  him.  It  is  a  process 
which  cannot  continue  without  bitter  results  for  the  nation  in  the 
time  to  come,  that  time  in  which  it  will  need  high  qualifications 
if  a  nation  is  to  hold  its  own. 

And  with  the  better  training  of  our  personnel  must  run  the 
better  oi'ganisation  of  men  in  the  work  that  they  do.  There  is  only 
one  remedy,  as  I  have  indicated,  for  the  misuse  of  men  and 
inventions,  and  that  is  co-operative  work  in  the  national  interest. 
The  insane  folly  of  competition  is  increasingly  recognised,  but, 
unfortunately,  its  recognition  is  being  accompanied  by  combinations 
which  are  not  truly  co-operative  in  the  public  interest,  but  which 
merely  represent  the  combination  of  separate  producers  in  an 
attempt  to  extract  profit  from  society  at  large. 

We  see  everywhere  combinations  of  capital,  of  producers,  and 
of  distributors,  which  are  concerned  not  with  making  the  most 
of  labour  in  the  public  interest,  but  with  maintaining  prices  against 
the  public  interest.     A  number  of  capitalists  producing  a  certain 

469 


Our  National  Wealth:  The  Conditions  of  its  Continuance. 

article  combine  themselves  together  with  a  big  watered  capital  and 
form  a  monopoly,  or  quasi-monopoly,  of  the  supply  of  an  article. 
The  actual  economies  resulting  from  the  combination,  instead  of 
being  distributed  to  the  public,  are  creamed  by  the  monopolists. 

Further,  we  get  agreements  between  combinations,  on  the  one 
hand  of  producers,  and  on  the  other  hand  of  distributors,  making 
price  agreements  against  the  public.  Price-maintenance  has. 
spread  like  wildfire  through  industry  of  late  years,  and  it  is  now 
hardly  possible  to  go  into  an  ordinary  shop  without  being  charged 
artificial  rates  which  are  set  up  to  preserve  uneconomic  interests. 

What  is  good  in  such  combinations  is  the  recognition  of  the 
virtue  of  common  action.  What  is  bad  in  such  combinations  is- 
the  fact  that  they  constitute  co-operative  movements,  not  to  help 
the  consumer  and  to  assist  therefore  the  production  of  wealth, 
but  to  wring  artificial  profits  from  the  consumer  and  thereby  to 
restrict  the  production  of  wealth. 

In  this  connection  co-operation  has  the  future  in  its  own  hands. 
In  the  field  of  distribution  it  can  beat  down  the  absurd  wall  that 
now  stands  between  the  producer-consumer  and  the  consumer- 
producer.  In  the  field  of  production  it  can  eliminate  all 
unnecessary  costs,  and,  informed  and  inspired  by  scientific 
management,  produce  the  greatest  amount  of  material  wealth  with 
the  least  expenditure  of  labour.  The  form  of  such  co-operation 
may  be  uncertain,  but  there  is  no  element  of  uncertainty  as  to 
the  goal. 


470 


The  Problem  of  Continuation  Education. 


BY  H.   M.   RICHARDSON. 

NEAELY  a  hundi-ed  years  have  now  passed  since  England 
first  recognised  that  the  interests  of  a  State  demand  the 
education  of  its  people.  In  1816  a  committee  of  the  House 
of  Commons  was  appointed  "to  inquire  into  the  state  of  education, 
chiefly  in  the  neighbourhood  of  London."  Despite  Lord 
Melbourne,  who  questioned  the  advantage  of  general  education 
as  a  means  of  promoting  knowledge  in  the  world,  since  people 
got  on  without  it,  the  committee  sat,  and  reported  that  the 
schools  of  the  country  were  "poor  manufactories,  in  which  the 
formation  of  mind  and  character  and  mental  and  moral  habits  were 
grievously  neglected."  The  committee  added  the  dictum — then 
uttered  for  the  first  time  with  an  authoritative  voice — that  the 
education  of  the  people  was  a  matter  in  which  the  State  had  a 
vital  concern.  It  was  not.  however,  until  1833  that  the 
Government  first  manifested  any  practical  sympathy  with  that 
view.  In  this  year  the  Treasury  made  a  grant  of  £20,000  towards 
the  erection  of  school-houses.  This  was  continued  up  to  1839, 
when  the  sum  was  increased  by  £10,000.  Its  interest  in  this 
matter  of  vital  concern  was  still  timid  and  tentative.  In  1851 
grants  were  given  in  aid  of  evening  schools.  But  a  Eoyal 
Commission  on  Education  had  to  be  appointed  in  1 858  before  the 
State,  by  the  epoch-marking  Act  of  1870,  took  up  the  task 
of  making  itself  responsible  for  teaching  the  children  of  the 
conrnaunity  the  elements  of  learning.  From  that  time  onwards 
development  and  elaboration  have  been  rapid. 

Six  years  later  education  was  made  compulsory,  and  fourteen 
years  after  that  free.  In  1902  Mr.  Balfour's  Act  co-ordinated 
the  elementary  education  given  hitherto  in  Board  and  voluntary 
schools,  and  placed  provided  and  non-provided  schools  of  the 
various  stages  of  development  under  the  same  controlling  bodies : 
the  county  or  borough  councils. 

From  the  inception  of  the  idea  that  the  State  cannot  stand  by 
and  see  its  people  brought  up  in  ilhteracy  and  ignorance,  the  feet 
of  progress  have  not  loitered.  But  there  are  those  who  are  still 
dissatisfied.  Some  are  calling  for  the  raising  of  the  school  age, 
already  raised  twice  since  1870.  Others  are  demanding  that  when 
a  youth  has  left  school  he  shall  be  compelled  to  attend  continuation 
classes.  This  latter  demand,  with  which  I  am  chiefly  concerned, 
is  duphcate.     It  comes  from  the  more  self-sacrificing  of  the  poor 

471 


The  Problem  of  Continuation  Education. 

who  desire  to  see  their  sons  cHmbing  the  social  ladder.  It  comes 
also  from  many  employers  of  labour,  who  hold  that  superior 
education  implies  superior  workmen,  and,  therefore,  more  efficient 
and  cheaper  production  of  wealth. 

Already  some  employers  of  labour  insist  that  youths  in  their 
employ  shall  attend  evening  continuation  classes,  especially  such 
classes  as  are  concerned  with  the  particular  branch  of  science  or 
mechanics  that  is  an  essential  factor  in  the  student's  daily  labour. 
A  few  employers  feel  so  keenly  the  desirability  of  taking  advantage 
of  the  facilities  that  they  pay  their  young  men  to  attend  classes. 
From  all  quarters  comes  the  cry,  "Educate,  educate,  educate!" 
It  is  difficult  to  get  anyone  to  oppose  the  further  extension  or 
intensification  of  education.  The  workpeople  of  Lancashire  may 
protest  against  the  abolition  of  the  half-timer.  But  they  do  so 
not  from  any  dislike  of  education  as  such,  but  because  they  have 
a  natural  if,  in  the  ultimate,  an  ill-grounded  dread  that  to  keep 
children  out  of  the  mills  and  factories  until  they  are  fourteen 
would  mean  a  diminution  of  the  family  income  for  two  years,  or 
rather  a  postponement  for  that  period  of  the  increment  accruing 
from  children's  labour.  But  the  question  arises  as  to  whether, 
apart  from  the  practical  difficulties  (with  which  I  shall  deal  later), 
it  is  desirable  to  extend  the  field  of  education,  to  spread  the  net 
of  knowledge  so  wide  that  all  boys  and  girls  shall  continue  to  be 
taught  in  schools  until  they  are  sixteen,  seventeen,  or  eighteen 
years  of  age,  while  working  part  time  at  a  trade.  This,  I  think, 
is  a  question  which  certainly  ought  to  be  discussed  with  an  open 
mind  by  co-operators,  who  stand  somewhat  apart  from  the  main 
stream  of  tendencies,  motives,  and  ideals. 

THE    CO-OPERATIVE   IDEAL. 

As  I  have  already  said,  the  plea  for  compulsory  technical  or 
continuation  education  rests  on  two  hypotheses :  (1)  the  idea  of 
the  poor  that  superior  education  is  the  lever  which  may  raise  them, 
not  collectively  but  piecemeal  or  individually,  into  positions  of 
comparative  affluence;  and  (2)  the  idea  of  the  captains  of 
competitive  industrialism,  (competitive  internally  or  internationally) 
that  by  training  youth  in  the  technology  of  trades  at  the  public 
expense  production  will  become  both  cheaper  and  more  rapid. 

If  I  am  correct  in  thus  stating  the  inspirational  motives  of  the 
demand  for  more  compulsory  education,  it  is  self-evident  that 
co-operators  should  withhold  their  support  from  any  such  proposal 
at  least  until  they  have  decided  whether  these  aims — the  elevation 
of  aome  of  the  poor  and  the  general  speeding-up  of  production 
through  the  greater  personal  efficiency  of  the  workers — are  in 
themselves  desirable.  And  I  do  not  think  that  co-operators  who 
hold  to  the  fundamentals  of  their  faith  can  come  to  an  affirmative 
conclusion    in    either    case.       So    far    from    this    being    so,    the 

472 


The  Problem  of  Continuation  Education. 

co-operative  movement.  I  need  scarcely  say,  has  done  much  for 
an  education  of  a  very  different  order.  It  has  been  and  is  devoted 
to  "the  formation  of  co-operative  character  and  opinions  by 
teaching  the  history,  theory,  and  principles  of  the  movement,  with 
economics  and  industrial  and  constitutional  history  in  so  far  as 
they  have  bearing  on  co-operation;  and  .  .  .  the  training  of 
men  and  women  to  take  part  in  industrial  and  social  reforms  and 
civic  life  generally." 

It  is  evident,  I  think,  that  co-operators  who  adhere  to  this 
ideal  of  education  must  view  with  suspicion,  if  not  downright 
disfavom',  any  endeavour  to  fasten  on  the  youth  of  the  country 
an  education  so  opposed  as  would  be  the  teaching  of  the  purely 
individualistic  and  utilitarian  concept  of  progress  and  society.  For 
it  is  obvious  that  youth's  capacity  for  learning  is  limited.  A 
young  man  cannot  labour  eight  or  nine  hours  a  day  in  a  mill, 
mine,  or  workshop,  then  give  an  hour  or  two  to  applied  mechanics, 
chemistry,  commercial  arithmetic,  magnetism  and  electricity,  or 
suchlike  subjects,  and  yet  be  able  to  find  time  for  the  more  liberal 
education  connoted  by  the  co-operative  formula. 

It  may  be,  however,  that  there  are  "practical-minded" 
co-operators  who,  while  attaching  considerable  importance  to  the 
first  principles  and  theory  of  their  movement,  would  be  wilHng. 
for  the  sake  of  an  immediate  gain  to  the  nation  in  happiness  and 
prosperity,  to  forego  the  propagation  of  co-operative  ideals. 
Accepting  the  common  view  that  the  happiness  of  a  people  is 
commensurate  with  the  prosperity  of  their  nation  (as  indicated 
by  Board  of  Trade  returns  of  imports  and  exports),  and  assuming, 
moreover,  that  the  prosperity  of  a  nation  is  dependent  upon  the 
industrial  skill  of  her  working  class  at  least  as  much  as  upon  the 
organising  genius  of  the  captains  of  industry,  such  a  co-operator 
might  hail  compulsory  continuation  or  technical  education  as  a 
meliorist  thing  to  be  sanctioned,  even  though  it  retarded  the  coming 
of  the  co-operative  commonwealth.  That  is  a  point  of  view  not  to 
be  lightly  dismissed.  It  is,  however,  one  from  which  the  practical 
mind  may  be  moved,  perhaps,  by  a  contemplation  of  facts  that, 
while  they  have  no  place  in  the  individualistic  philosophy,  ought 
not  to  be  overlooked  by  those  of  us  who  are  striving  to  weave  a 
finer  fabric  of  life  and  civilisation. 

CONSIDER  GERMANY  ! 

Compulsory  technical  and  continuation  education  have  long 
been  essential  factors  in  German  life  and  industry.  "The  view 
that  technical  training  following  upon  a  good  general  education 
has  become  indispensable  to  the  industrial  and  commercial  success 
of  a  nation  commands  the  unreserved  assent  of  the  German 
people, "  writes  Professor  M.  E.  Sadler,  in  his  invaluable 
comparative    history.    Continuation    Education    in    England    and 

473 


The  Problem  of  Continuation  Education. 

Elsewhere.  In  nearly  the  whole  of  the  twenty-five  states  that 
constitute  the  German  Empire,  such  education  is  obligatory  either 
by  State  law  or  local  bye-laws.  By  the  Imperial  industrial  law 
of  1891,  employers  of  labour  are  compelled  to  grant  to  their 
apprentices  or  other  workers  (including  all  male  persons  and 
female  clerks  and  female  apprentices)  who  are  under  eighteen 
years  of  age  the  necessary  time  for  such  attendance  as  is  required 
by  the  local  authority  of  the  district.  Generations  before  this, 
however,  the  need  for  such  training  had  been  recognised.  In 
1869,  under  the  terms  of  the  regulation  of  industry,  employers 
were  obliged  to  allow  their  workmen  under  eighteen  to  attend 
continuation  schools,  and  such  workmen  were  compelled  to  attend. 
Everything  in  Germany  favoured  such  education  manifesting 
itself  at  its  perfect  pitch  so  far  as  it  can  in  the  orbit  of  capitahsm. 
The  people  were  accustomed  to  discipline,  and  they  had  the 
studious  bent.  And  it  must  be  admitted  that,  so  far  as  the  material 
prosperity  of  the  Empire  is  concerned,  the  time,  money,  and 
talent  spent  on  inculcating  a  taste  for  research  and  a  scientific 
knowledge  of  the  ways  and  means  of  industry  have  been 
magnificently  justified.  No  great  country  has  advanced  industrially 
more  rapidly  than  Germany.  Nowhere  else  in  the  old  world  have 
the  complexities  of  commerce  been  so  simplified  or  the  mechanisms 
of  production  so  highly  organised.  The  output  per  head  of  the 
population  has  increased  amazingly,  and,  during  the  last  forty 
years,  Germany,  from  being  a  congeries  of  small  states,  has 
become  a  great,  powerful,  and  prosperous  Empire.  It  may  be 
said  that  the  war  of  1870-1  was  the  direct  cause  of  Germany's 
rise.  But  it  can  be  said  with  equal  truth  that  the  French  were 
defeated  very  largely  because  they  were  opposed  by  a  race  superior 
in  education  and  discipline.  It  was  indeed  recognition  of  what 
education  had  done  for  the  race  in  endowing  it  with  the 
potentialities  of  military  triumph  that  helped  to  enamour  the 
German  people  of  continuation  schools.  But,  although  I  must 
admit  the  Fatherland's  industrial  greatness,  when  measured  either 
by  the  per  capita  products  of  her  people  or  by  the  total  wealth, 
I  submit  that  it  is  impossible  to  demonstrate  any  commensurate 
increase  of  material  or  spiritual  happiness  to  the  working  classes. 
Eeaders  of  this  Annual  will  scarcely  need  reminding  that  the 
proletariat  of  Germany  is  no  better  off  than  that  of  Great  Britain. 
Mr.  J.  F.  Mills,  in  his  contribution  to  the  Annual  for  1914,  threw 
the  searchlight  of  a  peculiarly  penetrative  mind  on  the  food  problem 
of  Germany,  and  the  conclusion  to  which  all  must  come  who 
accept  the  data  he  had  collected  from  authentic  sources  is 
that,  despite  the  benefits  of  national  compulsory  elementary, 
continuation,  and  technical  education,  the  German  people,  so  far 
as  material  comfort  goes,  are  rather  worse  off  than  we.  This 
conclusion  is  supported  by  our  Board  of  Trade  comparative 
statistics,  which  show  that  the  German  artisan  works  longer  for 

474 


The  Problem  of  Continuation  Education. 

less  pay  than  the  English  artisan,  and  that  the  cost  of  living  is 
higher  there  than  here.  Berlin,  probably  the  most  highly 
organised  and,  in  certain  ways,  the  most  efficiently  managed 
municipality  in  the  world,  has  an  infantile  death-rate  that  would 
make  even  a  Lancashire  mill  town  blush.  Wages  during  the  last 
thirty  years — the  period  of  the  greatest  expansion  of  industry — 
have  not  risen  in  proportion  to  the  rise  in  the  cost  of  living, 
whether  we  take  the  prices  of  commodities  or  rent.  And  sucb 
increases  in  wages  as  have  been  won  can  be  traced  in  Germany, 
as  in  England,  to  industrial  co-operation  among  workmen  rather 
than  to  any  other  cause.  They  have  been  wrung  from  reluctant 
capitalism  by  the  weapons  common  to  trade  unionism,  both  in 
highly  educated  and  very  uneducated  communities. 

education's  sole  virtue! 

The  most  that  can  fairly  be  argued  on  behalf  of  education 
from  the  view-point  of  the  economist  is  that,  generally  speaking, 
the  more  highly  people  are  educated  the  higher  becomes  the 
minimum  standard  of  living  which  will  satisfy  them.  So  far  as- 
the  teachers  and  the  books  have  fanned  the  flame  of  discontent 
with  existing  things  and  aspiration  towards  better  living,  and 
thereby  driven  workers  to  organise  themselves  for  the  amelioration 
of  their  common  lot,  education  from  the  proletarian  point  of 
view  has  been  justified.  But  in  no  other  way.  That  it  has 
enabled  here  and  there  one  to  rise  out  of  his  class,  to  become  a 
manager  or  an  official  where  otherwise  he  would  have  been  a 
labourer,  or  through  bursaries  and  scholarships  to  graduate  into 
the  professional  ranks  instead  of  remaining  a  weekly  wage-earner, 
is  undeniable.  But,  as  off-setting  this  advantage,  it  can  be  argued 
with  at  least  a  perturbing  plausibility  that  on  the  whole  education, 
and  more  particularly  technical  and  continuation  education,  not 
inspired  by  the  co-operative  ideal,  has  done  a  disservice  to  the 
workers  as  a  class.  It  has  been  a  ladder  upon  which  many  of 
the  most  talented  of  the  offspring  of  the  toilers  have  mounted  to  the 
middle  class,  and  consequently  have  been  lost  as  leaders  of  their 
own  kind  in  its  never-ceasing  struggle — never  ceasing,  however 
subterranean  it  may  sometimes  be — for  betterment.  Young  men 
who,  by  their  individual  effort,  have  surmounted  the  barriers 
of  poverty  and  humble  birth  and  become  holders  of  positions 
of  responsibility  and  handsome  remuneration,  naturally  enough 
shed  or  supress  their  youthful  passion  for  social  justice.  It  is 
difficult  for  them  to  retain  belief  in  the  fundamental  wrongness 
of  the  individualistic  competitive  system  which  has  placed  them, 
as  the  reward  of  their  own  merit,  where  they  are!  It  is,  indeed, 
permissible  to  suggest  that  had  there  been  no  compulsory  education 
the  working  classes  might  have  been  further  advanced  towards  the 
co-operative  commonwealth  than  they  now  are.  For  this  reason : 
that  then  only  the  men  of  character  and  talent  would  have  become 

475 


The  Problem  of  Continuation  Education. 

literate,  and  being  literate  they  would  have  led.  But  where  all 
are  literate  in  some  degree  by  Act  of  Parliament,  not  by  their 
own  volition,  the  task  of  picking  leaders  becomes  a  problem,  and, 
as  the  present  system  can  offer  larger  prizes  than  can  the  causes 
of  the  future,  it  follows  that  many  of  the  gifted  sons  of  the  lowly 
are  lifted  into  the  dominant  or  the  professional  class  before  they 
have  had  time  fully  to  realise  the  wrongs  of  their  own.  This  means 
that  potential  powers  of  organisation  and  inspiration  are  diverted 
from  the  army  of  labour  to  buttress  the  fort  of  capitalism. 

WHAT   TEACHERS    LEARNED. 

Still  on  this  question  of  whether  education  or  knowledge  is  in 
itself  a  sufficient  lever  for  lifting  humanity  to  better  things,  I  would 
•call  attention  to  a  significant  and,  in  my  opinion,  conclusive  piece 
of  evidence  in  support  of  my  negative  contention.  The  elementary 
teachers  of  the  nation  are  notoriously  ill-paid.  They  are  entrusted 
with  a  work  of  wondrous  delicacy  of  almost  incomparable 
importance,  for  it  may  be  said  that  the  teachers  of  to-day  bear 
on  their  shoulders  the  nation  of  to-morrow.  Anyone  ignorant 
of  the  facts  would  think  that  these  men  and  women  who  mould 
the  mind  of  the  race  at  its  most  malleable  age  would  be  socially 
honoured  and  well  paid.  This,  however,  is  not  so.  And — this 
is  the  point  which  I  wish  to  emphasise — when  the  teachers, 
growing  conscious  of  the  injustice  done  to  them,  determine  to 
improve  their  lot,  they  do  not  attempt  to  do  so  by  learning  how 
to  teach  better,  but  by  organising  themselves  into  a  trade  union, 
and  using  exactly  the  same  weapon  that  unskilled  labourers  and 
dockers,  or  engineers  and  other  skilled  artisans,  take  up  when 
they  become  conscious  of  intolerable  oppression.  The  successful 
strike  of  the  Herefordshire  elementary  teachers  for  increased 
salaries  a  few  months  ago  was  negatively  a  notable  demonstration 
of  the  fallacy  that  the  way  to  Utopia,  the  ultimate  aim  of  all 
sincere  reformers,  is  through  the  doorway  of  the  schools.  If 
education  cannot  override  the  economic  laws  of  supply  and 
demand  in  the  case  of  its  practitioners,  what  hope  can  it  hold  out 
by  doing  so  to  its  pupils? 

THE   WAR  INTERVENES. 

So  much  of  this  article  had  1  written  when  the  great  war 
burst  upon  us.  I  am  continuing  it  amid  the  turmoil  of  a  tottering 
civilisation,  not  knowing,  so  obscure  is  the  future,  whether  it 
will  ever  be  finished  or  published.  But  whatever  happens  as  the 
result  of  the  European  conflict,  it  is,  I  think,  quite  evident  that 
I  should  be  wasting  my  own  and  my  readers'  time  were  I  to 
resume  this  contribution  without  taking  account  of  the  modifications 
that  must  necessarily  be  made  in  any  preconception  of  what  the 
article  was  to  be. 

476 


The  Problem  of  Continuation  Education. 

I  had  intended. to  follow  up  my  case  for  the  consideration  of 
the  economic  and  democratic  merits  or  demerits  of  continuation 
education  with  a  comparison  of  what  has  been  done  in  the  various 
countries  of  the  old  and  new  worlds.  After  that  I  should  have 
approached  the  question  of  compulsory  continuation  education  from 
the  point  of  view  of  practical  politics.  In  this  section  I  should 
have  shown  that,  whether  the  theory  of  compulsion  is  sound  or 
unsound,  there  are  so  many  obstacles  in  the  way  of  applying 
compulsion  that  an  enormous  extension  and  re-valuation  of  the 
educational  machinery  would  be  necessary.  In  July,  1914,  the 
moment  immediately  preceding  the  war,  there  was  little  possilDility 
of  inaugurating  obligatory  continuation  education.  And  for  this- 
reason  :  there  was  not  in  the  country  a  sufficient  number  of  teachers- 
properly  to  teach  even  such  youths,  young  men  and  women  as 
attended  continuation  schools  either  of  their  own  choice  or  at  the- 
behest  of  the  few  employers  who  made  such  attendance  a  condition 
of  their  employment.  The  classes  in  the  technical  schools  and 
the  continuation  schools  were  much  too  large.  It  is  one  thing 
for  an  elementary  teacher  armed  with  powers  of  inflicting  corporal 
punishment  to  maintain  discipline  among  a  class  of  fifty  boys  or 
girls.  It  is  quite  another  thing  for  the  same  teacher,  after  his 
trying  daily  duty,  to  keep  in  order  even  thirty -five  youths,  some  of 
whom  wish  to  learn,  w'hile  others  are  in  school  simply  because  their 
employer  insists  upon  their  presence.  My  inquiries  among  evening 
class  teachers  convince  me  that  compulsory  continuation  education 
for  the  community  at  large  would  be  very  costly  and  immensely 
wasteful.  It  would  entail  an  enormous  expansion  of  the  army  of 
teachers;  and,  unless  such  education  was  to  be  perfunctor\'  and 
inadequate,  the  standard  of  learning  among  teachers,  if  not  the 
standard  of  teaching,  would  have  to  be  raised.  And  these  two 
conditions  could  be  fulfilled  only  by  raising  the  economic  status  of 
the  teaching  class.  The  mental  equipment  for  teaching  in  its 
higher  branches  is  such  that  the  possessor  of  it  has  other  and 
fairer  avenues  of  social  advancement  open  to  him.  And  it  is  not 
surprising  that  so  many  young  men  who  have  qualified  themselves 
to  teach  abandon  the  pedagogic  profession  for  business  or  the 
Bar,  either  of  which  offers  chances  of  larger  rewards.  Most  of 
those  who  remain  faithful  to  their  first  love  have  a  true  vocation 
for  it,  and  bitter  are  their  complaints  that  they  cannot  do  their 
best  by  reason  of  the  understafQng  of  schools  or,  in  other  words, 
the  overcrowding  of  classes.  Eeally  conscientious  w^ork  is 
necessarily  a  rarity.  A  continuation  schoolmaster  has  to  choose 
between  two  evils.  Either  he  must  neglect  the  thorough  education 
of  some  of  his  scholars  in  the  interests  of  the  discipline  of  all  the 
scholars,  or  he  has  to  neglect  the  discipline  of  some  (that  is,  he 
must  secretly  countenance  the  inattention  of  some  so  long  as 
they  are  quiet)  in  the  interests  of  the  education  of  those  pupils 
who  are  keen  to  absorb  knowledge.     With  a  class  of  not  more 

477 


The  Problem  of  Continuation  Education. 

than  twenty  he  could  both  maintain  disciphne  and  instil 
instruction.  But  a  class  of  over  thirty  means  a  class  in  which  the 
clever  and  keen  will  be  taught  and  the  dull  or  indifferent  neglected. 
Is  it  worth  while  to  spend  hundreds  of  thousands  a  year  to 
develop  continuation  or  technical  education  along  compulsory  lines, 
which  would  inevitably  mean  the  multiplicity  of  the  dull  and 
indifferent  scholars  out  of  all  proportion  to  the  keen  and  interested  ? 

INSTEAD  OF  APPRENTICESHIP. 

There  was  another  point  .which  to  my  mind  was  of  the 
highest  importance.  The  theory  of  the  advocates  of  compulsory 
continuation  and  technical  education  is  that  boys  can  be  saved  by 
a  course  of  technical  study  from  the  penalties  incidental  to  the 
indiscretion  of  entering  a  blind-alley  occupation.  At  the  present 
time  the  boys  who  in  Manchester,  on  leaving  the  elementary  school, 
become  "nippers"  (assistants  to  lurry  drivers)  tend  to  drift  into 
the  most  casual  labour,  or  else  they  finally  enlist  in  the  Army. 
"Make  them  learn  a  trade,"  say  the  educationists,  "and  when 
they  have  done  with  boyhood  and  want  to  be  earning  a  man's 
wage  they  will  be  equipped  with  the  necessary  knowledge."  I 
do  not  think  it  necessary  to  offer  many  reasons  in  support  of  my 
contention  that  this  is  a  fallacy.  It  may  be  true  that  each  of 
Napoleon's  privates  carried  a  field-marshal's  baton  in  his  knapsack. 
If  so,  it  is  fairly  obvious  that  the  huge  majority  of  the  privates 
pawned  their  batons  for  bread  and  butter.  It  may  be  true  that 
technical  training  would  make  everyone  competent  to  do  skilled 
work.  It  is  unfortunately  equally  true  that  there  is  not  normally 
enough  skilled  work  for  all  to  do.  On  the  contrary,  there  is  always 
a  residue  of  skilled  men  out  of  work.  Trade  unions,  recognising 
this  fact,  deliberately  try  to  limit  the  number  of  apprentices  who 
shall  be  taught  a  trade.  They  fear  a  flooding  of  the  market, 
because  they  know  that  the  greater  the  surplus  of  labour  the 
smaller  is  the  market  value  of  the  labourer.  Now,  compulsory 
technical  education  would  be  tantamount  to  apprenticeship. 
Indeed,  it  is  largely  because  of  the  decay  of  the  apprenticeship 
system  that  compulsory  continuation  education  is  suggested.  If 
all  were  compelled  to  learn  a  skilled  trade  it  is  obvious,  assuming 
the  economic  perception  of  trade  union  leaders  to  be  accurate,  that 
we  should  soon  have  so  large  a  margin  of  unemployed  skilled  men 
that  the  market  would  be  glutted,  and  the  wages  of  the  skilled 
artisan  would  be  depressed  almost,  if  not  quite,  to  the  level  of 
subsistence  of  an  unskilled  labourer.  On  this  point  Mr.  Charles 
Towers,  in  Germayiy  of  To-day,  says:  "That  this  system  (technical 
education)  produces  a  scientific  class  of  workmen  is,  of  course, 
fully  proved,  and  scientific  workmen  make  for  rapid  national 
progress.  But  it  is  at  least  a  matter  of  dispute  whether  the 
individual  profits  by  the  system."  As  I  have  already  suggested,  it 
is  arguable  that  the  main  tendency  of  training  in  the  technology 

478 


The  Problem  of  Contiyiuation  Education. 

of  trades  is  to  bring  about  those  very  results  which  trade  unions 
declare  to  be  the  consequence  of  allowing  employers  to  take  on 
as  many  apprentices  as  they  can  acconmiodate.  If  this  is  so  it 
must  be  obvious  that  the  policy  is  not  one  to  which  intelhgent 
trade  unionists  will  give  their  support.  It  is,  indeed,  less  defensible 
from  their  point  of  view  to  give  State  aid  to  a  compulsory  system 
that  leads  indirectly  to  the  depression  of  wages  than  to  permit  of 
the  restoration  of  the  apprenticeship  system.  For  this  reason  :  that 
the  apprentice  is  paid  to  learn  his  trade,  whereas  the  conscript 
pupil  of  a  compulsory  class  would  obtain  his  training  at  the 
expense  of  a  public  which  would  ultimately  be  impoverished  by 
that  very  system.  Nor  is  that  the  only  danger  to  be  discovered 
in  the  proposal. 

THE  VICIOUS  CIRCLE. 

The  symptoms  of  another  evil  arising  from  technical  education 
are  already  apparent,  and  this  evil  would  be  intensified  with  the 
more  general  spread  of  such  knowledge.  I  refer  to  the  introduction 
of  the  automatic  machine.  Perhaps  the  highest  manifestation  of 
the  thinking  machine  is  the  automatic  calculator,  which  enables 
schoolgirls  to  perform  feats  of  mental  dexterity  that  until  a  few 
years  ago  could  be  achieved  only  by  skilled  clerks.  The  automatic 
calculator,  in  the  hands  of  a  sixth  standard  child,  can  estimate, 
count,  subtract,  and  work  out  involved  sums  in  commercial 
arithmetic  more  rapidly  and  more  accurately  than  could  a 
chartered  accountant.  The  automatic  calculator  may  be  taken  as 
a  symbol  of  the  commercial  and  industrial  world.  Capitalism  is 
constantly  readjusting  itself  so  that  its  profits  shall  not  fall  below 
a  certain  level.  To  safeguard  itself  it  must  do  many  things. 
Within  the  limits  laid  down  by  trade  unionism  it  speeds  up  men 
until  they  are  producing  the  last  ounce  of  which  they  are  physically 
capable.  If  the  men  demand  higher  wages  and  win  them, 
machinery — much  of  which  is  the  fruit  of  technical  training — is 
introduced  which  enables  production  to  be  increased  at  a  smaller 
cost.  Should  the  men  then  determine  to  win  for  themselves  some 
of  the  advantages  that  accrue  from  these  improvements  in  methods 
of  manufacture,  capitalism  calls  to  its  aid  women  and  juvenile 
labour.  During  the  last  few  years  the  number  of  machines 
invented  to  do  skilled  work,  without  capitalism  employing  skilled 
workers  or  paying  wages  sufficient  to  meet  the  cost  of  a  family's 
living,  has  been  the  most  amazing  development  in  connection 
with  industr\^  Some  time  ago  I  investigated  the  methods  of 
manufacture  of  nearly  every  material  and  article  in  common  use. 
and  wherever  I  went  I  saw  automatic  machines  that,  with  no 
more  skilful  attention  than  a  youth  or  girl  can  give,  were  doing 
work  that  twenty  years  ago  was  done  by  craftsmen  and  artisans. 
There  is  no  need  to  describe  the  innumerable  mechanical  devices 
that  have  enabled  boys  and  girls,  without  any  apprenticeship,  to 

479 


•  The  Prohlem  of  Continuation  Education. 

make  articles  which  their  fathers  could  manufacture  only  after 
f^erving  many  years  in  acquiring  a  knowledge  of  the  tools  and  the 
material.  Knowledge  of  such  inventions  is  general  among  all 
people  who  earn  their  daily  bread  in  field,  factory,  or  engineering 
shop.  They  know,  too,  how  such  inventions  have  displaced  adult 
labour  for  juvenile  labour,  and  men  for  women,  and  the  skill  of 
communities  by  the  skill  of  the  individual  inventor.  Whether  in 
the  long  run  all  this  ingenuity  which  manifests  itself  in  the 
invention  of  labour-saving  machinery  proves  a  boon  to  humanity 
is  a  point  not  yet  settled.  The  immediate  matter  of  concern  is 
that  it  saves  labour,  which  means  (for  capitalism  thinks  in  terms 
of  money,  not  of  human  happiness)  that  the  amount  of  wealth 
absorbed  in  wages  is  diminished  without  any  compensation  to 
labour  in  its  other  role  of  consumer.  Indeed,  since  the  automatic 
machine  became  the  factor  in  production  that  it  now  is,  the  cost 
of  commodities  has  risen  by  about  30  per  cent.,  while  wages  have 
shown  only  a  very  slight  upward  tendency.  Cost-of -labour-saving 
machinery  (to  give  it  its  true  designation)  has  made  the  rich  richer 
and  the  poor  poorer.  And  I  do  not  think  that  anyone  will  venture 
to  suggest  that  the  force  of  invention  has  spent  itself,  that  to  the 
hundred  and  one  things  which  can  be  done  to-day  by  machinery 
that  were  once  done  by  man  there  will  not  be  added  all  the  other 
functions  of  manufacture.  We  are,  indeed,  but  on  the  threshold 
of  the  automatic  age.  It  is  not  difficult  to  envisage  the  day  when 
man,  apart  from  the  perfunctory  pressing  of  a  button,  will  have 
no  work  to  do. 

If  this  seems  to  be  a  digression  from  the  subject  of  this  paper 
I  would  suggest  to  the  reader  that  it  would  be  a  waste  of  national 
wealth  and  human  energy  to  build  up  a  great  edifice  of  compulsory 
education  for  the  purpose  of  teaching  youths  to  do  work  which, 
the  moment  the}^  demand  a  wage  that  threatens  profits,  would  be 
done  by  raw  boys  and  girls  with  automatic  machinery's  artful  aid. 
The  pupils  of  the  working  class  who  would  benefit  from  such 
education  would  be  those  to  whom  knowledge  was  a  spur  to 
their  inventive  faculty.  These  would  be  few  in  number,  no  doubt, 
but  they  would  be  sufficient  to  give  an  enormous  impetus  to  the 
automatic  apparatus.  The  few  young  men  of  exceptional  ability 
would  succeed  in  making  names  and,  perhaps,  fortunes.  But 
the  price  would  be  the  decay  of  communal  skill,  the  cheapening  of 
labour,  and  the  deterioration  of  the  race. 

For  these  reasons — which  I  may  recapitulate  by  saying  that 
while  technical  education  has  added  to  the  wealth  of  nations  it 
has  not  added  to  the  wealth  of  the  workers,  and,  inferentially, 
can  never  do  so — I  suggest  that  co-operators  should  be  suspicious 
of  any  movement  towards  fastening  compulsory  technical  education 
on  the  people. 

But  it  must  not  be  assumed  that  because  one  is  opposed  to 
compulsory  education  under  present  conditions  one  is  necessarily 

480 


The  Problem  of  Continuation  Education. 

opposed  to  either  continuation  or  technical  education  in  all  or  any 
circumstances  and  conditions.  On  the  contrary,  it  is  quite  evident 
that  if  such  education  can  add  to  the  prosperity  of  a  nation  or  to 
the  profits  of  capitalism  it  can  be  made  an  instrument  for  human 
happiness,  culture,  and  comfort.  Whether  it  will  be  so  used  or 
not  depends  upon  the  intelligence  with  which  *'the  common 
people"  can  grasp  the  lessons  of  the  immediate  past — the  past 
which,  as  we  now  see,  has  been  a  period  of  the  amassing  of  great 
wealth  in  a  few  hands  and  the  amassing  of  huge  armaments,  the 
bitter  fruits  of  technical  education,  which  have  been  used  to  tear 
the  fabric  of  civilisation,  of  which  we  believed  education  was  the 
chiefest  attribute! 

WHAT   WILL  BECOME  OF  US  ? 

Here  I  call  again  upon  the  example  of  Germany,  for  Germany 
is  the  example  of  extremes  both  of  the  value  and  the  vice  of  a 
system  which  produces  automatic  machines  fed  by  human 
automatons.  The  various  states  of  the  German  Empire 
have  insisted  upon  all  young  men  becoming  scientific  ally - 
trained  workers,  just  as  they  have  insisted  on  all  young  men 
becoming  scientifically-trained  soldiers.  But  they  have  consented, 
constitutionally,  to  leave  within  the  sole  wisdom  of  the  War 
L*ord  the  decision  as  to  whether  the  whole  agglomeration  of  wealthy 
the  product  of  milhons  of  men  over  many  years,  shall  be  destroyed 
in  a  few  weeks  or  months  of  devastating  war.  It  seems  plain  that 
there  has  been  something  wrong  with  the  intelligence  of  the 
German  people.  They  have  learned  to  do  every thmg  except  to 
control  their  own  national  destiny.  And  this  flaw,  common  in  a 
lesser  degree  in  other  highly-civilised  countries,  has  been  due  to 
the  devotion  to  education  in  material  things  without  regard  to  the 
human  purpose  for  which  such  material  things  should  be  used. 
How  the  German  democracy  will  emerge  from  the  holocaust  that  is 
now  destroying  the  manhood  of  Europe  none  can  say.  My 
concern  is  with  the  democracy  of  Great  Britain.  What  shall 
we  become  in  this  crucible  of  conflict?  What  we  shall  become 
depends  on  what  we  determine  to  do  in  the  future  in  regard  to 
the  education  of  the  rising  generation.  Are  we  to  resume  and 
intensify  the  system  that  has  culminated  in  this  monstrous 
debacle  of  sanity  and  progress  ?  After  the  period  of  impoverishment 
are  we  again  to  enter  upon  a  period  of  unorganised  production, 
accelerated  by  all  the  devices  of  technology,  in  the  interests  not 
of  the  nation  but  of  the  favoured  few,  so  that  cur  children  will 
see,  as  we  have  seen,  wealth  increasing  by  leaps  and  bounds  in 
the  lap  of  the  possessors,  while  the  wealth  producers  go  in  want, 
and  then  the  whole  edifice  come  tumbling  about  their  ears  at  the 
word  of  command  of  secret  statesmen?  It  is  a  question  for 
democracy  to  determine.  It  is  a  question  in  the  settlement  of 
which  the  co-operative  movement  may  mean  much. 

KK  481 


The  Problem  of  Continuation  Education. 

We  want  an  educated  democracy ;  and  by  educated  I  mean 
not  merely  or  mainly  that  the  democracy  shall  possess  the  narrow 
if  important  learning  which  enables  men  to  make  automatic 
machines,  to  build  bridges,  lay  rails,  forge  bolts  and  guns,  or 
build  ships.  I  mean  the  education  which  enables  people  individually 
to  taste  to  the  full  the  fruits  of  art  and  literature,  and  collectively 
so  to  control  matters  that  there  shall  be  neither  lack  for  the 
industrious  nor  luxury  for  the  idle. 

THE   TRUE   EDUCATION. 

"It  is  only  by  a  liberal  education  that  we  learn  to  feel  respect 
for  the  past  or  to  take  an  interest  in  the  future,"  said  Hazlitt. 
**The  entire  object  of  true  education,"  declared  Kuskin,  "is  to 
make  people  not  merely  do  the  right  things,  but  enjoy  the  right 
things;  not  merely  industrious,  but  to  love  industry;  not  merely 
learned,  but  to  love  knowledge ;  not  merely  pure,  but  to  love 
purity;  not  merely  just,  but  to  hunger  and  thirst  after  justice." 

Hitherto  an  education  such  as  that  has  been  the  privilege 
of  the  few  people  of  wealth  or  of  quite  exceptional  ability  and 
application.  The  education  which  has  been  doled  out  to  the 
poor  has  been  either  strictly  utilitarian  or  else  futile.  The 
rudiments  of  learning  they  have  been  compelled  to  master;  but 
beyond  that  what  has  been  given  to  them  to  make  them  hunger 
after  justice,  to  feel  respect  for  the  past,  or  to  take  an  interest 
in  the  future?  Very  little.  Advocates  of  compulsory  continuation 
education  may  argue  that  it  is  because  they  recognise  the 
shortcomings  of  the  past  that  they  desire  amendment  in  the  future. 
It  would  be  ungracious  to  deny  their  goodwill.  But  knowing  what 
education  is  in  the  present  elementary  and  continuation  schools, 
one  is  entitled  to  doubt  whether  compulsory  continuation  education 
would  not  be  merely  an  extension  of  the  elementary  education  which 
in  no  way  meets  Euskin's  demands.  In  plain  words,  would  not  any 
system  of  continuation  education  under  the  present  social  regime 
be  directed  towards  inculcating  a  respect  for  that  regime  ?  Of 
course,  I  do  not  suggest  that  youths  would  be  taught  positively 
that  things  are  now  as  they  were  in  the  beginning,  and  ever  will 
be.  But  I  do  assert  that  by  the  exclusion  of  true  teaching  from 
the  schools  the  pupils  would  waste  much  time  in  gaining  false 
ideas  about  life.  For  instance,  they  would  be  taught  the  history 
of  their  own  land  according  to  the  romantic  historians.  They 
would  not  be  taught  to  interpret  history  by  the  light  of  economists. 
Glorified  Mrs.  Markhams  would  preside  over  the  feast  of  historical 
dates,  while  Thorold  Rogers  would  remain  in  the  dusty  library  for 
such  attention  as  might  be  given  to  him  by  stragglers  from  the 
main  army  of  scholars.  Again,  the  virtue  of  thrift  would  be 
inculcated  by  means  of  saving  banks,  but  the  elements  of  political 
economy,  knowledge  of  which  would  suffice  to  put  many  young 

m 


The  Problem  of  Continuation  'Education. 

people  oh  the  path  to  co-operative  ideals,  would  be  withheld. 
Indeed>  I  venture  to  think  that  ordinary  State  education  is  subtly 
antagonistic  to  the  ideals  for  which  the  co-operative  movement 
stands.  The  co-operative  movement  is  great  and  growing.  But 
its  best  friends  cannot  blink  the  fact  that  many  people  are  attracted 
to  it  in  the  first  instance  by  purely  individualist  self-interest  rather 
than  by  any  consciousness  of  the  nobility  and  naturalness  of  mutual 
aid.  And  this,  I  think,  is  due  to  the  circumstance  that  hitherto  the 
trend  of  education  in  early  youth  has  been  away  from  idealism  and 
towards  individualism  and  utilitarianism.  How  much  nobler  and 
wiser  the  world  might  have  been  had  our  governors  begun  in 
1870  to  educate  the  young  in  "the  formation  of  co-operative 
character  and  opinions  by  teaching  the  history,  theory,  and 
principles  of  the  movement,  with  economics  and  industrial 
and  constitutional  history  in  so  far  as  they  have  bearing  on 
co-operation!"  But  it  was  too  much  to  expect  that  the  people  in 
authority  would  thus  undermine  their  positions  of  power.  It  is 
too  much  to  expect  that  of  their  own  choice  they  will  ever  do  so. 
If  democracy  is  to  be  free  from  the  fetters  of  competitive  or 
monopolistic  industrialism  democracy  must  attend  to  the  matter 
itself.  It  is  because  this  proposition  is  to  my  mind  irrefutable  that 
I  would  appeal  to  the  co-operative  movement  to  use  still  more 
of  its  energy  in  diverting  education  from  stereotyped  and 
conventional  concepts  to  finer  usages. 

FIVE  POINTS  FOR  REFORMERS. 

And  I  would  lay  down  several  essential  factors  in  raising  human 
life  from  the  low  level  to  which  it  has  now  sunk  to  a  height  it 
has  not  attained  since  the  gradual  breakdown  of  the  mediaeval 
guilds,  which  were  truly  co-operative  in  spirit:  — 

1.  I  do  not  think  there  can  be  a  doubt  that  the  school-leaving 
age  should  be  raised  to  sixteen,  and  the  half-time  system  abolished. 
Up  to  the  age  of  twelve  the  average  child  is  merely  being  prepared 
for  education.  Its  mind  is  capable  of  learning  by  rote,  but  its 
powers  of  comprehension  are  so  small  that  even  were  education 
all  that  Hazlitt  or  Buskin  desired  the  pupil  would  be  unable  to 
take  an  intelligent  interest  in  the  future  or  to  acquire  any  passion 
for  social  justice.  The  normal  boy,  indeed,  does  not  acquire  a 
love  of  knowledge  until  he  reaches  his  fourteenth  year.  At  that 
age  all  except  the  dullest  begin,  if  given  the  opportunity,  to  take 
an  interest  in  literature,  learning,  and  the  affairs  of  current  life. 
That  opportunity  is  now  denied  to  all  except  the  children  of  the 
comfortable  classes,  or  the  talented  children  of  the  working  class 
blessed  with  parents  who  are  willing  to  make  great  sacrifices  for 
their  future  welfare.  The  consequence  is  that  we  have  a  proletariat 
which,  on  the  whole,  can  read  (and  mainly  reads  rubbish),  write 
(but  seldom   exercises   its   power   of   expression),    and   do   sums 

483 


The  Problem  of  C'ontinutition  Education. 

siifficiently  well  to  work  out  racing  odds  or  count  its  weekly  wage4 
It  knows  little  or  nothing  about  the  history  of  itself,  about 
economics,  art,  or  literature.  Consequently,  we  have  a  rising 
generation  which  feeds  on  "comics"  and  "bloods,"  for  which  it 
■pays  out  of  scanty  pocket  money,  while  all  the  time  there  is  the 
free  library  offering  it  the  best  and  truest  that  genius  has  given  to 
the  world.        ' 

2.  Having  raised  the  age  from,  fourteen  to  sixteen,  the 
curriculum  for  the  extra  two  years  should  be  drawn  up  with  k 
view  to  giving  the  young  a  yearning  towards  fine  ideals  of  society. 
The  object  should  be  the  formation  of  character  rather  than  the 
training  of  mind.  It  is  more  important  that  people  should  live 
rightly  than  do  arithmetic  correctly,  especially  now  that  machines 
are  "learning"  to  do  our  sums  with  an  awful  accuracy.  And 
right  living  is  the  result  of  right  thinking,  and  that,  except  in  the 
case  of  the  rare  people  gifted  with  intuition,  is  to  be' achieved  only 
by  an  interested  study  of  the  great  masters,  and  by  working 
from  a  basic  belief  in  the  virtue  of  mutual  aid,  the  sanctity  of 
justice,  the  organic  nature  of  society,  and  the  interdependence 
and  brotherhood  of  man.  So  I  would  suggest  that  the  two  years 
of  extra  schooling  should  be  devoted  to  the  humanities,  economics, 
literature,  biology,  logic,  and  such  other  subjects  as  would  enable 
the  youth  on  leaving  school  at  sixteen  to  take  an  intelligent  interest 
in  the  affairs  of  his  town,  city,  or  country,  whether  he  was  to  be 
a  labourer,  an  artisan,  a  clerk,  or  ^  professional  man.  For  if  a 
democracy  has  intelhgence  aU  other  things  worth  having  will  be 
added. unto. it.    .  . 

3.  During  school  life  no  attempt  should  be  made  to  teaok 
lads  specific  trades.  The  most  that  an  employer  of  labour  ought  to 
demand  from  the  community  is  that  the  young  people  whom  he 
engages  shall  be,  intelligent.  If  in  addition  to  intelligence  he  gets 
skilled  juvenile  workers  he  will  not  pay  them  a  man's  wage.  He 
will  pay  a  boy's  wage  for  a  man's  work — and  will  dispense  with 
his  men. 

4.  If  employers  desire  that  their  youths  shall  study  the 
technology  of  their  particular  industry  they  should  be  compelled 
to  allow  the  youths  to  attend  technical  schools  in  the  daytime, 
and  either  pay  for  such  education  or  else  pay  wages  to  the  youths 
for  learning  the  trade.  For,  as  I  hope  I  have  proved,  such  training 
is  directly  in  the  interests  of  the  employers,  and  only  very 
remotely,  if  at  all,  in  that  of  the  employed. 

5.  Coirtinuation  education  should  remain  non-obligatory.  If 
the  school  age  of  children  were  raised  to  sixteen,  and  the  two  last 
years  were  given  up  to  such  a  liberal  curriculum  as  I  have  sketched, 
the  probability  is  that  a  great  number  of  children  on  leaving  the 
primary  school  would  wish  to  continue  their  studies  in  the  evening 
school,   assuming  that  the  education  there  given  dealt  sincerely 

484 


» 


The  Problem  of  Continuation  Education, 

with  the  large  and  absorbing  problems  that  ate  apt  to  perturb  the 
minds  of  intelligent  adolescents.  The  intellectual  attainments  of 
teachers  in  these  schools  would  need  to  be  higher  than  those  of 
many  of  our  present-day  elementary  teachers,  although  observation 
drives  me  to  the  conclusion  that  much  of  our  teaching  is  perfunctory 
and  unsatisfactoiy  because  the  teachers  are  tied  down  to  curricula 
over  which  they  have  no  control.  Some  time  ago  a  teacher  was 
condemned  for  talking  to  her  class  about  a  matter  of  importance 
not  in  the  curriculum.  Many  teachers  are  firm  believers  in  the 
desirability  of  the  co-operative  commonwealth.  They  are  not 
permitted,  however,  to  mould  the  minds  of  their  pupils  along  these 
Knes.  They  must  teach  every  subject  amenable  to  class  or  party  or 
economic  colouring  according  to  the  colour  of  the  dominant  class, 
and  this  they  do,  not  by  a  direct  glorification  of  the  existent  state, 
but  by  silence  on  the  possibility  of  alternative  states.  So  it  happens 
that  boys  can  pass  through  the  sixth  standard  in  utter  ignorance 
of  the  diverse  theories  of  society  held  by  the  adult  world.  I  am 
not,  however,  suggesting  that  State  servants  should  teach  the 
young  what  they  ought  to  think  about  individualism,  co-operation, 
socialism,  or  syndicalism.  I  do  suggest  that  before  the  age  of 
sixteen  every  boy  should  have  had  the  principles  of  these  divergent 
economic  creeds  explained  to  him  from  authoritative  text-books 
and  without  bias  on  the  part  of  the  teacher.  Fifty-seven  years 
have  elapsed  since  Buckle,  in  his  history  of  Civilisation  in  England, 
wrote:  "Political  economy  has  been  raised  to  a  science,  and  by  it 
much  light  has  been  thrown  on  the  causes  of  that  unequal 
distribution  of  wealth  which  is  the  most  fertile  source  of  social 
disturbance."  Is  it  not  time,  I  ask,  that  young  people  should  be 
compelled  to  take  some  interest  in  this  science,  a  knowledge  of 
which  is  necessary  to  any  rational  criticism  or  reconstruction  of 
society  ? 

In  suggesting  these  lines  of  chang3  I  am  conscious  of 
propounding  a  policy  quite  alien  to  the  policy  of  the  past  and 
present.  But  to  my  mind  the  present  State  education  is  both 
anachronistic  and  paradoxical.  Compulsory  education  is  itself  an 
experiment  in  or  phase  of  collectivism  or  compulsory  co-operation, 
and  therefore  essentially  opposed  to  laissez-faire.  Nevertheless, 
such  colouring  as  can  be  given  to  the  subjects  taught  harmonises 
not  with  the  architecture  of  the  State  education  edifice  itself,  but 
with  the,  so  far  as  education  is  concerned,  obsolete  doctrines  of 
the  philosophical  radicalism  of  the  middle  of  the  nineteenth 
century.  Nor  is  it  only  by  neglect  to  awaken  the  young  intelligence 
to  possible  alternatives  to  the  present  social  system  that  the  school 
curricula  support  the  existent  state.  They  do  so  by  direct  practice. 
In  various  centres  schools  of  domestic  cookery  have  been 
established,  and  wherever  this  has  been  done  the  pupils  are  taught 
as  though  it  were  an  accepted  principle  that  they  are  marked  out 
to  be   poor  men's  wives.      The  writer  of  one  of  the  papers   in 

485 


The  Problem  of  Coniinuation  Education. 

Continuation  Schools  in  England  and  Elsewhere,  discussirig  the 
sort  of  training  that  should  be  given  to  girls  in  public  secondary- 
schools,  says :  "In  mathematics  .  .  .  the  keeping  of  accounts 
and  the  calculation  of  interest,  the  measurement  of  areas  and 
working  to  scale  in  garment  cutting,  the  calculation  of  dietaries 
and  of  prices— these  seem  to.be  all  that  is  necessary."  Not  a 
word,  it  will  be  noted,  about  the  nature  of  interest,  although  the 
writer  was  a  member  of  the  Fabian  Society !  Again  this  writer, 
describing  the  "living-room"  which  she  suggests  should  be  set 
up  in  each  school  for  training  in  home  life  and  domesticity,  says : 
"Cheap  oilcloth,  such  as  would  doubtless  be  selected  for  the 
floor,  would  contrast  with  the  good  linoleum  now  supplied  to  some 
rooms  in  the  schools."  These  passages  are  illustrative  of  the 
tendency  to  adapt  children  to  tlieir  environment,  to  make  them  if 
not  content  with,  at  least  tolerant  of,  their  position  in  life — the 
toleration  that  people  extend  to  inevitabilities.  That  this  is  the 
true  end  of  education  I  do  not  hesitate  to  doubt.  It  must  indeed 
be  obvious  that  change  of  environment  is  what  we  really  need,  and 
this  will  be  brought  about  only  by  the  application  of  trained 
intelligence  to  the  task  of  getting  the  most  and  best  out  of  life. 
To  teach  children,  youths,  and  adolescents  with  one  hand  to  become 
experts  in  the  production  of  wealth,  and  with  the  other  hand  how 
to  make  the  best  of  their  poverty,  is  an  education  which  the 
co-operative  movement  should  endeavour  to  destroy,  for  not  by  its 
means  can  we  approximate  to  any  semblance  of  the  perfect  state. 

A  CO-OPERATIVE  GRIEVANCE. 

It  may  be  argued  that  we  must  take  things  as  we  find  them  ; 
that  the  task  of  teaching  deeply — by  which  I  mean  delving  below 
the  surface  and  discovering  root  causes — is  too  difficult  when 
the  pupils  are  not  adults;  that,  in  any  event,  economics  and  social 
ethics  are  controversial  matters,  the  introduction  of  which  into 
the  schools  would  arouse  a  storm  even  greater  than  that  which 
has  not  yet  spent  itself  around  the  question  of  religious  teaching. 
To  the  latter  of  these  objections  I  would  reply  that  if  co-operative 
economics  are  true  the  co-operators  who  are  now  contributing 
through  rates  and  taxes  for  the  upkeep  of  the  elementary, 
secondary,  and  continuation  schools  are  suffering,  however 
unconsciously,  just  such  an  injustice  as  that  Nonconformists 
declare  they  suffer  under  the  Act  of  1902.  I  mean  that  their 
children  are  being  taught  in  an  "atmosphere"  permeated  with  the 
principles  of  the  individualism  which  is  the  negation  of  co-operation. 
From  an  educational  system,  for  which  its  founders  claim  that 
it  fits  young  people  for  life,  economics  cannot  be  banished. 
Actively  or  passively  it  must  be  taught.  If  the  subject  is  never 
mentioned,  then,  so  far  as  school  life  has  any  influence  on  the 
mind  of  the  next  generation  of  adults,  that  mind  will  be  biassed 

486 


b 


I 


The  Problem  of  Continuation  Education. 

in  favour  of  the  economic  system  which  obtained  in  childhood. 
So  it  happens  that  the  thinking  working-class  young  man  who 
left  school  at  thirteen  or  fourteen  never  knows  anything  about 
political  economy  until  a  chance  word  at  a  street-corner  meeting 
arrests  his  interest  and  leads  to  a  more  or  less  haphazard  and 
unscientific  study  of  the  most  important  factor  of  human  life. 

If  in  the  foregoing  I  have  seemed  to  lay  too  much  stress  on 
the  need  for  supplanting  science,  technical  training,  and  the  other 
items  of  the  customary  curriculum  by  a  less  utilitarian  education 
— an  education  directed  towards  the  formation  of  social  ideals  as 
to  which  as  yet  the  great  bulk  of  the  people  are  either  indifferent 
or  ignorant — my  apology  must  be  that  I  am  writing  at  a  moment 
when  European  civilisation  is  being  visibly  destroyed.  What 
springs  from  its  ashes  will  depend  entirely  upon  the  wisdom  of 
the  various  democracies.  The  war  may  mean  a  relapse  into  a 
state  more  miserable  than  that  induced  by  the  Napoleonic  wars. 
It  may  mean  a  release  and  a  leap  forward  towards  a  simpler 
society  based  upon  co-operation  instead  of  competition.  If, 
during  the  last  forty  years,  the  boys  and  girls  of  the  proletariat 
had  received  an  education  such  as  I  advocate  and  have  endeavoured 
to  outline,  there  would  be  little  fear  for  the  future,  no  matter 
how  menacing  this  moment  may  be.  The  reconstruction  of  this 
shattered  society  would  then  "have  been  planned  with  foresight, 
sagacity  and  knowledge,  not  in  the  interests  of  the  few  who  make 
wars  while  escaping  the  worst  of  war's  consequences,  but  in  the 
interests  of  the  millions  who,  because  of  the  false  teachings,  the 
evasions  and  suppressions  of  the  schools,  are  led  blindfolded  to 
the  front,  there  to  fall  in  quarrels  of  which  they  are  ignorant, 
waged  for  rewards  w^hich  they  may  not  hope  to  share. 

THE   ONLY    WAY. 

Indeed,  had  the  nations  been  so  educated,  this  awful 
catastrophe  could  scarcely  have  happened.  For  the  peoples  do 
not  want  war  and  would  not  suffer  it  had  they  the  power  to  prevent 
its  commission.  That  power  can  come  only  with  a  knowledge  of 
many  things  that  hitherto  have  been  forbidden  or  withheld  from 
them  in  their  youth. 

A  few  years  ago  Sir  Oliver  Lodge  gave  it  as  his  opinion  that 
the  nation  which  first  fed  its  children  would  in  the  course  of  two 
generations  be  the  greatest  nation  in  the  world.  We  have  begun 
to  feed  our  children,  mainly  because  of  one  irresistible  reason: 
that  money  spent  on  teaching  ill-nourished  boys  was  money  wasted. 
The  reform  was  an  item  in  the  popular  campaign  for  efficiency. 
I  have  no  quarrel  with  it.  On  the  contrary,  the  improved  physical 
and  mental  attributes  of  the  child  of  to-day,  compared  with  the  child 
of  ten  years  ago,  are  so  marked  that  all  fair-minded  and  competent 

487- 


The  Problem  of  Continuation  Education. 

observers  must  come  to  the  conclusion  arrived  at  by  Miss  M.  E. 
B.ulkley  that,  "so  long  as  economic  conditions  remain  as  they  are, 
the  provision  of  school  meals  is  a  necessity,"  I  find  it  difficult, 
nevertheless,  to  accept  Sir  Oliver  Lodge's  optimistic  prophecy. 
Nations  do  not  live  by  bread  alone.  Humanity  in  its  groping 
towards  perfection  does  not  crawl  army -like  upon  its  stomach; 
its  marches  or  marks  time  to  the  tune  set  by  humanity's  mind. 
The  nation  which  first  teaches  its  democracy  to  think,  to 
know  itself,  its  history,  its  conflicting  potentialities,  the  why 
and  wherefore  of  social  disturbances — that  nation,  in  the  course 
of  a  few  generations,  will  be,  if  not  the  greatest,  the  happiest  in 
the  world.  The  economic  conditions  which  necessitate  the  bread 
of  charity  being  given  to  hundreds  of  thousands  of  the  children  of 
the  workers  cannot  long  survive  the  acquisition  by  those  children 
of  the  knowledge  of  the  origin  and  cause  of  those  conditions. 
They  know  the  consequences  too  well. 


488 


Some  Ancient  Civilisations 
and  their  Lessons. 


BY  BEDFORD   POLLARD. 


Neither  does  strength  depend  on  extent  of  territory  any  more  than  upon 
number  of  population.     The  strength  is  in  the  men,  and  in  their  unity   and 
virtue.     A  little  group  of  wise  hearts  is  better  than  a  wilderness  of  fools.     Ncd 
government  is  ultimately  strong  but  in  proportion  to  its  kindness  and  justice. — t. 
Ruskin. 

THE  word  civilisation  is  often  on  our  lips,  and  few  probably 
realise  how  its  meaning  lias  become  distorted.  To  compare 
or  contrast  civilised  powers  to-day  means  usually  to  estimate 
their  relative  military  strength.  The  whole  scope  of  the  word 
"civil"  renders  it  distinct  from  "military."  Civil  and  military  are 
two  opposing  aspects  of  national  life,  and  the  dictionary  defines 
civil  as  "not  military,"  It  is  well  that  we  should  keep  the  true 
meaning  of  the  word  clearly  in  mind  in  using  it  in  its  ordinary 
sense.  A  civilised  nation  is  one  that  studies  the  arts  of  peace, 
education,  and  commerce.  Militarism  is  the  bar  sinister  across  its 
fair  scutcheon.  Unhappily  for  the  human  race,  the  bar  sinister  has 
almost  always  been  attached.  The  element  of  barbarism  has  never 
been  eliminated. 

In  primitive  civilisations  it  is  impossible  to  conceive  how 
national  prosperity  could  have  been  built  and  maintained  without 
military  support.  But  the  ideal  state  to  which  each  nation  in 
some  degree  aspires  will  not  be  so  constituted.  There  can  scarcely 
be  a  more  adequate  delineation  of  the  ideal  state  than  as  given 
by  Eobert  Owen:  "The  only  solid  foundation  of  public  liberty  is 
to  be  found  in  the  full  supply  of  the  wants,  in  the  virtuous 
habits,  in  the  intelligence  and  consequent  happiness  of  the  whole 
population" ;  and  militarism  must  always  stand  in  the  way  of  this. 
And  yet,  impossible  as  the  non-military  state  might  have  once 
been,  the  tremendous  truth  of  the  words  "All  they  that  take  the 
sword  shall  perish  with  the  sword"  may  be  observed.  As  Norman 
Angell  has  well  said  :  — 

If  during  long  periods  a  nation  gives  itself  up  to  war,  trade  languishes, 
the  population  loses  the  habit  of  steady  industry,  government  and  administration 
become  corrupt,  abuse  escapes  punishment.  .  ,  .  Was  it  mere  hazards  of 
war  which  gave  to  Great  Britain  the  domination  of  India  and  half  the  new 
world?  That  is  surely  a  superficial  reading  of  history.  It  was  rather  that  the 
methods  and  processes  of  Spain,  Portugal,  and  France  were  military,  while 
those  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  were  commercial  and  peaceful.  .  .  .  One  was  a 
process  of  conquest,  the  other  of  colonising.     .     .     .     How  may  we  sum  up 

489 


Some  Ancient  Civilisations  and  their  Lessons. 

the  whole  case,  keeping  in  mind  every  empire  that  ever  existed  .  .  .?  In 
all  and  every  one  of  them  we  may  see  the  same  process,  which  is  this  :  If  it 
remains  military  it  decays;  if  it  prospers  and  takes  its  share  of  the  work  of 
the  world  it  ceases  to  be  military.     There  is  no  other  reading  of  history. 

The  problem  touches  us  closely  to-day.  That  "war  begat 
the  noble  and  war  begat  the  slave"  the  history  of  bygone 
civilisations  amply  proves;  and  present-day  conditions  still  attest 
the  truth  of  Eousseau's  words:  " L'homme  est  ne  lihre  et  partout 
il  est  dans  les  fers." 

PKIMITIVE    MAN. 

Whatever  ideas  we  may  entertain  as  to  primitive  man  and  the 
Darwinian  Theory,  we  must  naturally  narrow  down  the  origin 
of  the  human  race  to  some  kind  of  starting  point.  The  presence 
of  man  in  hitherto  undiscovered  lands  might  seem  to  indicate  several 
distinct  geneses;  but  a  consensus  of  various  sciences  comes  to  our 
aid,  and  proves  at  least  the  improbability  of  this.  As  in  vegetable 
life,  so  in  human,  a  common  origin  is  often  deduced.  The  new 
world,  discovered,  perchance,  by  hardy  Norsemen,  and,  later,  by 
Columbus,  isolated  from  the  old  by  vast  oceans,  was  not  always  so 
severed.  Across  the  Atlantic  bed  lies  a  submerged  land  extending 
to  Guiana  in  South  America.  The  same  applies,  and  with  more 
weight,  to  the  Pacific.  Between  the  coast  of  Asia  and  x\merica  a 
long  volcanic  chain  lies  broken. 

Thus  geology  points  to  possibilities,  comparative  anatomy — the 
study  of  skulls — affords  some  guidance,  comparative  philology  and 
religions  add  to  the  sum  of  evidence.  That  interesting  civilisation 
discovered  by  the  Spaniards  in  Mexico  bore  traces  of  Asiatic 
origin.  There  were  traditions  of  immigration  from  the  north. 
Mongolian  speech  seemed  traceable  in  the  language.  The  Red 
Indian  and. Esquimaux  had  a  MongoHan  ancestry. 

Of  ancient  Europe  science  has  strange  stories  to  tell.  The 
greater  part  of  it  was  in  darkness  for  ages,  because  it  was  not  in 
touch  with  Asia.  Iron  and  gold  were  first  used  in  the  East,  and 
the  Celtic  metal  worker's  skill  came  through  the  Greeks.  The 
alphabets  in  use  to-day  date  back  to  Phoenicia,  nineteen  centuries 
before  Christ,  and  their  invention  may  have  been  based  on  Minoan 
script  and  Hittite  pictographs  of  long  before.  Modern  excavations 
by  patient  enthusiasts  have  lifted  the  veil  that  overhung  the  epochs 
of  many  kingdoms  of  antiquity,  and  the  amazing  stories  that  belong 
to  the.  East  have  been  revealed. 

Not  only  do  the  splendours  of  ancient  cities  astonish,  but  the 
inscriptions  tell  how,  underlying  all  the  vanished  greatness,  was 
bloodshed  and  slavery. 

The  history  of  humanity  is  mainly  the  history  of  labour,  and  at  first  all 
labour  was  slavery  .  .  .  The  record  of  the  great  social  experiments  of 
the  past  is  chiefly  a  record  of  injustice  and  sufisring.  It  is  also  a  record  of 
the  disappearance  of  states  in  which  those  experiments  were  made.* 

*  W.  Romaine.Paterson,  The  Nemesis  of  Nations. 

490 


Some  Ancient  Civilisations  and  their  Lessons. 

The  production  of  wealth  was  proportionate  to  the  number  df 
slaves.  The  expansions  and  debacles  of  ancient  powers  were  due 
to  the  inequalities  within  states  and  inequalities  between  states. 

In  the  evolution  of  manhood,  from  the  time  when  first  the 
biped  stood  erect,  lived  on  fruit  or  berries,  formulated  speech, 
learned  his  simple  lessons  from  beast  and  bird,  and  hunted  with 
precarious  weapons  for  a  living,  to  the  discovery  of  sowing 
and  reaping  and  providing  for  the  future,  long  periods  must  have 
passed. 

When  we  reflect  that  the  original  basis  of  human  intelligence 
and  sentiment  was  the  instinct  of  lower  animals,  we  need  not  be 
surprised  when  the  palaeontologist  speaks  of  man  occupying  this 
world  millions  of  years  ago. 

Before  he  rose  to  an  intelligence  in  which  the  faculties  were 
articulate  enough  to  enter  the  realm  of  art,  to  draw,  to  inscribe, 
to  invent,  man  was  buried  in  a  vast  nebulous  period  in  which  a 
thousand  years  were  as  one  day.  Skulls  and  stone  weapons  and 
rude  drawings  on  cave  walls  can  only  be  dated  by  the  geologist 
in  the  study  of  deposits. 

At  least  we  may  be  sure  that  the  first  wit-sharpener  was 
hunger.  A  fertile  spot  well  watered  would  tempt  man  from  his 
wanderings.  He  would  gather  flocks  and  herds  around  him, 
become  a  breeder,  learn  to  use  the  wool  of  his  sheep  and  the  milk 
of  his  kine.  Slowly  the  unfledged  spirit  of  inventiveness  w^ould 
guide  in  the  building  of  habitations — hut,  house,  palace,  temple. 
The  trading  instinct  w^ould  appear.  The  caravan  by  degrees  would 
come  to  bring  an  interchange  of  wares  between  tribe  and  tribe. 
Then  from  beyond  the  mountains  jealous  eyes,  unused  to  peaceful 
industry,  or,  it  may  be,  crowded  out  of  other  settlements,  would 
view  these  developments,  and  warlike  hordes  w^ould  pour  down, 
kill,  and  appropriate. 

.     .     .     Industry  in  some. 

To    improve    and    cultivate    their    just    demesne, 

Made  others  covet  what  they  saw  so  fair. 

Thus  war  began  on  earth  :  these  fought  for  spoil, 

And  those  in  self-defence. 

And  thus  fortifications  and  weapons  of  war  were  evolved. 

BABYLONIA. 

The  hub  of  the  ancient  world,  the  centre  of  human  activity, 
was  Mesopotamia.  It  was  in  this  land  that  the  earliest  legends 
of  the  race  were  born.  Here,  somewhere,  was  located  the  mythical 
Garden  of  Eden,  Here  fell  the  Deluge;  and  here,  on  Shinar's 
Plain,  arose  the  Tower  of  Babel.  Those  scrappy  passages  found 
in  the  Old  Testament  pages  have  done  little  more  than  stn*  up 
unsatisfied  curiosity  over  races  of  men  with  whom  the  children  of 
Israel  clashed.  What  legend  and  parchment  could  not  supply, 
the  picture  stories  and  cuneiform  inscriptions  on  rock  walls  and 

491 


Some  Ancient'  Givilisations  and  their  Lessons. 

clay  tablets,  or  on  vase  decorations,  have  yielded.  Plainefr  than 
in  human  speech  they  have  told  to  men  of  the  20tb  century  a.d. 
the  deeds  and  manners  and  customs  of  Sumerians,  Assyrians,- 
Chaldeans,  Hittites,  and  Egyptians  in  those  far-off  times. 

The  civilisation  of  Babylon  dates  back  into  undiscoverable  ages. 
As  far  away  as  6500  b.c.  the  towns  of  Nippur  and  Eridu,  north 
and  east  of  the  Persian  Gulf,  were  outlets  for  Babylonian  products. 
The  Sumerian  inhabitants,  like  the  HittiteB,  were  a  yellow, 
beardless,  Mongol  race,  and  their  chief  city  of  Babylon  was, 
situated  in  the  fertile  plain  of  Mesopotamia,  stretching  between  the 
lower  Tigris  and  Euphrates,  and  extending  to  the  Caspian  Sea 
and  the  Delta  on  the  Persian  Gulf. 

In  some  respects  as  in  the  Nile  Valley,  Babylon  was  subject 
to  periodic  overflowings  when  melting  snows  from  the  mountains 
swelled  the  rivers.  One  abnormal  occasion  was  the  Flood  of 
Hebrew  history,  the  story  of  which  must  have  been  derived  from 
Babylonish  sources. 

Eacial  affinities  did  not  prevent  continuous  wars  in  those  days. 
To  some  extent  they  fostered  them.  The  invasion  of  the  Semites 
from  Arabia  took  place  over  long  periods  of  time  dating  back  to 
4000  B.C.  Establishing  themselves  in  different  cities,  they  gradually 
became  identified  with  various  localities  as  separate  nationalities — 
Syrians,  Phoenicians,  Chaldeans,  Assyrians,  Midianites,  Hebrews, 
&c.  Pre-eminently,  Assyria  and  Chaldea  were  jealous  rivals.  For 
many  centuries  Babylon  was  the  centre  of  commerce,  ''the  brain 
of  the  East."  The  diplomatic  language  of  the  then  civilised  world 
was  Babylonish.  Through  Babylon  caravans  travelled  from  the 
Mediterranean  to  India,  leaving  raw  materials  and  carrying  to 
Persian  bazaars  the  artistic  work  of  this  wondeiful  state,  with  other 
wares  from  the  West.  Its  close  connection  with  ancient  Israel 
is  seen  in  many  directions.  Abraham  came  from  Babylonia — Ur 
of  the  Chaldees.  The  name,  Sinai  was  associated  with  the 
Babylonish  moon  god,  and  Nebo,  where  Moses  died,  was  the  name 
of  the  Babylonish  Mercury.  The  Law"  of  Moses  was  full  of  the 
Babylonian  Regulations. 

Babylonian  men  of  science  first  studied  the  stars,  distinguished 
stars  from  planets,  foretold  eclipses,  made  magnifying  glasses, 
observed  the  satellites  of  Saturn,  developed  a  system  of 
mathematics,  invented  sundials,  and  measured  time  by  system. 

Although  these  ancient  nations  were  but  tribes,  the  city  of 
Babylon  must  have  held  a  vast  population.  Province  it  might  be 
called,  covering,  it  is  said,  five  times  the  extent  of  modern  London. 

The  splendours  of  many  ancient  cities  have  often  been  told. 
Their  ruins  still  astonish  the  world.  The  remains  of  temples  and 
palaces  of  Thebes  and  Memphis  in  Egypt  are  among  the  attractions 
of  the  Nile  tourist.  The  great  Cathedral  of  Notre  Dame,  in  Paris, 
could  have  been  placed  inside  the  Theban  temple  of  Karnak.  The 
palaces  of  Susa  (Shushan),  in  the  Persian  province  of  Elam,  in 

492 


Some  Ancietit  Civilisations  and  their  Lessons, 

northern  Asia  Minor,  were  adorned  with  panels  of  cedar  and  gold, 
and  mighty  columns  upheld  the  buildings.  The  gardens  were  so 
extensive  that  deer  might  be  hunted  for  days  without  leaving  the 
enclosure.  •- 

Of  Nineveh  we  read  in  the  curious  Book  of  Jonah.  Modern 
excavations  have  brought  to  light  the  splendour  of  its  palaces,  its 
sculptures  and  monuments.  But  all  are  dwarfed  by  the  greatness 
of  Babylon. 

About  2500  B.C.  the  throne  of  Babylon  was  occupied  by.  a 
monarch  named  Hammurabi.  Quite  recently  what  is  called  the 
code  of  Hammurabi  was  discovered,  giving  the  laws  of  the 
land.  This  monarch  called  himself  the  righteous  king,  "one  born 
to  deliver  the  weak  from  oppression";  but  a  large  portion  of  the 
code  is  framed  in  the  interests  of  a  class — the  protection  of 
.property.  Apart  from  this,  there  are  some  admirable  regulations. 
'^The  rights  of  aliens  are  safeguarded,  the  relations  between 
principal  and  agent  are  made  clear,  the  responsibilities  of  merchants 
and  bankers,  the  duties  and  obligations  of  husbands  and  wives  are 
ordained."*  If  a  highwayman' succeeded  in  escaping  from  justice 
the  man  who  had  been  robbed  had  to  state  on  oath  what  he  ha(J 
lost,  and  the  city  or  district  governor  in  whose  territory  the  robbery 
had. taken  place  was  bound  to  restore  to  him  its  value.  Married 
women  enjoyed  some  privileges  and  a  good  deal  of  independence. 

A  distinct  industrial  status  had  been  found  for  unmarried  women  in  large 
co-operative  societies  under  religious  sanction  "with  vows  of  celibacy  and  strict 
attention  to  business.  Unlike  mediaeval  nuns,  however,  members  of  these 
orders  were  free  mistresses  of  their  time  and  labour;  they  lived  where  they 
would  and  worked  at  what  they  liked,  insured  by  their  membership.! 

Let  US  picture  for  a  moment  this  Babylon  as  it  appeared  in 
the  later  period,  604  B.C.,  when  Nebuchadnezzar,  "the  King 
Mason,"  brought  it  to  a  pitch  of  unprecedented  splendour. 
Herodotus,  Xenophon,  and  Strabo  have  all  told  of  this  immense 
garden  city.  According  to  the  former,  Babylon  was  built  four 
square.  Each  outer  wall  was  fourteen  miles  in  length.  Meadows, 
orchards,  cornfields,  and  pleasure  grounds  extended  between  the 
streets.  The  great  temple  of  Bel  (or  Baal)  was  a  quarter  of  a 
mile  in  length  and  in  breadth.  The  building,  in  the  form  of  a 
quadrangular  pyramid,  was  more  than  six  hundred  feet  high.  -  So 
enormous  was  this  structure  that  when  Alexander  thought  to 
rebuild  it  from  its  ruins  he  employed  10,000  men  for  two  months 
merely  in  clearing  away  the  debris. 

The  famous  hanging  gardens  were  constructed,  it  was  said, 
by  Nebuchadnezzar  to  gratify  the  whim  of  his  Elamite  queen, 
who  complained  about  the  monotonous  level  of  the  Babylonian 
plain.  The  gardens  were  built  up  in  the  form  of  terraces,  one 
above  the  other,  and  in  appearance  resembled  a  section  of  a  vast 

*  The   yemesis  of  Nations. 

f  J.  L.  Myres,  M.A.,  The  Dawn  of  History. 

493 


Some  Ancient  Civilisations  and  their  Lessons. 

amphitheatre.  Each  terrace  was  supported  by  a  vaulted  gallery'; 
and  twenty  walls,  each  twenty-two  feet  wide,  supported  the  whole. 
On  the  highest  terrace  of  all  a  pumping  apparatus  was  fixed  for 
drawing  water  from  the  river  which  flowed  through  the  city. 
So  high  did  the  gardens  rise  that  they  appeared  from  a  distance 
like  a  forest  on  the  top  of  a  mountain. 

The  walls  of  the  city  astonished  all  who  first  beheld  them— 
seventy-five  to  one  hundred  feet  high,  and  broad  enough  to  allow 
two  chariots  to  pass.  Twenty-five  brazen  gates  faced  each  way — 
one  hundred  in  all;  and  the  walls  were  defended  by  1,500  towers, 
each  two  hundred  feet  high.  A  vast  bridge,  a  thousand  yards 
in  length  and  thirty  broad,  stretched  over  the  river,  while  a 
subterranean  way  was  cut  beneath. 

On  every  hand  canals  and  irrigation  works  were  seen. 

Each  Babylonian  city  was  governed  by  a  chief  priest,  whose 
religion,  however,  did  not  embrace  any  sense  of  human  brotherhood. 
But  it  is  worthy  of  note  that  sacred  and  secular  were  not  divided 
off  like  water-tight  compartments. 

There  were  three  classes  in  Babylon,  as  there  are  three  in  the 
civilised  state  of  to-day.  They  were  the  noble,  the  citizen,  and 
the  slave.  The  wars  of  these  nations  were  chiefly  undertaken  to 
obtain  slaves,  who  must  have  perished  like  flies;  and  with  every 
war  the  arts  of  peace  and  honourable  industry  were  interrupted 
and  destroyed. 

The  condition  of  the  slave  depended  to  some  extent  in  every 
state  upon  his  intelligence,  as  does  that  of  the  worker  of  to-day. 
The  mere  beast  of  burden  was  valued  purely  as  such.  The  average 
price  of  a  sheep  was  18s. ;  of  a  male  slave,  30s. ;  of  a  female 
slave,  13s-  6d.  A  horse  was  valued  at  £7.  10s.,  and  if  it  was 
a  case  of  saving  one  or  the  other,  the  horse  would  be  preserved. 
The  reader  may  see  some  parallel  here.  Even  in  our  enlightened 
twentieth  century,  where  consideration  for  others  is  at  least  an 
axiom  of  Christian  ethics,  we  are  apt  to  wonder  at  the  frequent 
warpings  of  self-interest  and  the  deliberate  ignoring  of  common 
justice.  This  fact,  and  our  reading  of  Old  Testament  teaching 
on  getting  even  with  an  adversary,  the  law  of  lex  talionis—an  eye 
for  an  eye — might  let  us  down  gently  to  the  level  of  the  religion 
of  the  Semites. 

If  Babylon  adopted  polytheism,  so  did  the  Hebrews ;' but 
essentially  its  religion  was  monotheistic.  We  might  be  disposed 
to  question  the  possibility  of  a  Babylonish  or  Assyrian  king 
claiming  divine  authority  in  the  perpetration  of  revolting  cruelties. 
But  it  was  what  the  Israelite  judges  and  rulers  did,  and,  more 
to  the  point,  it  is  what  priests  and  kings  of  established  churches 
are^  still  doing,  when  they  pray,  for  victories,,  or  chant  Te  Deums 
over  slaughtered  foes. 

The  atrocities  committed  by  Assyrian  and  Babylonish  kings 
on  rebellious  tribes — perchance  before  they  had  reached  the  acme 

494 


Some  Ancient  Civilisations  and  their  Lessons. 

of  cruelty  in  saving  them  alive  to  be  slaves,  or,  it  may  be,  when 
the  slave  market  was  absolutely  glutted — are  almost  inconceivable. 
It  was  the  proud  boast  of  one  of  these  monarchs,  after  some  of  his 
victories,  that  he  had  flayed  alive  the  leaders  and  covered  the  walls 
with  their  skins;  that  he  had  buried  some  alive  and  crucified  and 
impaled  others;  that  he  had  burned  alive  1,000  captives;  that  he 
had  cut  off  hands  and  feet,  nose  and  ears,  and  torn  out  eyes ;  that 
he  had  crucified  seven  hundred  men. 

The  long-drawn-out  agonies  of  slavery  are  revealed  on  some  of 
the  Assyrian  sculptures  showing  processions  of  "slaves  being 
dragged  by  chains  sometimes  fastened  to  their  lips,  or  being  forced, 
under  the  lash  of  the  overseer,  to  move  immense  blocks  for  the 
construction  of  temples  and  palaces.  "*  They  are  shown,  too,  in  the 
detailed  laws  of  Hammurabi,  in  which  the  slave  appears  ais  a  mere 
animal,  branded  like  the  ox,  and  compelled  to  wear  clay  tablets 
round  the  neck  engraved  with  the  owner's  name. 

And  so  we  come  to  realise  that  the  splendour  of  Babylon  was 
built  upon  the  sighs  and  woes  of  slaves.  Under  the  lash  of  the 
taskmaster,  in  a  temperature  of  sometimes  124°  in  the  shade — a 
land  where  camels  are  said  to  be  unable  to  live  and  birds  sit 
panting  on  the  date  palms  with  beaks  agape  for  want  of  air — 
these  miserable  creatures  were  forced  to  toil.  Slavery  not  only 
demoralised  the  slaveholder,  whose  character  was  debauched  by 
disregard  of  suffering,  and  by  luxury  and  idleness ;  it  ruined  the 
freeman,  who,  unable  to  earn  a  livelihood  in  competition  with 
unpaid  labour,  was  forced  into  the  ranks  of  servitude  himself. 

^Yhatever  flaws  critics  may  discover  in  the  Hebrew  polity,  the 
contrast  of  their  slave  laws  with  those  of  Babylon  are  too 
remarkable  to  pass  by.  Traditions  of  their  own  bondage  might 
have  created  a  spirit  of  consideration  in  them,  but  the  anomalies 
of  human  nature,  on  the  other  hand,  might  on  that  very  account 
have  made  them  more  cruel.  But  explain  it  as  we  will,  the 
contrast  remains.  Death  was  the  sentence  on  the  harbourer  of 
the  fugitive  slave  in  Babylon.  It  was  commanded  to  give  him 
refuge  in  the  Law  of  Moses.  Every  Sabbath  the  slave  rested  like 
his  Hebrew  master. 

And  yet,  it  may  be  said,  those  empires  lasted  for  millenniums, 
in  spite  of  sullen  hatreds  and  divided  interests.  So  long  as  there 
was  human  fuel  for  the  fire,  and  strength  remained  with  the  strong, 
it  would  be  so.  Yet  the  story  of  bloodshed  and  conquest  in  Asia 
Minor  over  those  vast  epochs  reveals  not  only  continuous  race 
animosities  but  the  shifting  of  central  authorities  to  and  fro.  All 
the  while  disintegration  was  going  on — the  fuel  was  becoming 
exhausted.  External  and  internal  causes  brought  Nemesis  at  last. 
There  came  a  night  when  Belshazzar  feasted  in  his  palace  with  a 
thousand  of  his  lords,  and  the  magic  writing  appeared  on  the  wall. 
On  that  night  the  Medes  entered  the  city,  and  Belshazzar  was 
*  The  Nemesis  of  Nations. 
495 


Some  Ancient  Civilisations  afid  their  Lessons. 

; slain.  How  many  thousands  of  miserable  creatures  would  hail 
the  conqueror  as  a  deliverer!  "Babylon  was  great.  Shg  used 
science  and  she  used  art,  but  she  abused  humanity.  .  .  .  And 
when  we  see  her  ruins  lying  like  a  vast,  mysterious  autograph 
scrawled  over  the  desert,  her  history  appears  to  be  full  of 
v/arning."* 

The  impassioned  words  of  the  Hebrew  prophet  may  fittingly 
close  the  chapter:  — 

":'_  And  Babylon,  the  glory  of  kingdoms,  the  beauty  of  the  Chaldeans'  pride, 
shall  be  as  when  God  overthrew  Sodom  and  Gomorrah.  It  shall  never  be 
inhabited,  neither  shall  it  be  dwelt  in  from  generation  to  generation;  neither 
shall  the  Arabian  pitch  tent  there:  neither  shepherds  make  their  flocks  to 
lie  down  there.  But  wild  beasts  of  the  desert  shall  lie  there,  and  their  houses 
shall  be  full  of  doleful  creatures;  and  ostriches  shall  dwell  there,  and  satyrs 
shall  dance  there;  and  wolves  shall  cry  in  their  castles,  and  jackals  in  the 
pleasant  palaces;  and  her  time  is  near  to  come,  and  her  days  shall  not  be 
prolonged. 

THE   MEDITERRANEAN    CIVILISATION. 

In  the  year  1822  there  was  born  in  the  home  of  a  poor  German 
pastor  a  boy  who  was  named  Heinrich  Schliemann.  In  later  life 
.the  brightest  memories  of  his  childhood  were  the  stories  of 
romance  and  marvel  that  were  told  to  him,  among  which  his 
favourite  was  that  of  the  Trojan  War.  The  discovery  of  the 
buried  Latin  cities,  Herculaneum  and  Pompeii,  brought  a  new 
spirit  of  wonder  to  the  boy's  mind.  How  could  a  great  city  like 
Troy  have  vanished  beyond  recovery?  It,  too,  must  be  traceable. 
And  Heinrich  dreamed  of  the  time  when  he  would  find  it. 
,  ,  As  quite  a  boy  he  was  obliged  to  leave  home,  and  entered  the 
^.service  of  a  grocer.  One  evening  a  drunken  miller  came  into  the 
shop  and  recited  about  a  hundred  lines  from  Homer,  in  the 
^original.  Heinrich,  without  understanding  a  word,  was  so 
impressed  by  the  resonance  of  the  verse  that  he  asked  the  miller 
, to  repeat  his  recital.  He  did  so  twice  over,  being  paid  by  the  boy 
in  three  glasses  of  whisky.  His  one  ambition  was  now  to  learn 
.(jrreek,  but  the  opportunity  was  long  delayed.  He  joined  a  ship 
,bound  for  Venezuela,  travelled  far,  and  settled  at  length  in  Eussia, 
where  he  made  a  fortune  as  army  contractor  during  the  Crimean 
War.  Amid  all  his  employment  he  never  forgot  his  great 
ambition,  nor  had  his  wish  to  learn  Greek  been  neglected.  Not 
only  had  he  mastered  Greek,  but  five  languages  besides.  He 
was  now  at  liberty  to  journey  south,  and,  in  1868,  he  visited 
Greece.  Crossing  to  Asia  Minor  in  1871,  he  began  his  search  for 
Troy  city.  His  labours  were  succeeded  by  others,  and  eventually 
nine  cities,  six  at  least  of  importance,  were  unearthed.  Schliemann 
mistook  the  real  Troy,  and,  passing  over  to  the  Morean  Peninsula, 
he  made  further  excavations,  and  brought  to  light  a  wonderful 
civilisation  which  dated  back  to  far  beyond  the  great  days  of 
Agamemnon  and  Achilles. 

*  The  Nemesis  of  Nations. 

496 


Some  Ancient  Civilisations  and  their  Lessons. 

The  background  of  English  history  with  most  people  seldom 
causes  more  than  a  vague  wonder  as  to  the  shadowy  beings — cave- 
dwellers,  men  of  the  early  Stone  Age — who  first  inhabited  our 
island.  In  like  manner  few  ever  think  of  all  that  led  up  to  the 
"Golden  Age  of  Greece."  This  is  the  story  that  has  now  been 
revealed.  It  was  no  wild  men  of  the  woods  who  lived  in  Greece 
three,  four,  and  even  more  thousands  of  years  ago.  For  many 
centuries  their  arts  and  architecture  and  maritime  enterprise  placed 
them  among  the  leading  nations  of  antiquity.  The  poets  and 
storytellers  of  historical  Greece  loved  to  relate  the  deeds  of  the 
heroes  who  joined  with  Menelaus  in  the  siege  of  Troy.  But  these 
were  not  their  direct  ancestors.  The  Athenians  of  the  age  of 
Pericles  were  descended  from  invaders  of  a  later  date.  For  years 
following  the  discoveries  of  Schliemann  and  others  in  Mycenae 
and  Tiryns,  these  ancient  cities  were  thought  to  have  been  the 
centre  of  this  civilisation,  but  the  discoveries  of  Evans  and  others 
in  Crete  have  disclosed  even  more  remarkable  evidences  of  this 
lost  people,  and  mark  Crete  itself,  and  its  former  capital  Knossus, 
as  the  fountain  head.  Minoan  civilisation  it  is  called,  named  after 
Minos,  the  famous  king,  who,  while  by  no  means  its  founder, 
appears  to  have  been  a  vigorous  and  strong  ruler.  Who  has  not 
read  the  story  of  the  Minotaur  and  the  Labyrinth  of  Crete  ?  Myth 
it  cannot  be  altogether  called,  for  the  veritable  palace  of  Minos 
has  been  found,  and  a  huge  underground  vault,  partially  unearthed, 
has  been  suggested  as  the  Labyrinth. 

That  the  Minoan  people  were  peaceable  and  peace  loving  their 
art  assures  us.  The  horrors  of  Assyrian  pictographs  are  not  found 
among  the  motives  of  the  beautiful  vases  of  ancient  Crete.  Flower 
gatherers,  dancing  girls,  fresh  and  happy  themes  speak  of  the 
hfe  they  led.  Not  that  these  people  anticipated  the  ideal  peace 
principles  of  the  Christian  era,  or  laid  themselves  open  to  invasion ; 
the  Cretan  bowmen  were  famous  warriors,  and  Minos,  whose 
reign  belonged  to  a  late  Minoan  period,  was  evidently  a  king  to 
be  feared.  That  Athens — the  Athens  of  legend — was  subject  to 
him  we  read  in  the  story  of  Theseus. 

The  Minoan  civilisation  extended  from  isle  to  isle.  New 
settlements  of  an  industrious  people,  who  became  a  sea  power 
before  the  time  of  the  Phcenicians,  and  possessed  a  system  of 
writing  before  that  later  nationality  invented  their  alphabet,  were 
founded.  Upon  the  coast  of  Palestine  there  are  evidences  that 
they  established  themselves,  and  were  known  to  the  Israelites  as 
Philistines — a  small  but  strong  colony,  successful  in  curbing 
the  aggressiveness  of  the  Hebrews.  Who  cannot  recognise  a 
resemblance  between  the  individual  feats  of  great  warriors  on  the 
plain  of  Troy  and  the  swagger  of  Goliath  of  Gath?  If  these 
warriors  ever  lived  at  all,  many  of  them  were  of  the  Minoan  race. 
Idomeneus  had  care  of  eighty  barques  manned  by  the  sons  of  a 
hundred  Cretan  cities.     Homer  may  have  indulged  occasionally  in 

LL  497 


Some  Aricieyit  Civilisations  and  their  Lessons. 

exaggerated  flights  of  song,  but  his  pictures  of  art  and  architecture 
apply  with  reasonable  accuracy  to  Cretan  and  Mycenaean  times. 
The  pictures  of  city  life,  of  harvest  time,  and  country  festivities, 
represented  on  the  shield  of  Achilles,  have  delighted  millions. 

Of  the  origin  of  this  people,  as  indeed  of  all  people,  comparatively 
little  is  known.  Europe,  we  learn,  was  inhabited  in  far  distant 
ages  by  men  who  resembled  this  race,  and  even  10,000  B.C.  has 
been  named  as  within  the  compass  of  Cretan  civilisation. 

Let  it  be  noted  that  if,  incidentally,  they  were  warriors,  they 
were  not  a  fighting  race.  Small  of  stature,  they  seem  scarcely  to 
correspond  with  the  physique  of  the  great  heroes  of  the  Iliad.'''' 
It  was  the  arts  of  peace  that  made  them  great  and  enduring.  The 
warlike  instincts  which  made  ''flies  of  men  and  wildernesses  of 
nations"  in  Asia  Minor,  did  not  seriously  afflict  them.  Their 
writing  is  still  a  sealed  book,  but  modern  excavations  have  brought 
light  into  the  life  they  lived. 

There  was  a  largely  democratic  and  even  strongly  socialistic 
element  in  their  polity.  The  powerful  Minoan  monarchy  developed 
eventually  into  a  kind  of  communism,  reverting,  in  a  sense,  to 
primitive  conditions.  The  structure  of  the  royal  palaces  proves 
that  the  court  was  open  to  the  people.  Men,  women,  and  children 
were  all  fed  at  the  expense  of  the  state.  The  public  meals  of 
Sparta,  in  its  great  days  centuries  later,  seem  reminiscent  of  this; 
but  each  Spartan  was  expected  every  month  to  bring  his  requisite 
supply  of  provisions.  Aristotle,  indeed,  credits  many  Spartan 
customs  to  Crete. 

The  revenue  was  devoted  to  three  objects:  (1)  The  worship  of 
the  gods,  (2)  public  expenditure,  (3)  public  meals.  Unlike  the 
socialism  of  to-day,  there  was  a  strong  military  sentiment,  and  the 
overthrow  of  the  monarchy  and  destruction  of  the  palaces  have  been 
attributed  to  this  force.  But  its  relationship  to  the  modern 
anti-mihtary  type  may  be  found  by  those  who  care  to  read  a 
translation  of  the  Iliad.  There,  in  the  second  book,  we  find, 
behind  Homer's  lash  of  contempt,  as  thorough  a  socialist  in  the 
person  of  Thersites  as  any  modern  enthusiast  could  desire. 

Lastly — but  of  immense  importance — though  these  people  kept 
slaves  they  treated  them  as  human  beings. 

We  cannot  reasonably  suppose  that  of  necessity  the  problems 
which  face  the  civilised  powers  of  to-day  existed  5,000  years  ago. 
Clothing  and  housing  in  warm  countries  would  not  be  a  continual 
anxiety.  Food  was  plentiful  in  the  form  of  abundant  and  frequent 
harvests.  The  strenuous  life  was  not  a  menace  except  among 
ill-treated  slaves. 

Eeasonable  leisure,  and  occupation  largely  in  a  ceramic  art 
which  was  famous  everywhere,  and  a  plentiful  supply  of  gold  would 
naturally  lead  these  people  to  decorate  their  persons  with  lavish 
display.     The  men  of  Mycenae  wore  necklets  of  gold,  bronze,  and 

*  Possibly  warriors  were  singled  out  as  men  of  brawn  rather  than  brain. 

498 


Some  Ancient  Civilisations  and  their  Lessons. 

precious  stones.  The  garments  were  spangled  with  gold  leaf.  The 
women  wore  a  chiton- — a  close-fitting  robe  down  to  the  waist,  falling 
in  flounces  below.  The  cloth  was  of  fine  linen,  and  soft  wool  coloured 
purple — a  popular  dye  associated  with  Tyre,  and  obtained  from  a 
shell-fish  found  on  adjacent  shores.  According  to  Schliemann,  the 
women  were  literally  laden  with  golden  jewellery.  They  fastened 
their  hair  with  hairpins  of  gold,  silver,  and  bronze.  Diadems  of 
CTold  adorned  their  brows.  Golden  bands  circled  their  throats, 
and  golden  necklets  fell  pendent  over  their  bosoms.  Gold  bracelets 
clasped  each  arm,  gold  rings,  chased  and  beautiful,  shone  on 
the  fingers. 

The  religion  was  largely  a  worship  of  Zeus  and  Demeter  (god 
•of  heaven  and  goddess  of  the  earth). 

What  came  of  this  great  people?  Were  they  destroyed  by 
invaders?  It  is  a  recognised  fact  that  invading  races  in  the  past 
have  frequently  triumphed  at  the  expense  of  civihsation,  and  the 
turned  palaces  of  Mycenae  and  Tiryns  seem  to  point  to  this. 
But  there  are  evidences,  too — at  least  in  Crete — that  pestilence 
■swept  the  people  away.  We  read  of  a  "dreadful  plague"  coming 
upon  the  Grecian  forces,  in  Homer;  of  the  destruction  of  the 
Assyrian  Army,  when — 

The  angel  of  death  spread  his  wings  on  the  blast, 
And  breathed  in  the  face  of  the  foe  as  he  passed. 

The  "noisome  pestilence,"  indeed,  in  hot,  unhealthy  climates 
may  easily  have  swept  whole  nations  away.  Our  own  more 
favoured  land,  even,  has  had  its  Black  Death  and  Plague  of  London. 

GREECE. 

Eventually  another  race  appeared,  the  forerunners  of  the 
famous  people  whose  art  and  culture  are  still  the  admiration  of 
-the  world.  It  was  not  suddenly  that  they  overran  the  country. 
As  in  Central  Europe,  and  conducive  to  a  slow  development, 
dense  forests  covered  the  land,  where  wild  beasts  roamed,  which 
■could  only  be  cultivated  in  the  one  case  and  subdued  in  the  other 
iDy  long-sustained  exertion.  The  people  settled  in  communities, 
villages  grew  in  importance,  and  finally  the  settlement  became  a 
•state.  Thus  Attica  arose,  with  Athens  as  its  centre;  and  thus 
Laconia,  with  its  capital  Sparta.  Of  Sparta  little  need  be  said, 
but  that  little  is  full  of  import.  If  the  building  up  of  physique  is 
the  ideal  way  of  exalting  a  nation,  Sparta  was  a  model.  Simplicity 
•of  life  and  hardihood  were  the  chief  aims.  Weakly  children  were 
regarded  as  a  burden,  and  not  suffered  to  live.  Each  child  was 
the  property  of  the  state.  At  the  age  of  seven  boys  were  forced 
to  leave  home  and  go  into  public  institutions.  Both  boys  and 
girls  underwent  a  course  of  gymnastic  exercises.  The  military 
courage  of  Leonidas  and  his  little  band  at  the  Pass  of  Thermopylae 
has  often  been  told.  Sparta's  fame  rests  in  fact  on  its  military 
regime.    It  gave  nothing  else  to  the  world.     The  Spartans  became 

499 


Some  Ancient  Civilisatioyis  and  their  Lessons. 

the  most  perfect  foot  soldiers  that  Greece  ever  saw,  but  they  were 
entu'ely  destitute  of  refinement  or  hberal  sentiment.  They  had  no 
arts  and  no  poetry  or  philosophy.  "In  the  story  of  Hellas,"  says 
J.  M.  Robertson,  "Sparta  stands  almost  alone  among  peoples  as 
yielding  no  foothold  to  the  life  of  the  mind,  bare  of  nearly  all 
memory  of  beauty,  indigent  in  all  that  belongs  to  the  spirit, 
morally  sterile  as  steel." 

It  seems  to  be  a  characteristic  of  little  states  to  be  jealous  and 
quarrelsome,  and,  as  Norman  Angell  has  observed,  it  is  not  war 
that  has  bound  them  together,  but  war,  and  the  war  spirit,  which 
has  kept  them  apart. 

And  just  as  the  Balkan  States  are  explosive  and  capricious,  so 
was  it  with  the  Greece  of  ancient  history.  Not  only  were  the  little 
states  for  ever  quarrelling,  but  over  and  over  again  the  ablest 
generals,  statesmen,  and  philosophers  were  killed  or  exiled.  As 
one  writer  has  said,  "the  Athenians  never  learned  to  be  just  to 
those  who  served  them,  or  to  distinguish  between  treachery  and 
errors  of  judgment." 

Although  Athens  dated  back  to  Minoan  days,  the  Golden  Age 
may  be  said  to  have  begun  about  600  b.c.  This  was  in  historical 
times,  and  in  all  directions  ample  material  is  available.  To  trace 
the  careers  of  rulers  and  peoples  through  the  succeeding  two  or 
three  centuries  in  so  limited  a  space  would  be  impossible.  Suffice 
it  that  we  gain  a  general  impression  of  the  period  of  greatness  and 
mark  the  causes  of  the  decline  and  fall. 

The  conflict  of  class  interests  was  early  in  evidence  in  Athenian 
affairs.  There  were  the  rich  landholders,  the  merchantmen,  and 
the  peasantry,  each  with  ambitions,  and  two  at  least  with 
grievances.  The  struggles  of  party  gave  a  variety  of  governments 
to  the  people  as  the  years  went  by.  Personal  ambitions  led  to 
curious  anomalies. 

There  were  benevolent  tyrants  and  tyrannical  democrats. 
Some  of  the  greatest  law-givers  were  men  of  aristocratic  birth, 
whose  benevolent  motives  sprang  in  part  from  personal  ambition. 
Tn  no  case  could  it  be  said  that  an  ideal  was  reached. 

No  state  or  age  can  ever  be  said  to  have  stood  alone  uninfluenced 
by  its  own  past,  or  by  what  has  been  aptly  called  "cross 
fertilisation."  Spartan  isolation  came  near  to  it.  Situation 
contributed  to  such  a  condition.  This  naturally  led  to  the  fostering 
of  militarism  and  the  consequent  blank  in  contribution  to  the 
world's  growth. 

On  the  other  hand,  Athens  was  open  to  all  the  educative  winds 
of  heaven.  The  Golden  Age  did  not  come  like  an  aerolite — it 
grew  like  the  dawn.  If  it  belonged  to  the  days  of  Pericles :  the 
statesmanship  of  Solon,  the  integrity  of  Aristides  the  Just,  the 
generalship  of  Themistocles  and  Cimon,  the  bitter  lessons  of  past 
failures  and  the  wisdom  that  came  of  struggles  and  compromises 
all  led  up  to  it.     The  rising  of   a  little  nation  to  defend  their 

500 


i 


Some  Ancient  Civilisations  and  their  Lessons. 

fatherland,  the  sinking  of  petty,  inter-state  quarrels  and  internal 
differences,  the  co-operation  of  all  classes  in  the  face  of  the  Persian 
danger,  served  also  to  usher  in  the  day. 

Pericles  was  born  499  B.C.  In  his  youth  he  attended  the 
lectures  of  Zeno  and  Anaxagoras,  and  learned  politics  from  his 
music  master.  Plutarch  gives  an  instance  of  his  philosophy  and 
self-control  during  his  maturer  years:  — 

A  vile,  abandoned  fellow  loaded  him  a  whole  day  with  reproaches  and 
abuse;  he  bore  it  with  patience  and  silence.  In  the  evening  he  walked  slowly 
home,  this  impudent  wretch  following  and  insulting  him  all  the  way.  As  it  was 
dark  when  he  came  to  his  own  door,  he  ordered  one  of  his  servants  to  take  a 
torch  and  light  the  man  home. 

This  dignified  demeanour  was  regarded  as  due  to  pride  and 
contempt  of  others  by  some,  and  of  these  Zeno  observed  that  they 
would  do  well  to  be  proud  in  the  same  way,  so  that  acting  a  part 
might  insensibly  produce  a  love  of  it. 

As  a  young  man  Pericles,  partly,  perchance,  from  modesty, 
partly  from  fear  of  ostracism,*  kept  himself  in  the  background. 
His  studies  under  Anaxagoras  bore  fruit  in  later  days,  when  his 
tongue  was  said  to  be  armed  with  thunder. 

Such  was  his  reverence  of  the  gods  that,  before  speaking  in 
public,  he  always  addressed  a  prayer  to  them  that  not  one  word 
might  unawares  escape  him  unsuitable  to  the  occasion. 

There  is  no  doubt  that  at  the  outset  Pericles  gained  his  power 
with  the  people  largely  at  the  expense  of  Cimon,  the  great  admiral 
and  head  of  the  nobles,  whose  generosities  to  the  poor  did  not 
prevent  the  success  of  his  rival,  f 

Cimon  suffered  banishment,  and  when  Pericles  finally  recalled 
him  it  was  to  appease  the  people. 

On  the  death  of  Cimon,  his  brother-in-law,  Thucydides,  was  put 
up  against  Pericles  by  the  aristocratic  party.  So  severe  was  the 
strife  that  the  city  was  divided  into  two  bitter  factions :  people 
and  nobles.  Pericles  now  made  greater  efforts  than  ever  to  retain 
the  friendship  of  his  allies.  Shows  and  feasts  and  processions 
were  frequently  arranged.  Probably  the  most  popular  act  of 
Pericles  was  the  curtailing  of  the  ancient  power  of  the  Areopagus 
(the  Athenian  House  of  Lords)  and  the  establishing  of  the  jury 

*  Exile  was  the  result  of  ostracism.  This  singular  practice  consisted  in 
every  citizen  at  a  certain  time  writing  the  name  of  the  person  he  wished  to 
have  banished  on  a  piece  of  broken  pot  or  shell.  The  highest  poll  condemned 
to  banishment.  When  the  ostracism  of  Aristides  was  proceeding,  an  ignorant 
fellow  came  to  him,  not  knowing  who  he  was,  and  asked  him  to  write  Aristides 
on  his  shell.  On  being  asked  what  injury  Aristides  had  done  him,  he  declared 
none,  but  could  not  bear  to  hear  him  everywhere  called  "the  Just." 

f  Cimon  acquired  a  great  fortune  in  his  wars,  and  what  he  had  gained  from 
the  enemy  he  gave  to  his  fellow-citizens.  "He  ordered  the  fences  of  his  fields 
and  gardens  to  be  thrown  down,  that  strangers  as  well  as  his  own  countrymen 
might  freely  partake  of  his  fruit.  He  had  supper  provided  at  his  house  every 
day,  in  which  the  dishes  were  plain,  but  sufficient  for  a  multitude  of  guests. 
Every  poor  citizen  repaired  to  it  at  pleasure." — Related  by  Plutarch. 

501 


Some  Ancient  Civilisations  and  their  Lessons. 

courts.  This  innovation  gave  the  people  a  new  sense  of  their  own 
importance,  and  also  taught  them  the  wisdom  of  united  action. 
Six  thousand  citizens  were  enrolled  as  jurors,  who  decided  local 
disputes  or  charges,  and  even  affairs  of  state  in  the  jury  courts. 
The  mischief  which  attended  this  and  other  measures  was  payment 
for  service.  Of  the  tainted  source  of  the  funds  we  shall  speak 
shortly,  but  the  mischief  struck  deeper  in  that  it  encouraged 
constitutional  idlers.  The  very  existence  of  the  courts  also  fostered 
class  divisions  and  the  spirit  of  litigation. 

The  administration  of  the  state  was  in  the  hands  of  the- 
Assembly.  The  state  was  divided  in  ten  * 'tribes,"  and  fifty  taken 
from  each  formed  the  Council,  which  carried  out  the  Assembly's, 
decrees.  Each  candidate  for  office  had  to  undergo  a  public 
examination  as  to  his  character.  A  president  was  chosen  from 
every  "tribe,"  and  a  fresh  one  was  elected  daily,  every  one  being 
paid  for  service.  When  we  consider  the  proportion  of  those  in 
office  to  a  population  of  some  235,000,  as  compared  with  a 
similar  number  in  a  modern  house  of  representatives  as  against  a 
population  of  fifty  or  sixty  millions,  we  may  accept  the  caustic 
criticism  that  this  was  "self-government  gone  mad." 

Although  Pericles  was  dragged  frequently  into  war,  and 
distinguished  himself  in  battle,  his  was  not  an  aggressive 
government.  How  far  his  own  claim  could  be  justified  from 
modern  standards  may  be  questioned.  A  lofty  sentiment  appears 
in  his  words,  which  modern  statesmen  might  well  emulate.  As  he 
lay  dying,  certain  citizens,  gathered  around  his  bed,  discoursed 
concerning  his  brilliant  acts,  civil  and  military.  They  thought  him 
unconscious,  but  presently  he  said:  "I  am  surprised  that  while 
you  dwell  upon  and  extol  these  acts  of  mine,  though  fortune  had 
her  share  in  them,  and  many  other  generals  performed  the  like, 
you  take  no  notice  of  the  greatest  and  most  honourable  part  of 
my  character,  that  no  Athenian  through  my  means  ever  put  on 
mourning."* 

The  funeral  oration  ascribed  to  Pericles,  given  on  the  occasion 
of  a  naval  calamity,  conveys  so  admirable  a  description  of  the 
ideal  state  aimed  at,  that  portions  of  it  may  fittingly  find  a  place 
in  these  pages  :  — 

Our  institutions  are  not  borrowed  from  those  around  us ;  they  are  our 
own,  the  creation  of  Athenian  statesmen.  In  political  language  of  the  day, 
we  are  called  a  democracy,  and  the  name  is  true,  and  not  true.  It  is  true,, 
because  the  administration  of  our  city  is  in  the  hands  of  the  people;  and 
there  is  one  law  for  rich  and  poor;  it  is  not  true,  because,  above  all  states,, 
we  recognise  the  claims  of  excellence.  In  this  sense  we  are  an  aristocracy; 
not  of  birth,  for  among  us  there  is  no  privilege;  not  of  wealth,  for  poverty  is 
a  bar  to  none;  but  of  merit.  .  .  .  Along  with  this  unconstrained  liberty 
goes  a  spirit  of  reverence,  which  pervades  every  act  of  our  public  life;  authority 
is  maintained,  the  laws  are  obeyed,  not  from  fear  of  punishment,  but  from 
principle;  and  of  all  ordinances  the  most  sacred  in  our  eyes  are  those   which 

*  Belated  by  Plutarch. 

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protect  the  injured,  who  cannot  retaliate;  and  the  unwritten  laws,  which, 
though  enforced  by  no  legal  penalty,  bring  reproach  to  the  transgressor.  .  .  . 
We  dare  to  think  as  well  as  act;  we  live  for  ourselves,  while  living  for  the  state 
With  us  a  love  of  what  is  beautiful  is  consistent  with  economy.  .  . 
More  than  any  other  nation  we  have  drawn  our  friends  to  us  by  kindly  actions, 
and  we  have  assisted  others  without  hope  of  adonntage. 

Could  our  italicised  words  have  been  surpassed  in  any  defence 
of  a  Christian  state? 

And  yet  a  later  criticism  deserves  mention.  Aristotle,  who 
was  born  384  B.C.,  was  able  to  sum  up  the  advantages  and 
disadvantages  of  the  various  forms  of  government,  and  his 
conclusions  were  that,  having  witnessed  the  unjust  exactions  of 
a  democracy,  the  dwindling  population  of  an  oligarchy  at  Sparta, 
and  the  oppressive  selfishness  of  new  tyrannies  throughout  the 
Greek  world,  he  condemned  the  constitution  of  the  Greek  states. 
The  ideal  constitution  for  him  might  be  either  a  commonwealth, 
an  aristocracy,  or  a  monarchy  directed  to  the  general  good;  but  he 
preferred  the  monarchy  of  one  man,  pre-eminent  in  virtue,  as  the 
best  of  all  governments. 

When  opposition  was  no  longer  formidable  the  brilliance  of 
Pericles'  administration  grew  brighter,  and  the  wisdom  of  his 
restraining  influence  over  military  spirits  more  conspicuous.  In 
the  words  of  the  historian,  "he  was  a  man  of  probity.  Money 
could  not  bribe  him;  he  was  so  much  above  the  desire  of  it  that, 
though  he  added  greatly  to  the  opulence  of  the  state,  yet  he  added 
not  one  drachma  to  his  paternal  estate."  It  was  his  aim  that  all 
the  citizens  should  "live  in  a  land  of  health,  amid  fair  sights  and 
sounds." 

It  was  during  the  life  of  Pericles  that  the  city  of  Athens  was 
destroyed  by  the  Persians;  it  was  in  his  age  that  the  mighty  fleet 
of  Xerxes  was  defeated  at  Sal  amis ;  and  it  was  under  his  vigorous 
leadership  that  the  new  and  beautiful  city  rose  on  the  ruins  of  the 
old,  and  extended  along  the  Piraeus  to  the  sea. 

Let  us  glance  briefly  at  the  daily  life  and  customs  of  the  people. 

There  was  no  Spartan  discipline  in  Athens.  The  lot  of  the 
Athenian  boy  was  far  happier.  Education  was  private.  At  the 
age  of  six  the  lad  was  put  under  the  care  of  an  old  slave  called 
paidagogos,  whose  duty  it  was  simply  to  take  him  to  school  or  for 
walks,  and  keep  an  eye  on  his  behaviour.  The  boy  learned  to  sing, 
to  play  the  lyre,  to  write  from  a  copy,  and  to  read.  Instead  of  a 
slate  a  wax  tablet  was  used,  on  which  letters  were  scratched  with 
a  pointed  instrument.  Homer  was  the  chief  schoolbook,  and  the 
mythology  of  Greece  was  known  to  every  scholar.  Music  was  no 
mere  dilettante  pursuit,  but  had  an  important  place  in  the  ethical 
development. 

Physical  training  was  practised  at  the  wrestling  schools  under 
private  control.  The  gymnasia  were  pubUc  institutions,  with 
racecourses  and  various  facilities  for  adult  exercises.  Baths  were 
provided,   and  not  to  be  able  to  swim  was  a  disgrace  equal  to 

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•        Some  Ancient  Civilisations  and  their  Lessons. 

not    knowing    the    alphabet.      Taken    altogether,    education    was 
conducted  with  a  view  to  the  development  of  a  capable  citizen. 

Girls  seem  to  have  been  negligible.  The  sphere  of  the  Greek 
woman  was  the  household.  Those  who  were  much  in  public  did 
not  enjoy  a  high  moral  reputation.  The  instruction  of  a  girl  was 
therefore  very  limited.  Even  the  home  shopping  was  conducted 
by  the  master  of  the  house.  Spinning,  sewing,  and  embroidery 
were  the  chief  feminine  accomplishments. 

And  how  did  the  little  ones  amuse  themselves?  The  boys  at 
least  could  not  soil  their  clothes,  since,  in  summer  at  all  events, 
they  were  almost  naked.  The  little  girls  wore  long  dresses  fastened 
by  ribbons  crossing  each  other. 

There  were  plenty  of  stories  to  be  told  in  those  days.  u3Esop 
was  a  prime  favourite.  There  were  many  toys,  too,  similar  to 
those  in  vogue  to-day.  A  metal  jar  filled  with  stones  formed  a 
good,  noisy  rattle.  There  were  little  two-wheeled  carts,  or  a  single 
wheel  on  a  long  pole.  Boys  delighted  to  drive  tame  dogs  or  goats, 
and  little  girls  played  at  cooking  with  earthenware  vessels.  Dolls, 
of  course,  were  common,  and  for  the  boys  there  were  tops  and 
whips  and  hoops  and  ships,  while  swings  were  popular  with  both 
boys  and  girls. 

Festivals  were  numerous,  from  the  great  Olympic  and  other 
"games"  to  the  Eleusinian  rites  and  the  Dionysiac  orgies.  The 
great  tragedies,  too,  of  ^schylus,  Euripides,  and  Sophocles,  and 
the  comedies  of  Aristophanes,  who  all  belonged  to  the  Golden  Age, 
were  the  common  property  of  the  people. 

The  shopkeeper  was  held  in  poor  esteem  by  the  Athenians, 
while  agriculture  was  honoured  and  practised  by  rich  and  poor  alike. 
The  breeding  of  cattle,  asses,  sheep,  and  goats  was  a  common 
industry  in  the  country  districts,  while  the  cultivation  of  the  olive 
was  the  basis  of  a  considerable  foreign  oil  trade.  Foreign  trading 
was  by  no  means  on  a  level  with  shopkeeping,  and  the  virility  of 
the  nation  was  largely  due  to  their  maritime  occupation.  Their 
familiarity  with  the  sea  gave  them  their  victory  over  the  Persians, 
who  had  no  knowledge  of  it.  As  sea  traders  the  Phoenicians 
anticipated  the  Greeks.  Pirates  to  a  large  extent  they  were, 
plundering  the  islands  of  the  ^"^gean  with  impunity  until  Greece 
became  the  deliverer,  and  piracy  gradually  sank  into  disrepute. 
The  seafaring  life,  as  with  our  own  nation,  naturally  led  to  a 
peaceful  colonisation. 

There  is  much  over  which  we  might  pause  in  the  religion  of 
Greece.  Just  as  at  a  slightly  later  date  the  influence  of  Buddha 
imperceptibly  spread  westward,  tingeing  even  the  New  Testament 
records,  so  the  religions  of  other  races — Egypt,  Assyria,  Phoenicia — 
reappear  in  Greece.  Aphrodite  and  Adonis  were  Phoenician, 
Dionysus  (Bacchus  of  the  Romans)  was  from  Asia ;  the  Eleusinian 
mysteries,  which  were  eventually  transformed  into  sacred  Christian 
ceremonials,  are  thought  to  have  originated  in  Egypt.    The  strange 

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Some  Ancient  Civilisations  and  their  Lessons. 

sacredness  of  stones  seems  to  have  been  identified  with  all  adjacent 
religions,  showing  a  common  source.  The  word  Bethel,  which 
Jacob  gave  to  the  stone  on  which  his  head  had  rested,  is  found 
in  the  Greek  Bostyl  (sacred  pillar).  The  dolmens  of  Carnac  in 
Brittany,  the  monoliths  of  Stonehenge,  the  very  temple  pillars  of 
all  nations  seem  to  indicate  a  far  distant  common  origin. 

The  Shiloh  of  Old  Testament  history  was  typical  of  Grecian 
oracles. 

That  the  Greeks  were  a  highly  religious  nation  as  regards 
observances,  and  what  we  should  designate  superstitions,  their 
historians  amply  prove.  Their  consultations  of  oracles  at  times  of 
crisis  and  their  sacrificial  rites  before  entering  battle  are  evidence 
of  this.  We  have  seen,  too,  how  magnanimous  they  could  be,  and 
yet  there  remained  the  dark  background  of  slavery  and  the  ever- 
growing military  spirit.  Patriotism  may  easily  descend  into 
Chauvinism,  and  develop  a  "national  purse  pride  and  the  vertigo 
of  the  higher  dunghill."  Then  follows  the  pugnacious,  grasping 
policy  and  the  stagnating  effects  of  conquest.  This  was  the  story 
of  Athens.  Conquerors  and  conquered  in  the  devastating 
Peloponnesian  civil  war,  in  which  Greece  was  involved  for 
twenty-seven  years,  alike  suffered  the  Nemesis  which  could  not  but 
attend. 

The  effects  of  slavery  were  less  apparent  but  equally  malignant. 
We  are  apt  to  judge  ancient  people  by  modern  standards,  but  the 
horrors  of  slavery  and  the  slave  trade  have  not  yet  been  wiped  out. 
That  there  were  kind  masters  in  Athens  we  know;  and,  although 
occasional  pity  was  expressed  by  the  great  poets,  it  may  be  said 
that,  generally  speaking,  the  famous  thinkers  of  Greece  supported 
slavery. 

In  the  days  depicted  by  Homer  heroes  and  princes  and  princesses 
delighted  in  household — what  we  regard  as  menial — tasks.  Some 
of  the  famous  leaders  of  thought  and  action  in  early  Athens  lived 
in  the  simplest  style  and  in  the  humblest  of  dwellings.  But  as 
Athens  grew  in  power,  and  slaves  gradually  supplanted  free  labour 
(as  in  Babylon),  idleness  and  luxury  and  loss  of  human  dignity  and 
virtue  inevitably  followed.  The  slave  was  the  machine.  He  was 
cheap  to  buy  and  a  good  investment.  The  state  lived  on  him. 
The  odium  which  attached  to  the  artisan  did  not  touch  the  employer 
of  slave  labour.  The  slave  population  far  outnumbered  the  free 
men.  Scarcely  anyone  was  too  poor  to  own  a  slave,  and  six  or 
seven  in  a  household  was  a  modest  possession.  The  number 
ranged  up  into  hundreds.  All  the  trades  of  the  city  were  carried 
on  by  slaves.    The  master  hired  out  his  slaves  as  he  would  his  asses. 

Athens  became  the  slave  market  of  the  Mediterranean,  and  the 
buying  and  selling  of  human  beings  added  to  the  callousness  of 
the  people.  The  silver  mines  of  Laurion  were  owned  by  the 
Athenian  state,  and  the  profits  were  used  to  build  the  Athenian 

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Some  Ancient  Civilisations  and  their  Lessons. 

fleet  and  to  pour  wealth  into  the  city.  Even  the  new  city  was 
built,  to  some  extent,  upon  the  miseries  of  the  slave. 

The  mines  were  of  vast  extent.  A  ten-hour  day — calculated 
from  the  burning  capacity  of  the  lamps  discovered — seems  to  have 
been  in  operation,  and  the  work  went  on  night  and  day.  It  has 
been  estimated  that  20,000  slaves  were  employed  in  the  mines. 
They  were  chained,  and  a  moment's  pause  for  rest  would  bring 
down  the  overseer's  lash.  Upwards  of  two  thousand  galleries  have 
been  found,  some  of  them  400  feet  in  depth.  Even  children  toiled 
in  these  stifling  holes.  Two  years  was  the  average  term  of  life  of 
the  slave  miner. 

Conspiracy  was  hardly  possible,  since  the  cunning  taskmasters 
so  arranged  it  that  slaves  from  different  countries  worked  together. 

In  the  household  the  stress  of  labour  might  not  be  so  continuous, 
but  the  slave  was  only  a  chattel.  His  evidence  might  be  required 
in  the  law  courts,  but  his  bare  word  could  not  be  trusted,  and 
confession  under  torture  was  always  required.  If  the  poor  victim 
was  permanently  injured  the  master  received  damages. 

As  the  dawn  came  swiftly,  so  came  the  setting ;  and  the  downfall 
of  Athens  was  due  in  part  to  the  demoralising  tributes  of  dependent 
states*  and  in  part  to  the  curse  of  slavery. 

BOME. 

Behind  even  the  commercial  struggles  for  supremacy  in  olden 
days  was  the  spirit — the  intrusive  spirit — of  the  warrior;  and  it 
is  with  us  still.  The  "good  old  rule"  sufficed  in  times  past  "that 
they  should  take  who  have  the  power. ' '  It  was  done  openly  then ; 
it  is  done  under  clever  pretexts  to-day. 

Training  in  arms,  building  of  ships,  and  forging  of  weapons 
were  forced  upon  the  peacefully  inclined  among  ancient  states, 
purely  for  self-preservation.  In  recognising  this,  let  the  distinction 
between  a  purely  defensive  warfare,  such  as  was  waged  by  the 
Greeks  against  Persia,  and  that  of  a  conqueror  like  Alexander  be 
noted;  and  also  the  tendency,  having  once  been  warmed  by  the 
tribal,  fighting  spirit,  to  its  becoming  a  consuming  fire.  The  history 
of  ancient  Eome  furnishes  its  own  moral. 

In  Virgil's  great  poem,  "The  iEneid, "  the  travels  of  ^neas 
and  those  who  escaped  from  burning  Troy  are  told.  Arrived  on 
Italian  shores,  ^neas  visits  the  kingdom  of  the  dead,  and  there 
has  a  vision  of  their  descendants — the  future  Eoman  nation  which 
would  spring  from  this  Trojan  remnant. 

Whether  Eomulus  and  other  less  legendary  characters  ever 
really  lived  is  unimportant,  and  whether  the  Trojans  were  ancestors 
of  the  Eomans,  if  momentarily  interesting,  is  equally  so.  Early 
Eome  lies  in  the  shadows.     Another  people  of  uncertain  origin — 

*  According  to  Aristotle,  nearly  the  whole  of  the  male  population  of  Athens 
was  supported  by  tribute. 

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So7ne  Ancient  Civilisations  and  their  Lessons. 

the  Etruscans — dominated  central  Italy  at  one  period,  and  some- 
at  least  of  the  Roman  kings  were  of  that  race.  Lars  Porsena  of 
Clusium,  who  figures  in  Macaulay's  "Lays,"  was  a  king  of  the 
Etruscans,  taking  up  arms  to  restore  the  vicious  Tarquin,  son  of 
the  last  King  of  Rome,  who  had  been  hounded  out  of  the  city. 
The  Etruscans  appear  to  have  reached  a  moderate  degree  of 
civilisation.  Remains  of  their  architecture  and  aqueducts  are  still 
extant.  Italy  in  those  days  was  mostly  covered  by  forests  and 
marshes,  and  villages  were  usually  built  upon  piles.  A  preference 
for  the  seaboard  was  a  wise  one,  and  Greek  colonies  appeared 
very  early  in  southern  Italy.  The  city  of  Tarentum  was  one  of 
the  first  and  the  most  important. 

Early  rivalries  between  Romans  and  Etruscans  led  to  wider 
complications  and  the  eventual  absorption  of  several  tribes  in  the 
growing  Roman  power,  A  sudden  invasion  of  the  Celts  from  the 
north — a  horde  of  half -naked  warriors,  who  captured  and  sacked 
Rome — was  responsible  for  our  lack  of  reliable  knowledge.  They 
departed  speedily,  being  too  barbaric  for  a  settled  life. 

After  this,  dangers  from  the  north  were  reduced  by  making 
military  roads  and  establishing  fortified  colonies.  Trouble  in 
the  south  and  from  mountain  men  (the  Samnites)  and  from  the 
Greek  settlements  ended  in  Roman  supremacy  throughout  Italy. 
One  of  the  earliest  roads  is  known  in  history  as  the  Flaminian 
Way.  Two  others  were  famous — the  Latin  Way  and  the  Appian 
Way.  The  position  of  the  city  had  been  well  chosen — hard  to 
reach,  strongly  situated — and  the  character  of  the  people  had  little 
of  the  ebullient  imaginativeness  of  the  Greek  race.  Sturdy 
cohesion  and  aptitude  to  discipline  helped  to  build  up  a  nationality 
and  an  empire  of  enormous  power.  From  the  expulsion  of  the 
Tarquins  to  the  age  of  Julius  Caesar — about  five  centuries — ^Rome 
was  a  republic.  The  government  was  chiefly  in  the  hands  of  the 
Senate,  a  select  body  composed  chiefly  of  military  leaders,  who 
had  first  justified  their  rule  by  upholding  the  honour  of  the  city 
against  "false  Sextus."  Under  the  Senate,  active  government 
was  in  the  hands  of  two  consuls,  who  were  elected  annually. 
They  had  supreme  power  in  war  and  considerable  authority  in 
the  city,  and  the  right  of  veto  upon  each  other's  judgments. 

The  survival  of  Rome  was  due  to  successful  emergence  from 
many  desperate  struggles,  and  it  is  small  wonder  that  the  spirit  of 
conquest  and  empire  eventually  dominated  her  policy. 

There  was  an  early  division  of  the  people  into  patricians  and 
plebeians,  and  the  beginning  of  Roman  history  is  largely  a  record 
of  their  struggles. 

Besides  the  Senate  there  was  the  popular  assembly,  or  Lower 
House,  and,  later,  the  Plebeian  Assembly.  In  the  year  when  the 
monarchy  ended  (509  B.C.)  the  "Plebs"  were  roused  into  rebellion 
on  account  of  the  drastic  laws  respecting  debtors.     "The  law  of 

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debt,"  says  Macaulay,  "framed  by  creditors,  and  for  the  protection 
of  creditors,  was  the  most  horrible  that  has  ever  been  known." 
The  rebels  were  pacified  by  offered  concessions  and  a  persuasive 
parable,  told  by  a  senator,  of  a  quarrel  between  the  belly  and  the 
limbs.  One  of  the  important  recognitions  of  popular  rights  was 
obtained  a  few  years  later  in  the  appointing  of  two  tribunes.  The 
contempt  of  the  patrician  class  for  these  is  well  depicted  in 
Shakespeare's  Coriola.nus. 

At  first  two  only  were  chosen,  but  eventually  the  number  grew 
to  ten.  In  them  was  invested  the  power  of  protecting  the  "Plebs" 
from  oppression.  The  "Plebs'  "  Assembly,  at  first  only  an 
institution  without  authority,  in  time  secured  a  legal  status  in  its 
decisions. 

The  basis  of  many  Eoman  laws  and  customs  was  religion. 
If  we  call  it  superstition,  at  least  it  may  be  regarded  as  sincere, 
and  as  intelligent  as  some  of  our  present-day  observances  and 
customs.  The  word  pontiff,  as  we  use  it  to-day,  has  its  origin  in 
the  of&ce  of  the  Pontifex  Maximus  of  early  Eome,  whose  official 
residence  was  by  the  Tiber;  and  that  dated  back  to  the  time  when 
migratory  tribes  reached  river  banks  in  days  when  every  river  was 
sacred  to  its  deity,  and  a  special  religious  ceremonial  was  required 
ere  a  bridge  could  be  thrown  across. 

The  consulting  of  omens  was  at  first  a  natural  act  of  observation. 
Foretelling  the  weather  by  flights  of  birds  developed  into  the. 
fantastical  observations  of  the  auspicium. 

The  wandering  tribes,  ere  they  settled  in  some  fertile  spot,  would 
examine  the  entrails  of  indigenous  animals  to  guide  them  in  their 
conclusions  as  to  the  salutary  conditions  of  the  climate  and  soil. 
This  developed  into  a  board  of  Augurs,  who  discovered  the  will 
of  the  gods  by  these  methods. 

The  transmission  of  religious  ideas  came  naturally  with 
commercial  contact,  and  the  tracing  of  European  theocracies 
to  the  East  is  a  study  of  great  interest.  But  some  also  give 
evidence  of  racial  succession,  or  close  affinity.  Thus  the 
lares  and  penates  of  the  Eoman  household  carry  us  naturally 
back  to  the  "wonderful  guest"  of  the  Aryans,  who  first 
invaded  Hindustan.  There  is  an  approximation  in  these 
conceptions  appreciably  near  to  the  highest  of  Christian  ideals. 
Every  respectable  Eoman  home  was  a  temple.  In  it  resided  the 
departed  spirits  of  ancestors.  There  was  a  sacred  centre  in  each 
house,  where  the  ancestral  images  were  kept,  and  here  the  family 
gathered  daily  for  prayer.  There  was  a  recognised  guardianship 
on  the  part  of  good  spirits  known  as  manes.  Domestic  and  public 
ancestry  were  included  in  the  lares  and  penates.  At  some 
funerals  images  of  ancestors  were  carried  to  the  grave,  and  their 
deeds  recited  to  rouse  the  spirit  of  emulation  in  the  young. 

One  peculiarity  of  Eoman  law  was  that  for  many  centuries  there 
was  no  jurisdiction  over  private  life.     A  man  was  supreme  in  his 

508 


Some  Ancient  Civilisations  and  their  Lessons. 

own  house.  Eeligious  institutions  authorised  it.  He  was  entitled 
to  punish  his  own  children  by  death  or  slavery  if  so  willed.  But 
until  the  later  days  of  the  empire  life  in  Rome  had  many  charms. 
The  birth  of  a  boy  was  a  time  for  rejoicing.  A  rehgious  festival 
was  held.  A  curious  superstition  was  observed  in  the  hanging 
round  the  child's  neck  of  a  gilded  disc — or  a  leather  one  in  poor 
houses — as  a  charm  against  the  evil  eye. 

For  seven  years  the  mother  had  the  child's  training  in  her  own 
hands,  and  it  is  interesting  to  note  the  contrast  between  the  sex's 
position  in  Rome  and  in  Athens.  For  an  Athenian  woman  to 
intrude  into  public  life  was  to  acquire  an  unenviable  notoriety.  The 
Roman  mother  enjoyed  a  wider  sphere  of  influence.  The  historical 
episode  in  Shakespeare's  Coriolanus,  where  Volumnia  visits  the 
Volscian  camp  to  plead  with  her  son,  represents  a  true  Roman 
mother. 

At  seven  years  of  age  the  boy  left  the  maternal  control.  His 
wider  education  began.  He  was  trained  in  swimming,  riding, 
throwing  the  javehn.  He  was  taught  to  be  modest,  obedient,  and 
respectful  to  elders,  and  reverential  to  the  gods. 

Wherever  there  are  children  there  must  be  toys.  Many  of 
these,  like  our  own  English  toys,  were  constructed  to  teach  as- 
well  as  amuse.  Some  of  these,  after  the  conquest  of  Greece  and 
the  adoption  of  Athenian  schoolmasters,  would  probably  be  of 
Grecian  origin.  Big  letters  of  ivory  were  in  vogue  with  which  the 
child  learned  to  read.  Writing  was  learned  in  somewhat  the  same 
fashion  as  in  Athens.  If  the  Enghsh  boy  is  oppressed  with 
arithmetic  problems,  what  must  it  have  been  in  Rome?  The 
simplest  of  our  sums  would  become  alarming  with  Roman  numerals. 
To  multiply  88  by  8  would  be  figured  thus :  LXXXVIIT.  x  VIII. 

Grammar  was  an  important  part  of  the  curriculum.  Literature 
involved,  as  time  went  by,  the  growing  collection  of  Roman  poets, 
and  also  Homer  and  ^sop.  As  with  numerals  so  with  Roman 
letters — all  were  in  capitals,  the  words  running  together;  learning 
to  read  must  have  been  a  formidable  task. 

It  is  interesting  to  note  that  some  schoolmasters  were  given 
their  freedom  and  paid  large  salaries. 

Not  only  did  famous  citizens  learn  from  slaves,  but  sometimes 
at  their  receptions  learned  men  would  be  specially  engaged  to 
discourse  on  various  subjects,  and  the  lord  of  the  feast  took  unction 
to  himself  for  their  wisdom. 

But  what  of  the  common  people — free  citizens  ?  Alas  I  their 
freedom  was  little  more  than  the  licence  of  the  soldier.  We  may 
admire  the  rites  and  beliefs  of  the  Roman  family,  and  accept  the 
statement  in  a  qualified  way  that  therein  lay  the  strength  of  Rome, 
but  when  we  turn  to  the  humbler  ranks  we  find  the  poor  were 
excluded.  Ancestry  did  not  belong  to  them,  nor  lares  and  penates 
in  any  private  sense.  The  protection  of  guardian  spirits  belonged 
to  the  man  of  property. 

509 


Sofne  Ancient  CiDilisations  and  their  Lessons. 

The  evolution  of  property  ownership  in  Eome  was  no  fortuitous 
affair.  Early  migrations,  settlements,  communal  ownerships, 
appropriation  of  land :  this  stereotyped  order  had  been  the 
-experience  of  Eome.  The  land  question  always  and  everywhere  in 
the  world's  history  has  been  a  casus  belli,  internal  or  external.  It 
was  one  of  the  problems  of  ancient  Eome,  and  her  solution  of  it 
■contributed  to  her  downfall. 

It  has  been  suggested  that  the  long-sustained  struggle  with 
Oarthage  (the  flourishing  Phoenician  colony),  known  as  the  Punic 
Wars,  was  the  turning  point  for  evil  in  the  history  of  Eome.  From 
that  date  the  aggressive  spirit  became  predominant — the  evil  genius 
of  the  state.  The  Senate,  once  noble  and  trustworthy,  became  a 
den  of  thieves,  "experts,  specialists  of  war  and  empire."  Honest, 
free  industry  was  gradually  superseded,  and  the  freeman,  the 
victim  of  rich  moneylenders,  was  often  sold  into  slavery  himself. 

"Eome,''  declared  Augustine,  "had  never  been  a  republic  at  all, 
"because  justice  had  no  place  in  it."  Public  land  was  by  degrees 
fraudulently  appropriated.  The  old  upright  Eoman  character  that 
had  been  built  up  in  agricultural  industry  was  now  dragged  at  the 
heels  of  patrician  overlords,  and  the  spirit  of  defence  debased  into 
one  of  defiance  and  conquest. 

Henceforth  there  was  a  fearful  increase  in  internal  corruption,  immorality, 
Ijribery,  and  insatiable  eagerness  for  riches,  disregarding  everything  else  and 
impudently  setting  aside  laws,  orders  of  the  Senate,  and  legal  proceedings, 
making  war  unauthorised,  celebrating  triumphs  without  permission,  plundering 
the  provinces,  robbing  the  allies.* 

In  the  reign  of  militarism,  when  Eoman  soldier  adventurers 
ravaged  the  civilised  world,  the  cattle  raids  of  early  warfare  were 
transformed  into  demands  for  tribute.  For  four  or  five  centuries 
the  Eomans  were  maintained  by  the  violent  spoliation  of  the  world's 
wealth. 

Slave  labour  of  patrician  landholders  was  devoted  to  the 
•cultivation  of  the  olive  and  the  vine,  and  cattle-breeding  took  the 
place  of  corn-growing.  Increasing  poverty  was  met  by  the  free 
distribution  of  corn,  taken  as  tribute,  or  bought  at  conquerors' 
prices  in  corn-producing  states.  The  unprofitable  growing  of  corn 
in  Italy  gradually  depopulated  the  land.  Free  food  in  Eome 
brought  a  demoralised  crowd  into  the  city;  and  when  similar 
distribution  took  place  in  other  Italian  towns  the  demoralisation 
was  only  intensified.  Never  could  any  tyranny  have  been  termed 
parasitical  more  appropriately  than  that  of  Eome.  Corn,  being 
the  chief  product  of  several  countries,  their  tribute  was  largely 
paid  in  kind.  If  paid  in  gold  the  money  had  to  be  devoted  to  the 
purchase  of  foreign  food. 

In   the   second   century   B.C.    the   two   brothers   Gracchi — the 

famous'  "jewels,"  in  their  childhood,  of  their  mother  Cornelia — 

were  born.     The  names  of  these  brothers  stand  out  as  the  land 

reformers    of    Eoman    history.      The    problem    of    poverty    and 

*Teu£Eel,  History  of  Roman  Literature. 

510 


Some  Ancient  Civilisations  and  their  Lessons. 

agricultural  depression  appealed  to  the  elder  brother,  Tiberius, 
who  threw  himself  with  energy  into  the  passing  of  what  has  been, 
called  a  Small  Holdings  Act.  So  eager  was  he  to  force  the  bill 
through  that  he  broke  the  laws  in  the  attempt.  This  provided  the 
opportunity  to  his  enemies,  and  he  was  slain  on  the  Capitol,  the 
people  for  whom  he  had  struggled  making  no  effort  to  save  him. 

Nine  years  later,  Caius,  the  younger  brother,  was  elected 
Tribune,  and  carried  forward  the  work  Tiberius  had  begun.  He 
has  been  described  as  a  **Eoman  statesman  of  the  highest  order, 
a  gentleman  in  the  best  and  noblest  sense."  But  the  efforts  of 
one  man,  however  courageous  and  sagacious,  could  not  curb  the 
reactionary  forces  of  vested  interests,  nor  lift  a  degraded  people 
out  of  the  mire.  There  was  a  millstone  round  the  neck  of  Eome 
slowly  strangling  the  nation.  Caius  Gracchus  was  also  murdered 
by  his  enemies. 

How  easy  it  is  for  the  thoughtful  mind  to  trace  the  devastating 
effects  of  the  imperial  spirit  below  the  glitter  of  conquest.  The 
almost  voiceless  suffering  that  lay  beneath  is  revealed.  The 
aspirations  of  the  democracy  were  frustrated,  and  the  very  gains 
of  the  victor  contributed  to  their  undoing.  Not  indeed  to  theirs 
alone.  The  curse  fell  on  all.  Wealth  accumulated  and  men 
decayed  in  all  ranks.  Among  the  patrician  classes  it  contributed 
to  a  voluntary  plunge  into  gross  excesses. 

In  the  first  century  B.C.  Eome  was  absolutely  a  military  empire. 
Soldier  adventurers  such  as  Caesar,  Pompey,  and  Sulla  dominated 
its  destinies.  Faction  ran  mad.  Deeds  which  might  be  paralleled 
by  the  massacre  of  St.  Bartholomew  were  recorded.  In  the 
absence  of  Sulla  on  one  of  his  expeditions  his  enemies  took  the 
opportunity  of  putting  to  death  more  than  a  thousand  nobles  and 
fifty  senators  of  his  party.  ^Yhen  Sulla  returned  with  an  army, 
enriched  with  spoils,  he  exacted  a  fearful  retribution.  Not  only  the 
participants  in  the  slaughter  were  proscribed.  Their  sons  and 
grandsons,  those  who  sheltered  them,  those  who  were  denounced 
by  traitors,  fell  at  the  hands  of  hired  assassins.  "There  was  not  a 
single  temple,"  says  Plutarch,  "not  a  house  but  was  polluted  with 
blood.  Husbands  were  slaughtered  in  the  arms  of  their  wives,  and 
sons  in  the  arms  of  their  mothers,  while  numbers  were  put  out  of 
the  way  for  the  sake  of  their  property." 

And  through  all  these  calamities  the  "Plebs"  were  inevitable 
sufferers.  Their  ranks  were  decimated  by  continuous  wars  until, 
of  necessity,  a  mercenary  soldiery  had  to  take  their  place. 

But  beyond  and  outside  this  were  the  vast  hosts  of  slaves. 
Except  in  respect  of  climate  the  lot  of  the  Eoman  slaves  must  have 
been  almost  as  terrible  as  in  Babylon.  The  wars  of  Eome  were 
chiefly  undertaken  for  plunder  in  the  shape  of  gold  or  slaves. 
Wherever  unharried  countries  offered  scope  for  putting  off  the 
approaching  Nemesis  it  was  eagerly  seized.  Internecine  struggles 
in  the  early  days  brought  many  thousands  of  slaves  of  the  same 

511 


Some  Ancient  Civilisations  and  their  Lessons. 

Latin  race  into  Eome.  As  war  extended  a  tremendous  slave  market 
developed.  "Slave  merchants  followed  the  armies,  and  sales  on  the 
battlefield  were  superintended  by  the  military  questors  who 
represented  the  state,"*  for  the  state  drew  a  vast  revenue  from  a 
slave  tax.  If  the  supply  exceeded  the  demand  the  price  fell 
proportionately.  On  one  occasion  the  prisoners  brought  only  the 
equivalent  of  four  francs  apiece.  Csesar's  campaigns  were  chiefly  in 
quest  of  slaves.  After  one  victory  in  Gaul  he  sold  as  many  as 
53,000,  and  the  victories  of  every  great  general  produced  fresh 
relays.  In  addition  to  Eoman  conquests,  private  slavers  crowded 
the  Mediterranean  and  found  a  ready  market  in  Italy.  Besides 
taxation  the  slave  trade  was  under  state  protection.  Fraud  and 
concealment  were  punishable,  and  contracts  might  be  cancelled 
up  to  a  year  after  purchase  if  physical  defects  appeared  in  the  slave. 

The  architectural  remains  of  Eome  are  relics  of  slave  labour. 

Her  colossal  public  buildings  recalled  the  great  structures  of  Babylon.  . 
The  Circus  Maximus  accommodated  285,000  spectators.  In  her  vast  public 
warehouses  she  was  able  to  store  millions  of  bushels  of  grain.  .  .  .  The 
Forum  of  Augustus,  with  its  faQades  of  dazzling  white  marble,  was  doubtless  a 
noble  structure,  but  the  Forum  of  Trajan  was  conceived  on  a  grander  scale. 
In  order  merely  to  prepare  its  site,  the  ridge  of  rock  which  connected  the 
Capitol  and  the  Quirinal  was  removed  by  the  labour  of  thousands  of  slaves.* 

The  great  aqueducts,  some  of  which  extended  sixty  miles,  were 
the  work  of  slaves,  and  in  the  construction  of  the  buildings  the 
preparation  of  the  material,  the  slavery  of  the  empire  was  involved. 
Marble  columns  were  quarried  and  shaped  by  slaves  in  tributary 
states,  brought  overseas  by  slaves  in  ships  built  and  manned  by 


There  is  a  contrast  which  may  well  be  made  between  the 
inadequately  paid  labourer  of  to-day  and  the  unpaid  slave  of  Eome. 
Underpaid  labour  may  be  replaced,  but  to  underfeed  a  slave  who 
had  been  purchased  like  a  horse  was  at  least  impolitic. 

The  skill  of  the  slave  naturally  regulated  his  market  price,  in 
which  buyer  and  seller  alone  reaped  gain.  But  a  skilled  slave  was- 
worth  a  good  sum,  and  it  was  to  his  master's  interest  to  feed  him 
properly.  In  many  cases  no  doubt  this  would  apply,  but 
unrestrained  impulse  seldom  listens  to  reason,  and  even  the 
valuable  slave  might  be  killed  in  a  moment  of  temper  with  absolute 
impunity.  For  the"  unskilled,  in  a  teeming  slave  market,  the 
reader  may  picture  the  fates  which  daily  threatened.  In  many 
houses  an  array  of  fiendish  instruments  of  torture  were  kept,  and 
these  were  used  upon  the  most  trifling  occasions.  The  tongue  of 
the  talkative  might  be  cut  off,  the  eyes  of  another  torn  out,  a 
recaptured  runaway  might  have  his  legs  broken,  and  interference 
there  could  be  none.     Crucifixions  were  common. 

The  wealthy  Eoman  possessed,  in  some  cases,  thousands  of 
slaves.     Every  possible  post  was  filled  by  slaves.     A  slave  was. 

*  The  Nemesis  of  Nations. 
512 


Some  Ancient  Civilisations  and  their  Lessons. 

chained  to  the  door  of  the  house  to  admit  guests.  Slaves  cooked 
and  served  up  the  feasts  and  poured  out  the  slave-made  wine ;  slaves 
provided  music  and  song,  taught  children,  copied  manuscripts. 
The  arts  and  culture  of  Greece  were  at  the  command  of  the 
conquerors.  The  master  aped  the  Assyrian  tyrants.  Slaves 
fanned  him,  tasted  his  food,  and  whisked  the  flies  from  his  lordly 
brow.  Slaves  wove  his  cloth  and  his  linen,  made  his  furniture 
and  crockery.  It  has  been  estimated  by  Gibbon  that  over  the  empire 
during  the  reign  of  Claudius  there  were  60  millions  of  slaves, 
and  even  in  Eome,  with  a  population  of  just  over  300,000  freemen, 
there  were  nearly  a  million  slaves.  Not  alone  were  the  splendid 
buildings  of  Eome  erected  by  slaves;  not  alone  as  servitors  did 
they  enter  the  baths,  restaurants,  reading-rooms,  and  promenades ; 
contrasting  daily,  as  many  of  them  must  have  done,  their  own 
unhappy  lot  with  that  of  these  self-indulgent  citizens ;  but, 
crowning  mockery  and  shame  of  all,  it  was  from  their  ranks  that 
the  amusements  of  the  amphitheatre  w^ere  supplied.  Thousands 
of  gladiators  perished  in  the  arena  every  year,  hired  out  by  their 
masters,  who,  in  case  of  death,  received  their  due  compensation. 

A  sad  commentary  on  the  condition  of  Imperial  Eome  was 
discovered  in  the  opening  out  of  an  ancient  cemetery.  A  vast  pit 
was  found  therein,  a  thousand  feet  in  length  and  three  hundred 
deep.  This  was  the  city  tip,  where  dead  slaves,  dead  dogs,  and 
all  manner  of  refuse  were  thrown. 

The  same  reason  operated  against  rebellion  in  Eome  as  in 
Athens.  Slaves  of  different  nationalities  worked  side  by  side,  often 
animated  by  bitter  race  hatreds  towards  each  other.  And  yet, 
with  a  vast  slave  population,  there  was  always  a  danger  and  the 
fear  of  revolt.  In  the  year  73  B.C.  began  the  great  outbreak  under 
Spartacus.  At  first  a  Eoman  auxiliary,  he  deserted  and  became  a 
bandit.  He  was  captured  and  sent  to  a  training  school  for 
gladiators.  A  man  of  resource  and  leadership,  he  persuaded  a 
band  of  gladiators  into  rebellion.  Eighting  their  way  to  freedom 
they  found  refuge  in  the  crater  of  Vesuvius.  Other  slaves  joined 
them,  and  a  force  of  3,000  soldiers  sent  against  them  was  defeated. 
A  proclamation  of  freedom  for  slaves  was  sent  out.  and  quickly 
a  rebel  army  of  70,000  gathered,  and  again  the  Eomans  were 
overpowered.  For  two  years,  with  the  aid  of  Gallic  allies,  the 
existence  of  Eome  was  threatened,  but  at  a  critical  moment,  when 
marching  on  the  city,  30,000  Gauls,  for  some  unexplained  reason, 
forsook  his  standard.  Escape  to  the  Alps  was  still  possible,  but 
the  slave  army  refused  to  go.  In  the  final  battle  Spartacus  was 
slain,  and  the  recaptured  slaves  in  thousands  were  massacred  in 
cold  blood. 

We  may  not  trace  further  the  decay  of  Eome,  of  which  we  have 
but  seen  the  beginning,  nor  dwell  upon  the  brave  efforts  of  Trajan 
and  the  Antonines  to  stem  the  downfall.  Eventually,  in  the  fifth 
century   a.d.,    a  disunited  empire   and  a   succession  of  barbaric 

MM  513 


Some  Ancient  Civilisations  and  their  Lessons. 

invasions,  repelled  with  difficulty,  found  Eome  too  feeble  to 
withstand  the  Vandals,  who,  swarming  in  from  the  south, 
conquered  the  "eternal  city,"  and  made  burlesques  of  its  sacred 
institutions.     Says  Gibbon:  — 

The  decline  of  Rome  was  the  natural  and  inevitable  effect  of  immoderate 
greatness.  Prosperity  ripened  the  principles  of  decay;  the  causes  of  destruction 
multiplied  with  the  extent  of  conquest;  and  as  soon  as  time  or  accident  had 
removed  the  artificial  supports  the  stupendous  fabric  yielded  to  the  pressure  of 
its  own  weight.  The  story  of  its  ruin  is  simple  and  obvious;  and  instead  of 
inquiring  why  the  Eoman  Empire  was  destroyed,  we  should  rather  be  surprised 
that  it  subsisted  so  long. 

It  may  well  be  argued  in  justification  of  the  policies  of  ancient 
empires  that  no  other  course  had  any  appeal.  The  lex  talionis, 
even  for  the  greatest  thinkers,  was  the  only  rational  one.  The 
right  of  superior  strength  was  Nature's  object-lesson.  It  might 
even  be  urged  that  lower  intelligences  are  not  subject  to  the 
extremes  of  suffering  and  emotion  that  belong  to  the  more 
highly  cultured.  Moreover,  the  spread  of  Christianity  was  only 
synchronous  with  the  decline  of  the  empire,  and  the  education  of 
conscience  in  Christian  ethics  is  tardy.  In  spite  of  all,  there 
emerges  the  fact  that  the  humanities  cannot  be  abused  with 
impunity,  and  that  what  a  nation  sows  it  must  reap.  For  us 
to-day,  heirs  of  the  ages,  many  parallels  and  many  dissimilarities 
between  old  and  new  appear.  It  would  be  foolish  to  deny  that 
Rome  gave  much  to  the  world.  So  did  Babylon.  But  the  best 
that  Eome  gave  was  her  laws,  her  language,  and  her  literature, 
and  these  were  not  contingent  upon  her  imperialism.  Her  iron 
hand  in  conquered  lands  must  have  crushed  down  far  more  than 
it  lifted.  Her  military  roads  are  among  the  few  useful  legacies 
that  her  material  power  has  left  us,  and  we  may  wisely  ponder 
the  lesson  that  **  'the  things  that  are  most  excellent'  have  no 
dependence  on  mere  material  magnitude."  Finally,  we  may 
learn  that  divided  interests  in  a  state  tend  to  disaster,  and  wealth 
and  luxury  founded  upon  injustice  must  eventuate  in  ruin.  If 
we  still  deplore  ignorance  and  apathy,  deplore  reactions  into  a 
wild,  unreasoning  war  spirit,  the  vox  populi  is  growing  louder,  more 
intelligent,  and  more  insistent,  and  gives  promise  of  emancipation 
from  the  thraldom  of  militarism  and  plutocracy. 


514 


The  Cost  of  Living: 

The  Co-operative  Movement  and  its  Mission. 


BY  H.    CLEMENT   GRAY. 


Introduction. 

THE  subject  embraced  by  the  title  of  this  article  is  so  wide, 
so  far-reaching,  and  the  possibilities  so  great,  that  to  do 
full  justice  to  it  would  necessitate  the  writing  of  a  book. 
In  a  comparatively  short  article,  such  as  this  must  necessarily  be, 
one  must  be  brief  and  to  the  point,  and  yet,  at  the  same  time, 
endeavour  to  include  as  much  useful  matter  as  possible  in  the 
limited  space  at  one's  disposal. 

The  writer  of  an  article  of  this  nature  cannot,  and  does  not, 
claim  to  cover  all  the  ground,  but  he  can  indicate  the  lines  upon 
which  he  thinks  this  great  co-operative  movement  might  proceed 
in  order  that  the  consumer  may  reap  to  the  full  the  advantages  to 
be  derived  from  combination. 

The  continuous  rise  in  the  prices  of  commodities,  more 
particularly  in  relation  to  those  articles  which  are  in  every-day 
use,  and  the  methods  which  might  be  adopted  as  a  means  of 
counteracting  the  effect  which  such  increase  has  upon  the  working 
classes  is  a  matter  which  should  receive  the  most  careful 
consideration  of  those  who  form  part  of  the  co-operative 
community.  The  co-operative  movement,  with  all  its  immense 
purchasing  power,  does  not  appear  to  have  that  controlling 
influence  in  regard  to  the  fixing  of  prices  which,  by  the  magnitude 
of  its  trade,  it  ought  to  have,  and  it  is  the  aim  of  this  article  to 
point  out  a  way  whereby  this  may  be  accomplished. 

Without  further  preliminaries  I  propose  to  go  straight  to  the 
heart  of  the  subject,  and,  to  avoid  possible  confusion,  to  divide 
the  paper  into  two  parts.  In  the  first  part  I  shall  show  how 
prices  have  increased  during  recent  years,  and  point  out  some  of 
the  principal  causes  which  have  brought  about  this  increase;  and, 
in  the  second  part.,  endeavour  to  suggest  a  remedy  by  means  of 
which,  through  collective  trading,  the  consumer  may  work  out 
his  own  salvation. 

I.  The  Increased  Cost  of  Living. 

During  recent  years  prices — and  we  will  deal  more  particularly 
with  the  price  of  foodstuffs  as  more  nearly  affecting  us  as  consumers 
— have  steadily  been  rising.  One  has  only  to  refer  to  the  report 
published  by  the  Board  of  Trade  to  find  that  meat,  bacon,  flour, 

$16 


The  Cost  of  Living. 

bread,  coal,  wearing  apparel,  and  rent  have  increased  to  a  great 
extent  during  the  last  decade.  The  report  is  interesting  reading, 
but  one  is  appalled  to  find  that  during  the  fifteen  years  from  1896 
to  1912  retail  food  supplies  rose  about  25  per  cent.,  which  is  5s. 
in  the  £. 

The  Board  of  Trade  special  inquiry,  however,  deals  more 
particularly  with  the  period  from  1905  to  1912,  and  extends  to 
the  conditions  existing  in  eighty-eight  towns.  It  shows  that  the 
cost  of  living,  as  represented  by  rents  (including  rates)  and  the 
retail  prices  of  the  selected  articles  of  food  and  coal,  was  between 
11  and  12  per  cent,  higher  in  London  than  in  the  other  eighty- 
seven  towns  investigated,  taken  as  a  whole.  In  this  respect  the 
Scottish  towns  come  next,  and  at  the  other  end  of  the  scale  are 
the  towns  in  the  Midlands,  in  which  both  rents  and  prices  were 
at  a  low  average  comparatively.  With  the  exception  of  a  few 
towns,  notably  Coventry  and  Macclesfield,  rents  show  little  increase 
over  1905.  In  London  rents  have  fallen  by  about  4  per  cent., 
although  they  still  remain  much  higher  for  the  same  accommodation 
than  in  any  other  town  in  this  country.  The  general  level  of 
prices  of  food  and  coal  in  the  different  towns  showed  a  greater 
degree  of  uniformity  than  rents.  The  amount  of  the  advance 
between  October,  1905,  and  October,  1912,  has,  however,  been 
much  greater  in  some  towns  than  in  others,  varying  from  7  per 
cent,  at  Portsmouth  to  20  per  cent,  at  Stockport.  The  percentage 
changes  between  1905  and  1912  in  the  eighty-eight  towns  where 
inquiry  has  been  made  are  as  follows:  — 

Increase  per  cent. 

Rents  1-8 

Retail  Prices  of  Food  and  Coal  13'7 

Rents  and  Retail  Prices  Combined 11'3 

These  figures  relate  only  to  rents  (including  rates)  and  the  retail 
prices  of  the  principal  articles  of  food  and  coal. 

An  attempt  was  made  to  ascertain  the  course  of  prices  of 
clothing  during  the  years  referred  to,  but  this  part  of  the  inquiry 
was  beset  with  special  difficulties.  From  the  information  obtained, 
however,  the  conclusion  was  arrived  at  that  there  had  been  a  rise 
in  the  cost  of  clothing,  probably  not  much  less  in  proportion  than 
that  of  food  and  clothing  combined,  the  rise  taking  the  form  either 
of  increased  price  or  of  inferior  quality.  The  general  result  of  the 
inquiry  shows  that  while  rents  have  on  the  average  changed  very 
little  in  the  seven  years  under  review,  the  retail  prices  of  articles 
of  workmen's  consumption  have  greatly  increased  during  the  same 
period,  and  that  probably  the  average  increase  during  the  period 
in  the  cost  of  workmen's  rent,  food,  fuel,  and  clothing  taken 
together  may  be  put  at  about  10  per  cent.,  or  2s.  in  the  £.* 

How  hardly  this  hits  the  low  wage-earner,  where  every  shilling 
is  of  vital  importance,  may  be  imagined. 

*  Board  of  Trade  Labour  Gazette. 
516 


The  Cost  of  Living. 

In  an  excellent  series  of  articles  which  appeared  in  the  Daily 
News  some  time  ago,  Mr.  Chiozza  Money  gives  the  following  table 
as  to  how  wages  and  prices  have  moved  in  the  period  embraced  by 
the  years  from  1895  to  1910,  viz. : — 


Year. 


Wages 
Index  Number. 


Wholesale  Prices 
Index  Number. 


London 

Petail  Prices 
Index  Number. 


1895 

89-1 
89-9 
90-8 
93-2 

910 
88-2 
901 
93-2 

93-2 

1896 

92-0 

1897 

96-2 

1898  

100-8 

1899  

95-4 

923 

96-4 

1900 

1000 
991 

1000 
96-9 

100-0 

1901  

101-9 

1902  

97-8 

96-6 

101-6 

1903  

97-2 

96-9 

103-2 

1904 

96-7 

98-3 

104-3 

1905  

97-0 

97-6 

103-7 

1906 

98-4 

100-5 

103-2 

1907  

101-8 

106-7 

105-8 

1908  

101-2 

102-8 

108-4 

1909  

100-0 

1040 

108-2 

1910 

100-2 

108-8 

109-9 

Inc.  per  cent. 

Inc.  per  cent. 

Inc.  per  cent. 

Movement  in 

15  years  ... 

12-4 

19-5 

17-9 

Mr.  Chiozza  Money  comments  on  these  figures  as  follows  :  — 
The  first  column,  taking  the  year  1900  as  a  standard,  shows  the  wages  of 
the  other  years  named  expressed  as  a  percentage  of  those  of  1900  for  the 
foUowmg  group  of  trades  :  building,  coal-mining,  engineering,  textile  trades, 
and  agriculture.  The  second  column  shows  in  similar  fashion  the  movement  of 
wholesale  prices.  The  third  column  shows  the  movement  of  London  retail 
food  prices.  It  will  be  seen  that  in  fifteen  years,  while  wages  have  risen 
little  more  than  12  per  cent.,  food  prices  have  risen  by  nearly  18  per  cent., 
which  means  that  real  wages  have  actually  fallen  in  the  last  fifteen  years. 
Next  observe  what  has  happened  since  1900.  In  that  period  wages  have  been 
ahnost  stationary,  while  prices  have  advanced  about  10  per  cent. 

Let  US  pause  for  one  moment  and  compare  the  position  of  the 
worker  in  the  year  1905  with  the  year  1912.  We  can  only  take 
the  figures  relating  to  the  trades  selected  for  the  Board  of  Trade 
inquiry,  but  they  will  serve  as  an  illustration.  We  have  seen 
that  the  cost  of  living  has  during  the  past  seven  years  increased  by 
10  per  cent.,  i.e.,  2s.  in  the  £.  On  the  other  hand,  the  following 
are  the  mean  percentages  of  advances  in  wages  in  the  specified 
trades,  viz.  :  — 

Skilled.  Unskilled. 

Bmlding 1-9  26 

Engineering  5'5  3*9 

Compositors 4'1  — 

These  percentages  are  the  average  rates  of  increase.  In  some 
towns  the  increase  has  been  greater  than  in  others,  and  again  in 

517 


•  The  Cost  of  Living. 

some  districts  there  has  been  no  change  at  all.  It  will  be  seen, 
however,  that  in  no  case  does  the  advance  in  wages  compensate 
the  increase  in  the  cost  of  living.  This  proves  conclusively  that 
the  workman  is  in  a  worse  position  now  than  he  was  in  1905. 

An  interesting  piece  of  evidence  as  to  the  increase  in  the 
cost  of  living  has  been  pubHshed  by  the  Co-operative  Wholesale 
Society,  which  has  worked  out  an  average  weekly  family  order  on 
various  dates  from  1898  to  1913.  The  average  order  consists  of 
lib.  of  bacon,  21bs.  of  butter,  -^Ib.  of  cheese,  121bs.  of  flour,  ^Ib. 
of  lard,  lib.  of  meal,  41bs.  of  sugar,  ^Ib.  of  tea.  The  prices  are 
calculated  on  a  wholesale  basis,  but  the  rise  in  retail  prices  of 
these  articles  has  been  on  the  whole  quite  as  great  as  in  the 
wholesale  rates.  It  is  calculated  that  the  above  goods  cost  the 
purchaser  as  follows  on  the  dates  named,  viz,  :  — 

Year.  Pence. 

1898 63-85 

1906 67-28 

1908 70-21 

1910 72-38 

1911 71-00 

1912 74-28 

1913 72-54 

This  shows  an  increased  cost  for  1906  over  1898  of  537  per 
cent.,  1908  over  1898  of  9'95  per  cent.,  1910  over  1898  of  13-36 
per  cent.,  1911  over  1898  of  11'20  per  cent.,  1912  over  1898  of 
16*33  per  cent.,  and  a  decrease  for  1913  on  1912  of  2'46  per  cent. 
At  the  time  of  writing  the  figures  for  1914  are  not  yet  published, 
but  by  the  courtesy  of  the  O.W.S.  I  am  able  to  give  a  comparison 
between  the  years  ended  June,  1913,  and  June,  1914,  which  is 
the  latest  information  available.  From  these  figures  it  would 
appear  that  the  slight  decrease  in  cost  which  took  place  in  1913  is 
likely  to  be  repeated  in  1914.  The  cost  of  the  21|lbs.  of  goods 
previously  referred  to  for  the  year  ended  June,  1913,  was  73'08 
pence,  whereas  the  same  articles  could  be  purchased  during  the 
year  ended  June,  1914,  for  71*36  pence,  a  decrease  of  1*72  pence, 
or  2*40  per  cent.,  when  compared  with  the  year  previous.  The 
average  price  of  coal  also  has  considerably  increased.  The  following 
are  the  average  prices  of  coal  at  the  pit  mouth :  — 


1906. 


1908. 


1910. 


1911. 


1912. 


1913, 


Per  ton. 
S.     d, 

9  IH 


Per  ton. 

s.     d. 
10     9 


Per  ton. 

s.     d. 
13     3 


Per  ton. 

s.    d. 
13     3 


Per  ton. 

s.     d. 
13     3 


Per  ton. 
S.  d. 
14     9 


Per  ton. 
s.  d. 
15     9 


showing  an  increased  cost  for  1906  over  1898  of  7'95  per  cent., 
1908,  1910,  and  1911  over  1898  of  33*05  per  cent.,  1912  over 
1898  of  48*12  per  cent.,  and  1913  over  1898  of  58*16  per  cent. 

This  statement,  coming  from  such  a  source,  shows  at  a  glance 
how  and  to  what  extent  the  increase  in  prices  has  affected  the 

518 


The  Cost  of  Living. 

working-class  consumer,    as  the  bulk  of  the  trade  done  by  the 
co-operative  movement  is  with  the  working  classes. 

The  increased  cost  of  living  is  not  confined  to  this  country 
alone ;  in  fact,  in  most  other  countries  of  which  we  have  statistics 
the  rise  has  been  greater  than  with  ug.  All  available  statistics  go 
to  prove  that  this  tendency  to  advance  prices  is  world-wide  and 
general,  and  is  not  confined  to  any  particular  country  or  to  any 
particular  commodity.  The  causes  for  this  increase  are  many  and 
varied. 

GOLD  PRODUCTION. 

The  increase  in  the  output  of  gold  is  one  of  the  theories  advanced 
by.  those  who  have  made  a  study  of  the  question,  although  in  the 
opinion  of  some  experts  this  is  not  the  dominating  factor  which  it 
is  popularly  supposed  to  be.  The  following  figures,  extracted 
from  The  Statist,  relating  to  the  world's  gold  production  will  be 
interesting,  viz.  :—  £  £ 


1860 23,850,000 

1865  24,040,000 

1870  :. 21,370,000 

1875 22,700,000 

1880 22,130,000 

1885  21,250,000 


1890  ............  24,260,000 

1895 :....  40,842,000 

1900  52,311,000 

1905 78,143,000 

1910  96,225,000 

1913  ♦94,720,000 


•Preliminary  estimate. 

It  will  be  seen  from  these  figures  that  since  the  year  1895 
the  output  of  gold  has  increased  from  £40,842,000  to  £94,720,000 
annually.  When  we  take  into  account  that  since  1896  prices  have 
been  continually  on  the  upward  grade,  it  seems  reasonable  to 
suggest  that  the  gold  supply,  seeing  that  our  prices  are  measured 
in  gold,  has  some  bearing  on  the  subject,  as  the  cheaper  money  is 
(gold  being  the  standard  of  currency  generally  adopted)  the  higher 
in  price  are  those  articles  which  money  will  purchase.  Gold 
production  has  increased  enormously,  with  consequent  depreciation 
in  its  value  as  a  purchasing  medium.  Not  only  gold,  but  the 
increase  in  paper  money,  such  as  cheques,  bills  of  exchange,  and 
other  means  of  credit,  must  be  taken  into  account  in  arriving  at 
the  total  value  of  the  currency  and  its  effect  on  prices.  However, 
it  would  be  absurd  to  make  the  statement  that  the  increase  in  the 
gold  supply  is  responsible  for  the  whole,  or  even  the  main  part,  of 
the  recent  rise  in  prices,  for  this  reason,  that  although  the  cost  of 
almost  every  commodity  has  risen  to  some  extent  there  is  a  great 
variation  in  the  amount  of  the  rise.  If  the  gold  supply  were  the 
dominant  factor,  then  it  would  follow  that  there  would  be  an 
all-round  rise  of  practically  equal  proportions,  which  is  not  the 
case. 

In  regard  to  the  effect  of  currency  on  prices,  the  increase  in 
the  volume  of  trade  has  also  to  be  reckoned  with,  as  this  of  course 
tends  to  counteract  its  effect.  The  volume  of  trade  has  of  course 
greatly  increased,  and  a  large  proportion  of  the  increased  currency 

619 


The  Cost  of  Living. 

has  been  required  to  cope  with  it.  Then,  again,  other  countries 
have  recently  adopted  the  gold  standard  of  currency,  and  the 
consequent  absorption  of  gold  in  the  development  of  new  countries 
helps  to  counteract  the  influence  of  the  increase  in  production  of 
that  commodity  on  prices.  The  increase  in  gold  and  credits 
certainly  appears  to  be  one  of  the  causes  of  increased  prices, 
although  to  what  extent  cannot  be  definitely  stated ;  but  there  are 
numerous  other  causes  at  work  which  have  to  be  carefully 
considered  in  order  to  arrive  at  a  proper  understanding  of  the 
question.     For  instance, 

INCREASED  CONSUMPTION 

owing  to, the  advance  of  civilisation,  and  the  adoption  of  Western 
standards  of  ideas  and  method  of  living  in  the  East.  The  Eastern 
races  are  waking  up,  and  are  no  longer  satisfied  with  what 
sufficed  for  their  forefathers.  Articles  of  food  which,  until 
recently,  they  had  no  use  for  are  now  being  imported  in  large 
quantities.  Their  imports  of  cotton,  leather,  and  other  goods  are 
also  largely  on  the  increase,  and  with  their  immense  population 
this  fact  is  bound  to  have  an  effect  upon  the  prices  of  those  articles, 
and  as  the  price  of  one  commodity  is  so  closely  bound  up  with  the 
price  of  another,  the  result  is  a  general  increase  all  round. 
Machinery  is  being  imported  in  large  quantities  into  India,  China, 
and  Japan.  Factories  are  being  established  in  these  and  other 
countries.  Machinery  is  being  laid  down  in  order  that  they  may 
manufacture  their  own  requirements.  Hence  there  will  be  a  greater 
demand  for  raw  material,  which,  unless  such  raw  material  is 
produced  in  greater  quantity,  will  naturally  enhance  the  price. 
Then,  of  course,  there  is  the 

INCREASE   IN    WAGES 

to  take  into  account.  This  is  bound  to  react  on  prices.  As  the 
result  of  a  strike,  or  from  other  causes,  an  employer  increases  the 
wages  of  his  employes,  but  in  the  majority  of  cases  this  increase, 
although  he  is  compelled  to  pay  it,  does  not  come  out  of  the 
employer's  own  pocket.  He  immediately  puts  up  the  price  of  the 
particular  commodity  which  he  manufactures,  as,  of  course,  when 
costing  the  article  he  always  takes  into  consideration  the  expense 
he  has  been  put  to  in  producing  that  article,  and  the  amount  paid 
in  wages  is  included  in  the  cost  of  production;  therefore,  as  prices 
react  upon  the  prices  of  other  articles,  the  consumer  has  to  pay  in 
the  long  run.  Moreover,  the  manufacturer  will  not  be  content  with 
merely  increasing  the  price  of  the  article  he  produces  by  just  the 
proportionate  amount  of  the  increase  in  wages  which  he  has  to 
pay;  he  will,  and  probably  does,  put  on  a  little  more  to  compensate 
himself  for  the  trouble  to  which  he  has  been  put.  It  can  be  seen 
at  once  what  an  anomalous  position  the  worker  is  in.  The  worker 
is  also  the  consumer,  but  sometimes  he  apparently  does  not  realise 

520 


The  Cost  of  Living. 

this;  and,  although  he  obtains  an  increase  in  his  wages,  he  derives 
httle  or  no  benefit  therefrom,  because  the  spending  power  of  his 
wages  being  decreased  owing  to  the  advance  in  prices  consequent 
upon  increased  wages,  the  benefit  of  the  increase  is  taken  from  him 
in  his  capacity  as  consumer.  It  is  simply  a  case  of  giving  with  the 
one  hand  and  taking  away  with  the  other.  And  so  it  goes  on.  The 
worker  is  exploited  by  the  capitalist  in  every  way,  but  in  the  main 
he  either  cannot  see  it  or  the  spirit  of  laissez  faire  has  so  got  hold  of 
him  that  he  is  not  inclined  to  trouble  his  head  about  the  matter.  It 
is  for  the  worker  to  wake  up  and  realise  his  responsibilities.  He 
must  combine  as  consumer  also,  and  get  into  his  own  hands  the 
•control  of  production  and  the  sources  of  supply  before  he  can 
hope  to  obtain  a  fair  share  of  the  wealth  he  helps  to  creat^e.  Then 
we  have  the  law  of 

SUPPLY  AND   DEMAND. 

Upon  the  extent  of  production  of  a  particular  commodity 
depends  the  price  of  that  commodity,  and  not  only  that,  but  the 
price  of  other  commodities  as  well.  Take,  for  instance,  bacon. 
It  is  a  well-known  fact  that  in  America  the  farmers  restrict  the 
breeding  of  pigs  according  to  the  maize  crop.  If  the  maize  crop 
is  poor  the  breeding  of  pigs  is  limited,  and  consequently  bacon, 
ham,  and  other  hog  products  are  dearer.  Following  upon  this 
point,  if  we  study  the  question  minutely  we  find,  the  various 
commodities  being  closely  interwoven  one  with  another,  that  any 
variation  in  the  price  of  one  affects  the  others  to  a  certain  extent. 
We  have  only  to  refer  back  to  the  coal  strike  of  1911  to  find  an 
illustration  of  this  fact.  Owing  to  the  shortage  of  coal  due  to  the 
strike,  manufacturers  who  depended  upon  that  commodity  in  the 
process  of  manufacture  increased  their  prices  to  make  up  for  the 
additional  expense  of  production,  and,  as  a  result,  so  closely 
connected  are  the  things  necessary  to  life,  abnormal  prices  ruled 
for  a  time  even  for  commodities  which  at  first  sight  would  appear 
to  be  as  far  removed  from  coal  as  are  the  two  poles  asunder. 
The  restricted  transport  facilities  due  to  the  shortage  of  coal  also 
had  an  effect  in  increasing  the  prices  of  commodities  owing  to  the 
increase  of  demand  over  supply. 

The  United  States  has  in  the  past  exported  large  quantities  of 
foodstuffs  to  this  and  other  European  countries,  but  our  supplies 
from  this  source  are  gradually  diminishing,  the  wheat  exported 
from  that  country  in  1910  being  87  million  bushels,  as  compared 
with  235  million  in  1902.  Corn  exports  show  a  similar  decline, 
the  total  for  1910  being  but  38  million  bushels,  which  is  less  than 
at  any  time  in  the  last  dozen  years  except  1902  and  1909.  Exports 
of  meats  and  food  animals  show  an  equally  marked  decline,  those 
of  meat  and  dairy  products  having  been  in  1910  but  131  million 
dollars,  against  211  million  in  1906,  and  those  of  cattle  12  million 
dollars,  against  42  million  dollars  in  1906. 

521 


The  Cost  of  Living. 

•  As  regards  the  supply  of  wheat,  we  are  not  altogether  dependent 
upon  the  United  States.  A  great  amount  of  wheat  is  grown  in 
Eussia,  France,  India,  and  other  countries;  but  as  regards  corn, 
four-fifths  of  the  world's  produce  is  grown  in  the  States.  The 
following  tables  relating  to  the  world's  production  of  wheat  and 
corn  will  show  the  position  at  a  glance:  — 

WHEAT. 


Area. 

Production. 

1913. 

1912. 

1913. 

1912. 

United  States  .... 
Russia  in  Eiu-ope 
Russia  in  Asia  . . . 
France  

Acres. 
50,184,000 
62,070,000 
13,103,000 
16,170,000 
11,015,000 
29,569,000 
11,842,000 

4,878,000 

1,790,000 

Acres. 
45,814,000 
60,666,000 
10,729,000 
16,239,000 
10,997,000 
31,141,000 
11,761,000 

4,759,000 

1,971,000 

Bushels. 
763,380,000 
837,787,000 
138,003,000 
322,731,000 
231,717,000 
358,389,000 
214,407,000 
171,077,000 

66,691,000 
103,776,000 
144,000,000 

Bushels. 
730,267,000 
623,761,000 
103,270,000 
334,342,000 

Canada  

India  

224,159,000 
370,514,000 

Italy.... 

166,721,000 

160,226,000 

Great  Britain 

and  Ireland 

67,402,000 
89,232,000 

Argentina  

198,400,000 

Totals 

*200,621,000 
♦30,689,000 

194,067,000 
33,608,000 

3,341,958,000 
578,746,000 

3,067,294,000 

Total  other 

Countries 

612,858,000 

World's  Total  .... 

♦231,310,000 

227,675,000 

3,920,704,000 

3,670,152,000 

*  These  figures  do  not  represent  the  total  acreage  under  wheat,  as  some 
of  the  countries  have  not  made  a  return  of  the  acreage  to  the  Internationa) 
Agricultural  Institute,  from  whose  report  these  figures  are  culled. 

CORN. 


Area. 

Production. 

1913. 

1912. 

1913. 

1912. 

United  States  .... 
Hunsrarv 

Acres. 
106,820,000 
6,422,000 
3,954,000 
5,305,000 
4,216,000 
1,696,000 

Acres. 
107,083,000 
6,023,000 
3,938,000 
5,138,000 
4,054,000 
1,668,000 

Bushels. 

2,446,988,000 

184,755,000 

108,263,000 

118,105,000 

72,796,000 

67,574,000 

Bushels. 
3,124,746,000 
176,695,000 

Italy 

98,669,000 

Roumania 

111,012,000 

Russia 

79,607,000 

60,858,000 

Totals 

Total  other 

Countries 

127,412,000 
2,313,000 

127,904,000 
2,406,000 

2,988,480,000 
69,107,000 

3,651,587,000 
61,643,000 

World's  Total  .... 

129,726,000 

130,310,000 

3,047,587,000 

3,713,130,000 

522 


The  Cost  of  Living. 

The  population  of  the  large  cities  and  manufacturing  centres 
of  America  has  increased  to  an  enormous  extent  during  recent 
years,  and  the  production  of  foodstuffs  in  that  country  has  not 
kept  pace  with  this  increase.  The  population  of  America  is  now 
over  100  millions,  and  the  percentage  of  non-producers,  as  far  as 
foodstuffs  are  concerned,  is  much  larger  than  it  was,  and  is 
continually  increasing.  The  agricultural  returns  do  not  show  a 
corresponding  expansion,  hence  the  quantity  available  for 
exportation  grows  less  and  less  each  year. 

During  the  past  few  years  there  has  been  great  prosperity  in 
America,  and  the  people  of  that  country — like  the  people  here — 
have  acquired  a  higher  standard  of  living,  and  consume  more 
flesh  meat  than  formerly.  The  consumption  of  meat  has  increased 
enormously,  and  this  fact  has  caused  prices  to  rise  considerably, 
and  a  demand  has  been  created  for  pork,  &c.,  out  of  all  proportion 
to  what  it  was.  Then  the  packer  finds  he  can  get  a  very  high 
price  in  America,  and  unless  he  can  get  a  correspondingly  high 
price  in  this  country  he  finds  it  better  to  sell  his  products  at  home, 
and  cuts  down  our  supplies  accordingly.  As  a  matter  of  fact,  the 
quantity  of  hog  products  exported  from  America  is  about  half  of 
what  it  was  twenty-five  years  ago,  and  her  exports  of  cheese  and 
butter  are  practically  nil. 

It  may  be  taken  for  panted  that  in  the  future  the  United 
Kingdom  will  be  no  more  able  to  rely  upon  America  for  beef  than 
she  can  for  wheat. 

Mr.  0.  P.  Austin,  of  the  U.S.A.  Bureau  of  Labour  and 
Commerce,  attributes  the  advance  in  prices  of  meats  to  the 
great  corporations  which  slaughter  and  prepare  for  use  the  bulk 
of  the  food  animals,  and  also  to  the  partial  transformation  of  the 
great  stock  ranges  of  the  West  into  farms,  and  the  consequent 
transfer  of  the  hve  stock  industry  from  the  range  to  the  farm, 
which  has  increased  the  cost  of  production  of  the  marketable  food 
animal  simultaneously  with  a  reduction  in  the  available  supply  of 
such  animals. 

At  present  we  have  to  rely  chiefly  upon  Denmark  for  our 
supplies  of  bacon,  eggs,  and  butter,  but  when  we  consider  the 
rapidly  increasing  population  of  other  European  countries,  we 
are  bound  to  come  to  the  conclusion  that  eventually  we  shall 
have  to  look  elsewhere.  From  Canada  we  used  formerly  to 
obtain  considerable  quantities  of  bacon  and  butter;  now  she  uses 
all  her  own  butter,  practically  all  her  production  of  bacon, 
and  although  at  the  present  time  she  is  able  to  send  us  a 
considerable  quantity  of  cheese,  this  is  a  diminishing  quantity, 
and  the  chances  are  that  within  the  next  ten  years  or  so  Canada  will 
not  ship  any  dairy  produce  to  this  country.  This  can  hardly  be 
surprising  when  we  take  into  account  the  enormous  number  of 


The  Cost  of  Living. 

people  of  all  nationalities  who  are  emigrating  to  that  country  every 
year.  Of  course,  Australia  and  New  Zealand  are  dairy  countries, 
and  steps  are  being  taken  in  both  colonies  to  increase  the  output  of 
dairy  produce. 

There  is  a  great  opportunity  for  Ireland  in  this  direction  if 
only  a  definite  policy  could  be  settled  in  that  country.  We  have 
seen  what  has  happened  in  Denmark  within  such  an  incredibly 
short  space  of  time  by  means  of  organised  agriculture.  The 
conditions  there  were  not  so  favourable  as  they  are  in  Ireland, 
the  land  was  not  so  fertile,  nor  did  they  possess  the  natural 
advantages  of  climate,  &c.,  which  Ireland  has;  yet  by  perseverance 
and  industry  the  Danes  have  made  themselves  the  talk  of  the 
world.  Why  cannot  Ireland,  with  her  splendid  fertile  soil  and  all 
her  other  natural  advantages  which  are  there  already  to  hand, 
emulate  Denmark  in  this  respect  ?  It  is  to  be  hoped  the  Irish  farmer 
will  find  it  to  his  advantage  to  look  the  question  seriously  in  the 
face,  and  that  strenuous  efforts  will  be  put  forth  to  endeavour  to 
make  the  Emerald  Isle  the  agricultural  country  which  it  was  by  its 
natural  advantages  intended  to  be.  The  Irish  farmer  has,  of  course, 
been  considerably  handicapped  in  the  past  owing  to  want  of 
capital  and  to  other  conditions,  but,  with  the  help  of  the 
development  grant,  which  has  been  instituted  by  a  wise 
Government  for  the  organisation  of  the  agricultural  industry, 
and  with  the  assistance  of  the  credit  societies  which  are  already  in 
existence  and  which  are  now  being  established,  let  us  hope  a 
brighter  dawn  is  breaking.  If  by  this  means  the  rural  depopulation 
of  Ireland  caused  by  emigration  can  be  checked,  by  finding  work, 
under  proper  conditions,  for  the  agricultural  labourer,  who  can 
say  what  a  glorious  future  is  in  store  for  that  country  ? 

Cereals,  such  as  wheat,  oats,  meal,  &c.,  could  not  of  course 
be  grown  in  the  British  Isles  in  quantities  large  enough  to  feed 
the  millions  of  people  in  this  country,  and  for  these  necessaries 
we  are  bound  to  depend  to  a  large  extent  upon  outside  assistance. 
The  rise  in  these  commodities  has  been  largely  brought  about  by 
increased  consumption,  which  in  turn  is  the  result  of  the  rise  in 
the  standard  of  life  in  all  civilised  countries.  There  is  a  greater 
demand  upon  the  limited  supplies  available,  as  the  increased  area 
of  the  wheat  fields  of  the  world  has  not  kept  pace  with  the  world's 
consumption  of  wheat.  The  higher  standard  of  life  which  has 
been  set  up  has  resulted  in  an  increased  demand,  not  only  for 
what  are  commonly  looked  upon  as  necessaries  alone,  but  for 
what  previously  were  considered  luxuries.  Wealth  has  in  recent 
years  increased  rapidly.  The  trade  boom  which  has  been 
experienced  during  the  past  few  years  has  been  responsible  for 
the  circulation  of  an  enormous  amount  of  money,  and  of  course 
has  created  larger  ideas  in  the  minds  of  those  who  have  enjoyed 
what  might  be  called  unaccustomed  wealth  for  the  time.  This 
has  its  effect  on  prices,  but  the  ideas  created  still  remain. 

524 


The  Cost  of  Living. 

Another  factor  which  has  to  be  taken  into  consideration  in 
studying  the  question  is  the 

NON-PRODUCING  CONSUMER. 

A  far  greater  proportion  of  the  community  is  engaged  in  the 
distribution  or  sale  of  goods  than  in  their  production.  These 
people  are  the  link  between  the  producer  and  the  consumer,  and 
each  has  to  take  his  toll  before  the  goods  arrive  at  their  natural 
destination.  It  is  surprising  through  how  many  hands,  under  our 
present  competitive  system,  an  article  has  to  pass  before  it  reaches 
the  customer  who  buys  it  retail  from  the  shop.  In  foodstuffs 
especially  this  applies,  as  there  are  so  many  merchants, 
agents,  and  commercial  travellers  who  make  their  living  by  the 
commissions  they  draw  from  handling  these  goods.  AU  these 
commissions,  of  course,  add  to  the  price  of  the  goods.  Then, 
again,  these  people,  together  with  other  non-producing  members 
of  the  community,  have  all  to  be  fed,  housed,  and  clothed,  and, 
although  they  do  not  produce  anything,  their  demands  for  the 
necessaries  of  life  must  have  an  effect  in  forcing  up  prices.  Then 
take  the  question  of 

ADVERTISING. 

Large  sums  of  money  are  spent  annually  in  this  respect. 
Nowadays,  advertisements  are  not  the  crude  compositions  and 
designs  to  which  we  were  formerly  accustomed.  The  showcards 
which  are  distributed  by  large  firms,  the  posters  one  sees  on  the 
hoardings,  are  works  of  art,  produced  at  enormous  expense,  each 
finn  or  company  endeavouring  to  outvie  the  others  in  order  to 
attract  special  attention  to  its  own  productions.  Fabulous  sums 
are  asked  and  given  for  spaces  on  the  hoardings,  and  there  is  a 
rush  to  get  the  best,  and,  of  course,  most  expensive  positions. 
One  firm  alone  has  spent  more  than  one  million  pounds  in  thus 
bringing  its  productions  before  the  public,  and  attributes  its 
success  to  its  enterprise  in  this  direction.  This  is,  of  course,  the 
result  of  competition.  There  is  a  tremendous  waste  here,  but,  being 
one  of  the  expenses  of  production,  the  cost  is  added  to  the  price 
of  the  goods.  From  the  point  of  view  of  the  consumer,  surely 
it  would  be  better  that  the  money  spent  in  this  manner  should  be 
otherwise  employed  in  helping  to  reduce  the  cost  of  the  articles 
in  question. 

INCREASE    IN    ARMAMENTS. 

Here  is  another,  and  a  serious,  factor  in  the  rise  in  prices. 
Year  by  year  an  increasing  amount  of  money  is  spent  in  maintaining 
and  multiplying  the  fighting  machines  of  the  world.  The  soldier 
and  the  sailor,  however  useful  they  may  be  in  keeping  the  peace 
between  nations,  are  non-producers,  but  at  the  same  time  they 
must  be  kept.  National  jealousies  are  so  strong  that  in  European 
countries  especially  an  increasing  number  of  able-bodied  men  are 

525 


The  Cost  of  Living. 

being  withdrawn  from  the  community  of  workers  in  order  that 
they  may  join  the  Army  or  the  Navy.  This  fact  alone,  whereby 
they  become  consumers  instead  of  producers,  increases  the  demand 
in  relation  to  the  supply,  thus  helping  to  raise  prices;  but 
another  serious  factor  is  the  enormous  waste  of  money  involved 
in  manufacturing  arms  and  ammunition,  Dreadnoughts  and  the 
like,  which  each  country  is  compelled  to  do  in  order  to  keep  pace 
with  the  others.  Notwithstanding  all  the  efforts  which  have  been 
made  to  come  to  some  arrangement  whereby  this  waste  might  be 
curtailed,  money  is  being  spent  in  this  direction  more  rapidly 
than  ever.  The  Chancellor  of  the  Exchequer,  in  a  speech  which 
he  delivered  on  July  15th,  1910,  stated:  — 

The  countries  of  the  world  are  spending  annually  450  millions  of  pounds 
upon  this  machinery  of  destruction.  In  twenty  years  there  has  been  an 
increase  of  200  millions  per  annum  on  this  expenditure.  All  nations  seem  to 
be  infected  with  an  epidemic  of  prodigality  in  that  respect  which  seems  to  be 
sweeping  over  the  world,  and  sweeping  to  destruction.  We  take  the  lead  in 
that  expenditure.  After  all,  we  have  the  greatest  Empire  to  defend,  and  we 
have  got  that  excuse.  But  if  the  nations  go  on  increasingly  spending  their 
money  upon  matters  which  give  neither  assistance  nor  support  to  their  people 
on  the  road  that  leads  to  the  highest  civilisation  they  will  inevitably  suffer. 

The  fact  that  the  money  thus  spent  is  raised  by  taxation  in 
itself  increases  prices,  because  it  is  taken  from  its  legitimate 
channel,  i.e.,  trade,  where  it  could  be  more  usefully  and  profitably 
employed,  and  practically  thrown  away,  because  as  fast  as  these 
weapons  and  munitions  of  war  are  manufactured,  and  battleships, 
&c.,  are  built,  new  improvements  are  introduced  which  render 
them  obsolete,  and  entail  increased  expenditure  upon  others  which 
are  more  up  to  date.  Competition  between  nations  is  becoming 
daily  more  keen,  and  the  amount  spent  on  these  engines  of 
destruction  increases  every  year.  The  consumer,  whose  only 
desire  is  to  live  in  peace,  has  to  pay  the  piper,  since  the  amount 
of  taxation  he  is  called  upon  to  bear  in  order  that  these  things  may 
be  provided  reduces  his  power  of  purchasing  those  commodities 
which  are  necessary  to  him. 

It  is  estimated  that  since  the  year  1898  the  Spanish-American 
War,  the  South  African  War,  and  the  Eusso-Japanese  War  cost 
about  £900,000,000.  Consumption  during  the  continuance  of 
these  wars  was  naturally  increased,  and,  in  proportion  to  the 
population,  production  was  considerably  curtailed,  the  result  being 
a  great  increase  in  demand  in  proportion  to  the  supply, 
consequently  a  marked  advance  in  the  price  of  commodities. 

We  often  hear  it  said  that  co-operation  knows  no  frontiers. 
Surely,  as  the  spirit  of  the  movement  spreads,  the  time  will  come 
when  the  workers  of  all  countries  will  come  to  know  each  other, 
not  as  foes  but  as  brothers,  and  will  realise  that  the  money  which 
has  been  blindly  thrown  away  in  the  past  can  be  better  and  more 
profitably  utilised  in  the  future  in  alleviating  the  sufferings  of 
common  humanity. 

526 


The  Cost  of  Living, 

TRUSTS    AND    COMBINES - 

No  article  of  this  description  would  be  complete  without  a 
reference  to  the  huge  trusts  and  syndicates  which,  by  retarding 
the  supphes  of  commodities  over  which  they  have  control,  force 
up  the  prices  to  the  consumer.  It  is  impossible  for  trusts  to 
develop  in  this  country  to  the  same  extent  as  in  those  countries 
where  they  are  fostered  by  high  tariff  walls ;  but  even  here  we  have 
huge  combinations  of  capital  dealing  with  cotton,  iron  and  steel, 
wallpaper,  and  other  industries.  Trusts,  as  is  well  known,  operate 
more  largely  in  the  United  States  of  America  than  in  any  other 
country,  and  there  they  are  greatly  helped  by  the  tariffs.  The 
object  of  the  trust  is  to  eliminate  competition  for  its  own  benefit. 
Competition,  especially  foreign  competition,  means  lowering  of 
prices,  and  where  there  is  competition  the  manufacturer  does  not, 
of  course,  make  the  same  profit  out  of  the  buyer  as  is  the  case 
where  he  has  a  monopoly.  Consequently  we  find  an  industry 
which  is  not  successful  complains  of  foreign  competition,  and  the 
Government  places  a  tariff  upon  the  foreign  article  in  order  that 
the  home  manufacturer  may  have  the  pull.  The  knowledge  that 
the  industry  is  safeguarded  encourages  other  producers  to  enter 
the  field.  There  is  fierce  home  competition  for  a  time,  then  the 
producers  find  that  if  they  come  to  terms  they  will  have  full 
control  of  the  output  of  that  particular  commodity  and  of  the 
fixing  of  prices.  This  is  the  origin  of  the  trust,  hence  "the  tariff 
of  an  artificial  limitation  of  the  field  of  competition,  and  by  an 
equally  artificial  stimulation  of  the  industry  doubly  encourages 
trusts."* 

The  modern  trust  has  been  defined  in  general  terms  as  **an 
arrangement  for  the  control  of  several  companies  under  one 
direction  to  cheapen  expenses,  regulate  production,  and  beat  down 
competition."  This  proves  in  itself  that  the  trust  is  the  outcome 
of  modern  industrial  conditions.  Monopoly  itself  is  no  new  thing, 
for  we  find  that  in  the  Middle  Ages  there  existed  "gilds"  in  the 
various  towns  which  had  control  of  buying  and  selling.  Even  in 
those  days  we  find  that  men  had  begun  to  combine  for  economic 
ends.  In  1634  Charles  I.,  believing  that  it  would  stimulate  business 
and  improve  the  quality  of  goods,  granted  the  sole  right  to  deal 
in  certain  articles  to  companies  formed  for  the  purpose  These 
companies  were  enabled  to  dictate  to  the  public  the  price  of  the 
articles  included  in  their  patent,  and  restrain  at  their  pleasure  their 
manufacture  or  sale. 

These  monopolies  were,  however,  in  comparison  with  present- 
day  methods,  very  much  restricted.  They  were  before  the  days 
of  modern  capitalism  with  its  attendant  evils.  The  advent  of 
machinery  has  completely  revolutionised  the  industrial  world, 
and  has  greatly  increased  the  rate   and  volume   of   production. 

*  Hirst,  The  Story  of  the  Trusts. 

527 


The  Cost  of  Living. 

Machinery  grows  more  elaborate  and  more  expensive  year  by  year, 
new  inventions  are  constantly  coming  to  the  front  which  enable 
the  work  to  be  done  in  a  more  efficient  manner.  In  order  to  keep 
up  to  date  as  regards  increased  production  the  old  machinery  is 
done  away  with  and  the  new  installed  in  its  place.  In  most 
industries  there  are  highly  specialised  machines  to  perform  various 
minor  operations.  These  depreciate  rapidly,  so  that  only  a  large 
business,  with  a  great  amount  of  capital,  can  afford  to  use  them. 
With  a  large  business,  too,  the  materials  can  be  bought  in 
bulk,  and  therefore  more  cheaply.  Hence  with  these  and  other 
advantages,  such  as  shipping  and  transport  facilities,  there  has 
been  during  the  last  century,  and  is  now,  a  tendency  to  growth 
in  the  size  of  businesses,  and  to  concentration  and  production  on 
a  large  scale.  The  tendency  towards  combination  is  strongest  in 
those  trades  which  provide  the  necessaries  and  comforts  of  life 
for  the  bulk  of  the  people.  A  well-known  instance  is  the  Beef 
Trust  of  America,  in  which  several  large  Chicago  firms  have 
practically  controlled  wholesale  and  retail  prices  of  beef  and  cattle 
over  most  of  the  United  States. 

During  the  laSt  twenty  years  or  so  combination  am.ong 
producers  has  increased  very  rapidly,  and  the  control  of  the  world's 
goods  has  gradually  been  getting  into  the  hands  of  the  few. 
Where  previously  there  were  several  firms  producing  the  same 
class  of-  goods  we  now  find  a  huge  combination,  with  a  central 
body  controlling  these  firms,  eliminating  competition  and  the 
necessity  for  cutting  prices  and  regulating  production.  The  trust 
certainly  does  away  with  a  great  amount  of  waste,  but  the  increased 
profits  resulting  therefrom  go  to  line  the  pockets  of  the  comparative 
few  who  form  the  trust. 

As  has  been  previously  stated,  the  home  of  the  trust  proper 
is  in  America.  There  we  have  trusts  on  a  very  large  scale  indeed. 
The  tendency  towards  combination  in  that  country  commenced 
about  1860  with  the  formation  of  pools,  which,  however,  were 
short-lived,  and  generally  collapsed  after  they  had  exacted  high 
prices  for  a  few  months.  The  first  real  trust  was  the  Standard 
Oil  Company,  of  Ohio,  which  was  formed  in  1882.  In  this  case 
the  trustees  held  in  their  own  hands  the  voting  power  of  all  the 
constituent  corporations,  and  thus  prevented  all  competition 
between  them.  This  trust  was  so  successful  in  its  operations  that 
others  soon  followed  its  lead,  notably  in  the  whisky,  sugar, 
tobacco,  and  iron  and  steel  trades,  and,  although  anti-trust  laws 
have  been  passed  in  most  of  the  states,  they  still  carry  on  business 
under  constitutions  altered  to  the  minimum  extent  necessary  to 
avoid  bringing  them  within  reach  of  the  law. 

Apart  from  the  trusts,  there  are  other  methods  of  inflating 
prices,  viz.  :  Price  associations,  corners,  and  pools.  Price 
associations  are  brought  into  being  for  the  purpose  of  fixing  price 

628 


The  Cost  of  Living. 

lists,  and  sometimes  for  regulating  output.  They  are  generally- 
local,  and  are  usually  formed  between  persons  in  the  same  class 
of  trade  or  manufacture.  A  corner  is  purely  speculative  and 
temporary  in  character,  and  is  an  attempt  to  control  all  the 
immediate  sources  of  supply  to  a  market,  and  to  exact  high  prices 
from  the  buyer.  Any  commodity  may  be  "cornered" — food, 
metals,  raw  material,  &c. — but  a  corner  is  merely  a  temporary 
withholding  of  supplies  for  the  purpose  of  exacting  high  prices 
for  the  time  being.  There  is  nothing  of  a  permanent  nature  about 
it.  The  formation  of  pools  is  another  method  adopted  for  curtailing 
wasteful  expenditure  in  certain  trades,  controlling  production,  and 
fixing  prices. 

As  already  pointed  out,  the  fact  that  Britain  has  no 
protective  tariff  prevents  the  establishment  of  trusts  operating 
in  the  same  manner  as  pertains  in  America.  This  fact  does 
not  prevent  monopolies,  or  the  formation  of  large  capitalistic 
combinations,  but  it  does  to  a  great  extent  prevent  siich  combinations 
obtaining  monopoly  prices,  as  owing  to  our  Free  Trade  policy 
foreign  competition  has  to  be  reckoned  with.  The  tendency 
towards  industrial  combination  in  England  is  largely  necessitated 
by  the  requirements  of  modern  industry.  These  combinations  are 
of  two  kinds,  i.e.,  horizontal  and  vertical.  The  horizontal  type 
came  into  being  as  a  result  of  several  firms  operating  in  the  same 
branch  of  industry  in  a  particular  district  finding  themselves  unable 
to  maintain  prices  on  account  of  the  keen  competition  betw^een 
them.  In  order  to  safeguard  themselves  and  their  particular  branch 
of  trade  they  combined  or  amalgamated  into  one  huge  concern, 
which  controls  production  and  regulates  prices.  By  this  means 
competition  in  the  same  market  is  done  away  with,  the  cost  of 
production  is  considerably  lessened,  and  other  economies  are 
effected. 

*' Vertical"  combinations  are  somewhat  different  in  character. 
Such  combinations  commence  their  operations  at  the  very  source, 
or  as  near  as  possible  to  the  source  of  supply,  and  control 
production  of  the, article  from  the  raw  material  to  the  finished 
product.  These  combinations  are  at  present  mainly  confined  to 
the  iron  and  steel  trades,  but  the  tendency  is  spreading  to  other 
trades,  as,  for  instance,  the  Fine  Cotton  Spinners  and  Doublers' 
Association  Ltd.,  which  owns  and  works  its  own  coal-mines,  so 
that  it  shall  not  be  dependent  upon  the  market  for  the  wherewithal 
to  run  its  machinery.  A  large  firm  of  soapmakers  has  acquired 
oil  mills  and  copra  fat  supplies  in  various  parts  of  the  world  in 
order  to  secure  its  supplies  of  raw  material,  and  so  absorb 
intermediate  profits.  Also  the  paper  and  printing  enterprises 
have  secured  lumber  forests  and  pulping  mills  so  as  to  ensure 
their  supplies  of  paper.  Under  modern  conditions  it  is  necessary 
that  the  various  processes  in  certain  branches  of  the  iron  and  steel 

NN  529 


The  Cost  of  Living. 

industries  should  be  carried  on  as  far  as  possible  under  combined 
or  concentrated  management.  The  various  branches  of  the  industry- 
have  therefore  combined  forces,  each  plant  becoming  a  co-operating 
link  in  the  unbroken  chain  from  the  raw  material  to  the  finished 
article,  the  intermediate  profits  being  treated  as  a  final  profit  on 
the  finished  product.  As  an  instance  of  this,  I  might  mention 
Messrs.  John  Brown  and  Company  Ltd.,  of  Sheffield.  This  firm 
is  a  striking  example  of  the  advantages  accruing  from  "vertical" 
combination.  It  owns  extensive  iron  ore  mines  in  Spain, 
Lincolnshire,  and  Northamptonshire,  and  several  collieries  within 
a  few  miles  of  its  Sheffield  works;  it  has  its  own  blast  furnaces 
for  producing  steel,  &c. ;  and  is  connected  with  the  Clydebank 
Engineering  and  Shipbuilding  Co.  Ltd.  and  Messrs.  Thomas  Firth 
and  Sons  Ltd. ,  which  is  one  of  the  finest  firms  in  the  world  for  the 
manufacture  of  ordnance  and  projectiles.  The  firm  has  also  large 
interests  in  Harland  and  Wolff,  of  Belfast,  shipbuilders  and 
engineers,  and  is  in  a  position  to  build  and  equip  throughout, 
without  the  assistance  of  outside  firms,  the  largest  battleship  or 
the  fastest  liner.  The  company  is  in  the  front  rank  of  shipbuilders, 
having  recently  built  that  triumph  of  modern  engineering  the 
Aquitania,  which  is  without  doubt  the  finest  vessel  ever  launched 
in  these  islands.  There  are  several  other  instances  of  "vertical" 
combinations,  all  of  which  illustrate  "the  tendency  towards  the 
extension  of  activities  and  the  acquisition  of  a  complete  vertical 
organisation  of  production  which  has  resulted  from  the  definite  and 
deliberate  combination — vertically — of  firms  engaged  at  different, 
though  connected,  branches  of  the  industries."* 

By  a  study  of  this  present-day  tendency  towards  industrial 
combination,  some  useful  lessons  may  be  learned  which  could  be 
applied  with  advantage  to  the  co-operative  movement,  and  I 
propose  to  refer  to  the  matter  again  in  the  second  part  of  this 
paper.  Before,  however,  concluding  the  first  part,  I  would  like 
to  make  a  passing  reference  to  the  multiple  shop,  which  is  one 
of  the  greatest  competitors  the  movement  has  to  meet.  Here, 
again,  the  tendency  towards  centralisation  is  very  marked.  All 
these  companies  work  on  the  same  plan,  i.e.,  to  establish  as 
many  retail  shops  as  possible  in  the  various  towns  and  villages,  all 
of  which  are  worked  from  the  central  depot  or  headquarters,  the 
goods  being  purchased  in  bulk  and  distributed  to  the  various 
branches  for  sale  to  the  public.  By  the  large  quantities  they  are 
enabled  to  purchase  in  order  to  supply  their  various  shops  they 
are  in  a  position  to  obtain  their  supplies  at  a  cheaper  rate,  and 
are  thus  able  to  cut  prices  until  they  have  worked  up  a  trade. 
When  they  go  into  a  new  district  they  can  afford  to  undersell  other 
traders  for  a  time  until  they  have  secured  a  connection,  as  the 
profits  they  make  in  other  districts  will  more  than  outweigh  any 

*  Carter,  The  Tendency  Towards  Industrial  CombinatioJi. 
530 


The  Cost  of  Living. 

loss  they  may  sustain  in  one.  In  some  instances  these  shops  will 
sell  several  articles  at  cost  price  in  order  to  attract  customers,  and 
at  the  same  time  make  huge  profits  out  of  the  sale  of  articles 
which  are  either  packed  or  produced  by  the  company  itself.  Some 
of  these  companies  confine  their  operations  to  one  or  two  particular 
commodities,  and  make  a  speciality  of  these.  The  enormous 
quantities  they  can  buy  at  a  time,  and  the  fact  that,  in  some  cases, 
they  are  the  producers  of  the  articles  in  question,  enables  them 
to  successfully  compete  with  other  traders  and  yet  make  huge 
profits  and  pay  handsome  dividends  to  their  shareholders.  One  and 
all  they  have  reduced  the  cost  of  distribution  to  a  minimum  by 
their  methods  of  organisation,  and  in  some  cases  have  realised  the 
advantages  of  manufacturing  and  producing  the  goods  in  which 
they  deal  in  order  that  the  otherwise  intermediate  profit  may  find 
its  way  into  their  own  coffers.  This  pohcy  ensures  high  dividends 
for  the  shareholders,  which  is  "the  goal  at  which  they  aim.  The 
consumer,  who  by  his  purchases  makes  these  high  profits,  does  not 
benefit  at  all.  It  is  he  who  lines  the  pockets  of  the  shareholders, 
or,  in  other  words,  the  capitalists,  who  thus  exploit  him  for  their 
own  ends. 

I  have  endeavoured  to  show  in  the  foregoing  pages  how,  and  to 
what  extent,  prices  have  increased,  and  some  of  the  causes  therefor. 
In  the  latter  portion  I  have  deviated  somewhat  from  the  straight 
path,  and  have  discussed  at  some  length  matters  which  perhaps 
are  iiot  strictly  relevant  to  the  subject-matter  of  this  paper;  but 
my  reason  for  so  doing  was  to  show  how  the  capitalistic  concerns 
have  reahsed  that,  by  combination  and  concentration,  they  can 
cheapen  the  cost  of  production  and  distribution  in  order  to  make 
a  better  return  on  the  capital  invested.  All  these  combinations, 
whether  they  be  trusts,  combines,  or  multiple  shops,  have  but 
one  end  in  view,  i.e.,  to  make  as  much  profit  as  possible  for  those 
who  have  found  the  capital  to  carry  on  the  business.  These  profits 
in  the  end  come  out  of  the  pocket  of  the  consumer,  and  it  now 
remains  to  be  seen  whether  or  not  some  of  these  profits  cannot 
be  retained  by  the  consumer  for  himself,  and  so  enable  him  to 
better  the  conditions  under  which  he  lives. 


II.  Co-operation  as  a  Factor  in  the  Fixing  of  Prices. 

Having  shown  how  the  cost  of  living  has  increased,  we  will 
now  consider  whether  there  is  any  remedy  for  the  present  state  of 
affairs,  and,  if  so,  how  it  is  to  be  applied.  We  have  seen  how, 
within  recent  years,  there  has  been  a  growing  tendency  among 
capitalistic  concerns  to  combine  for  trading  and  manufacturing 
purposes.  So  long  as  we  have  to  rely  upon  the  present  capitalistic 
system  there  would  appear  to  be  no  likelihood  of  relief  to  any 
great  extent.     The  shareholders  of  these  concerns  are  themselves 

531 


•  The  Cost  of  Living. 

capitalists,  and,  of  course,  demand  the  highest  possible  return  for 
their  money.  This  does  not  tend  to  any  reduction  in  prices — 
rather  the  reverse,  as  the  level  of  prices  must  be  maintained  in 
order  to  pay  the  dividends.  Further,  the  people  who  have  money 
to  invest  in  these  concerns  are  not  those  who  are  hit  the  hardest 
by  the  increased  cost  of  living.  Their  incomes  are,  for  the  most 
part,  sufficiently  large  to  render  them  practically  independent  of 
any  ordinary  rise,  and,  moreover,  such  rise  is  probably  more  than 
compensated  for  by  the  increased  dividends  they  receive  upon  the 
capital  they  have  invested.  The  consumer  is  exploited  on  every 
hand.  He  is  entirely  at  the  mercy  of  those  who  produce  and 
distribute  the  necessaries  of  life,  who  may  fix  the  price  from  the 
raw  material  upwards  at  whatever  amount  they  like.  Competition 
has  to  a  certain  extent  kept  the  level  of  prices  down,  and  the 
consumer  has  been  safeguarded;  but  now  the  keenness  of 
competition  is  bringing  about  combination,  its  retarding  effect 
will  be  gone,  and  the  consumer  will  probably  be  in  a  worse 
position  in  the  future  than  he  is  to-day,  as  the  capitalistic 
combinations  will  have  acquired  such  power  as  to  be  able  to  dictate 
their  own  terms.  Those  who  suffer  the  most  in  this  respect  are 
the  working  classes,  in  whose  case  every  shilling  makes  the 
difference  between  comparative  comfort  and  continuous  anxiety, 
and  the  spending  power  of  whose  wages  is  reduced  by  every 
increase  in  the  price  of  commodities.  It  follows,  then,  that  any 
attempt  to  ameliorate  their  condition  must  spring  from  the  working 
classes  themselves,  and  if  they  could  only  be  brought  to  understand 
to  the  full  their  true  position  and  the  immense  power  they  possess, 
in  a  collective  sense,  much  might  be  accomplished.  One  man, 
or  even  a  group  of  men,  here  and  there  working  only  for  their 
own  ends,  and  to  satisfy  their  own  immediate  needs,  can, 
comparatively  speaking,  do  very  little;  but  six  million  men,  with 
a  capital  of  £1  each,  are  in  just  as  good  a  position  for  carrying 
on  a  business  as  six  men  who  put  £1,000,000  each  into  a  trust. 
But  there  is  this  difference :  in  the  one  case  the  profits  are  divided 
among  the  six  millions,  whilst  in  the  other  the  six  add  to  their 
already  great  possessions  by  the  profits  they  make  out  of  the 
consumer.  It  is  only  by  combination,  then,  that  the  consumer 
can  do  anything  at  all  to  improve  his  condition.  There  seems, 
however,  to  be  a  certain  mistrust  of  combination  on  a  large  scale 
for  business  purposes  among  the  workers — perhaps  it  is  because 
they  are  so  afraid  of  losing  their  individuality.  If  that  is  the 
case,  and  they  decline  to  open  their  eyes  to  the  exigencies  of 
modern,  conditions,  then  I  am  very  much  afraid  they  will  maintain 
their  proud  isolation  at  the  expense  of  their  well-being  for  all 
time.  Now  is  the  time  to  act ;  to-morrow  may  be  too  late.  It 
has  already  been  pointed  out  that  trusts  and  combines  are  increasing 
and  becoming  more  and  more  powerful.  Huge  businesses  are 
the  order  of  the  day  owing  to  the  fact  that  great  economies  are 

532 


I 


The  Cost  of  Living. 

effected  thereby.  The  necessity  for  reducing  the  cost  of  production 
under  present-day  conditions  is  becoming  more  and  more  apparent, 
hence  the  tendency  of  the  large  combinations  to  produce  their  own 
raw  material  in  order  to  do  away  with  intermediate  profits.  On 
every  hand  we  find  these  combinations  are  taking  up  concessions 
of  land  for  the  purpose  of  getting  as  near  as  possible  to  the  sources 
of  supply.  Will  not  this  be  a  powerful  weapon  in  their  hands 
when  the  time  comes — and  come  it  will — when  the  co-operative 
movement  will  have  to  fight  for  its  very  existence?  If  all  the 
sources  of  supply  are  captured  by  the  opponents  of  the  movement, 
could  they  not  dictate  to  the  movement  the  prices  it  will  have  to 
pay? — nay,  could  they  not  refuse  to  supply  the  movement  at  all, 
and  so  crush  it  for  ever?  This  is  not  without  the  bounds 
of  possibility.  What  is  to  be  the  position  of  the  co-operative 
movement  in  the  future?  Sooner  or  later,  unless  strong  measures 
are  taken  to  make  its  position  secure,  the  movement  will  run  a 
serious  risk  of  being  crushed  to  the  wall  by  the  forces  combined 
against  it.  Therefore,  it  behoves  those  who  are  responsible  for 
the  welfare  of  the  movement  to  guard  jealously  the  heritage  which 
has  been  handed  down  by  those  who  have  gone  before.  The 
times  through  which  we  are  moving  are  as  critical  to  the  movement 
as  any  through  which  it  has  passed.  Whereas,  in  the  beginning, 
its  opponents  looked  upon  it  with  a  sort  of  tolerant  amusement, 
they  now  realise  w^hat  a  force  the  movement  has  become.  On  all 
sides  combinations  are  being  formed  to  fight  it  and  to  arrest  its 
progress.  As  one  instance  of  this  I  would  quote  the  action  of  the 
Proprietary  Articles  Traders'  Association,  which  is  insisting  that 
co-operative  societies  shall  not  sell  proprietary  articles  at  the 
same  price  as  other  traders,  and  at  the  same  time  pay  a  dividend 
on  the  purchases  of  such  articles.  Is  not  this  striking  at  the 
bed-rock  principle  of  co-operation?  How  can  the  movement 
defend  itself  against  these  attacks?  There  appears  to  be  but 
one  way.  The  movement  itself  must  manufacture  these  articles ; 
and  as  regards  the  broader  question  it  must  get  at  the  sources 
of  supply  and  grow  the  raw  materials  for  its  own  factories 
before  it  is  too  late;  otherwise  such  sources  will  be  closed  to  it, 
and  it  will  be  compelled  to  buy  in  the  open  market  at  prohibitive 
prices,  or  else  find  the  market  closed  to  it  altogether.  True,  the 
C.W.S.  recently  sent  deputations  to  West  Africa  and  ro  Assam, 
and  as  a  result  great  things  may  be  accomplished;  but,  in  order 
to  do  real  and  lasting  good,  operations  must  necessarily  be  on  a 
much  larger,  scale.  Concessions  of  land  can  be  obtained  in  all 
our  colonies,  in  all  climates,  suitable  for  growing  all  requirements 
so  far  as  the  raw  material  is  concerned.  Such  raw  material  could 
be  used  by  the  movement  in  its  own  factories,  through  all  the 
processes  of  manufacture  to  the  finished  article  for  sale  in  its 
own  shops.  Thus  the  movement  might  progress  until  it  had  made 
itself  independent,  self-supporting,  and  self-contained.     All  this  of 

533 


The  Cost  of  Living. 

course  requires  money,  and  the  question  arises:  where  is  the 
necessary  capital  to  be  obtained  ?  A  large  amount  would  of  course 
be  necessary.  Even  the  great  Wholesale  Societies,  with  all  the 
resources  at  their  command,  could  not  proceed  unaided.  In  the 
last  return  published  by  the  Go-operative  Union  we  find  there 
were  in  1913  2,878,648  members  of  co-operative  societies,  who 
held  collectively  £37,275,057  share  capital  and  £5,326,708  loan 
capital,  a  total  capital  of  £42,601,765,  this  being  an  average  of 
nearly  £15  per  member.  This  seems  a  small  enough  amount  for 
any  member  to  have  at  stake,  but  when  one  realises  that  this  is. 
only  an  average,  and  that  a  great  percentage  of  members  use  the 
societies  as  their  sole  means  of  saving,  holding  £100,  £150,  and 
£200  share  capital,  then  the  holding  of  some  members  must  be 
very  low  indeed.  I  think  if  a  business  proposition  were  put  before 
the  average  co-operator,  and  he  realised  to  the  full  the  advantages, 
which  would  accrue  to  him  personally,  and  to  his  class  generally, 
he  would  be  willing  to  invest  considerably  more  than  the  average 
amount  above  referred  to.  Then,  again,  a  great  deal  of  money 
belonging  to  co-operative  members  is  not  invested  in  the  movement 
at  all,  for  the  reason  that  the  societies  cannot  make  profitable  use 
of  it.  I  know  of  several  societies  which  (although  the  Industrial 
and  Provident  Societies  Act  allows  a  member  to  hold  up  to  £200 
in  shares)  limit  the  amount  which  a  member  may  hold  to  £100, 
£50,  and  even  £25.  This  tendency  seems  to  be  a  growing  one, 
as  societies  do  not  want  to  pay  5  per  cent,  or  4  per  cent,  on 
share  capital  for  which  they  have  no  use,  and  upon  which  they 
themselves  by  re-investment  can  only  obtain  3^  per  cent.  If 
societies,  to  oblige  their  members,  do  accept  more  money  as 
share  capital  than  they  can  use  in  trade,  it  means  they  have  to 
make  up  the  extra  percentage  over  and  above  the  3^  per  cent, 
earned  by  such  capital  out  of  their  profits.  Where,  then,  is  all 
this  money  which  cannot  find  profitable  investment  in  the 
co-operative  movement  going?  In  the  majority  of  cases  it  is. 
invested  in  private  enterprises  in  some  form  or  other,  to  be  used 
as  shot  and  shell  by  the  very  people  who  are  opposed  to  the 
movement.  If  the  co-operative  movement  is  to  be  successful  in 
its  endeavours  to  control  prices,  this  money  must  be  kept  within 
the  movement,  and  some  means  must  be  devised  whereby  this 
may  be  done.  It  is  known  without  doubt  that  individual  societies, 
cannot  make  profitable  use  of  the  whole  available  co-operative 
capital.  A  great  many  societies  are  at  present  overburdened  with 
capital.  It  cannot  be  used  in  distribution,  therefore  it  follows  it 
must  be  used  in  production.  The  productive  societies  of  the 
movement,  in  the  majority  of  cases,  have  more  than  enough  capital 
for  their  requirements,  being  simply  engaged  in  manufacturing. 
Their  operations  do  not  extend  far  enough  to  use  such  capital  in 
the  production  of  the  raw  and  unfinished  articles  they  use  in  their 
factories. 

534 


The  Cost  of  Living. 

Can  it  be  said  that  the  co-operative  movement  exercises  that 
control  over  prices  which  it  ought  to  by  reason  of  its  volume  of 
trade?  I  am  afraid  not.  And  yet  the  retail  societies  distributed 
goods  during  the  year  1913  to  the  value  of  £83,615,175.  There 
seems  to  be  something  lacking  when  a  concern  with  such  a  huge 
turnover  has  to  follow  in  the  wake  of  others,  and  dare  not  take  the 
initiative  and  fix  prices  for  itself.  The  demand  for  high  dividends 
has  much  to  do  with  the  impotency  of  the  movement  in  this 
direction.  It  is  not  possible  for  prices  to  be  reduced  when  dividends 
of  3s.  and  4s.  in  the  £  have  to  be  maintained.  This  shuts  out  from 
the  benefits  of  co-operation  a  vast  multitude  of  the  poorer  classes 
to  whom  the  first  cost  is  a  considerable  item.  It  is  all  very  well 
for  the  artisan;  he  can  afford  to  wait  until  the  end  of  a  quarter 
or  half  year  for  the  return  of  his  share  of  the  profit  in  the  shape 
of  dividend.  Not  so  the  poorest;  they  cannot  afford  to  pay  the 
price  asked  and  wait  for  the  dividend.  With  them  it  is  the  first 
cost  which  counts,  and  they  naturally  go  to  the  shop  where  they 
can  buy  most  cheaply.  The  benefits  of  co-operation  are  thus  denied 
to  them,  and  the  private  trader  or  multiple  shop  makes  a  nice 
profit  out  of  such  people.  Owing  to  the  high  prices  in  vogue  with 
some  societies,  the  private  traders  are  themselves  enabled  to  put 
up  their  prices,  it  may  be  only  a  small  percentage,  comparatively 
speaking,  but  they  are  thus  in  a  position  to  make  a  little  more 
profit  out  of  the  consumer.  This  craze  for  high  dividends  is 
without  doubt  one  of  the  reasons  why  the  movement  has  not  more 
control  than  it  has  in  regard  to  prices.  Moreover,  it  is  not  a 
healthy  sign,  and  it  militates  against  the  very  people  for  whose 
benefit  the  movement  was  founded.  The  object  of  the  co-operative 
movement  is  to  make  the  lives  of  those  who  care  to  join  better 
worth  living — to  make  them  more  comfortable  in  their  homes,  in 
their  work,  and  in  their  surroundings  generally,  and  yet  those 
people  who  most  need  its  benefits  are  prohibited  from  obtaining 
them. 

Another  reason  is  the  want  of  loyalty  of  the  member  to  his 
store.  If  the  movement  had  the  undivided  allegiance  of  those 
who  profess  to  be  members  of  it,  its  chance  of  success  in  this 
direction  would  be  greater.  If  we  take  the  latest  statistics 
relating  to  the  movement,  we  find  that  in  1913  there  were 
2,878,648  members  of  distributive  societies,  whose  purchases 
for  the  year  were  £83,615,175,  an  average  of  just  over  £29  per 
member,  or  about  lis.  per  week.  When  we  take  into  account 
that  the  bulk  of  the  members  of  societies  are  married  and  have 
families,  lis.  certainly  does  not  represent  a  member's  requirements 
for  a  week.  Evidently,  therefore,  some  of  his  requirements 
are  purchased  from  outside  sources.  There  must  be  some 
reason  for  this,  and  no  stone  should  be  left  unturned  in  order 
to  fathom  it.  Each  society  should  be  in  a  position  to  cat^er  for 
all  the  requirements  of  its  members.'    Further  than  this,  however, 

535 


The  Cost  of  Living. 

there  is  a  lack  of  loyalty  to  the  C.W.S.  and  to  co-operative 
productions  generally  on  the  part  of  societies'  buyers.  A  very 
simple  illustration  will  suffice  to  bring  this  home  to  the  readers  of 
this  paper.  We  cannot  get  behind  the  figures  published  officially 
by  the  Co-operative  Union,  as  they  are  very  carefully  analysed 
and  extracted  from  returns  sent  in  by  the  societies  themselves. 
As  I  have  previously  pointed  out,  the  sales  of  the  distributive 
societies  for  1913  were  £83,615,175,  of  which  goods  to  the  value 
of  £31,371,976  were  purchased  from  the  Co-operative  Wholesale 
Society,  £8,964,033  from  the  Scottish  C.W.S. ,  and  £3,710,234 
from  the  productive  societies,  making  a  total  of  £44,046,243. 
This  amount  represents  of  course  the  wholesale  prices,  and  a  few 
calculations  will  be  necessary  to  arrive  at  the  retail  value  of  the 
purchases  of  societies  through  co-operative  sources.  For  the  sake 
of  argument,  we  will  take  an  average  dividend  of  3s.  in  the  £, 
or  15  per  cent.,  and  working  expenses  Is.  6d.  (average),  or  7^ 
per  cent.,  which,  with  interest  on  the  share  capital  employed 
(£1,473,435),  and  interest  on  loans  (£213,068),  which  were  the 
actual  amounts  paid  under  these  heads  in  1913,  makes  a  total  of 
£11,596,907,  which  must  be  added  to  first  cost  to  arrive  at  retail 
selling  price.  This  works  out  at  £55,643,150,  and  represents  the 
retail  value  of  the  goods  purchased  by  societies  from  co-operative 
sources — yet  the  total  trade  of  the  societies  is  £83,615,175.  What, 
then,  is  the  source  of  the  trade  represented  by  the  balance  of 
£27,972,025?  If  the  Wholesale  Societies  are  to  control  the 
markets  in  any  way  they  must  have  the  full  support  of  the 
societies'  buyers.  From  the  figures  quoted  above  it  would  appear 
that  the  distributive  societies  purchase  not  more  than  66'54  per 
cent,  of  their  requirements  from  co-operative  sources.  The  balance 
of  33'46  per  cent,  is  obtained  from  those  who  are  in  direct 
opposition  to  the  movement.  These  figures  speak  for  themselves 
and  need  no  comment.  It  is  obvious,  however,  that  if  members 
were  more  loyal  to  their  respective  societies  and  societies  were 
more  loyal  to  their  own  institutions  the  movement  would,  owing 
to  its  greater  purchasing  power,  by  means  of  concentration,  have 
more  control  over  prices  than  it  has  at  present.  Voluntary 
co-operation  is,  of  course,  the  best  thing  wherever  possible,  and 
there  can  be  no  gainsaying  the  fact  that  it  has  worked  very  well  up 
to  the  present,  but  the  times  are  changing.  Business  is  now 
conducted  on  quite  different  lines  to  what  it  was  when  the  movement 
was  first  initiated.  The  stress  of  modern  conditions  demands 
different  methods  than  were  formerly  in  use.  It  is  now  the  reign 
of  large  combinations  of  capital,  and  amalgamations  are  the  order 
of  the  day.  What  is  the  co-operative  movement  going  to  do?  Is 
it  to  keep  pace  with  the  times,  or  is  it  to  go  on  in  the  same  old  way. 
until  by  force  of  circumstances  it  is  crushed  out  of  existence  ?  The 
C.W.S.  is  in  a  very  peculiar  position.  It  is  the  central  distributing 
agency  of  the  movement,  but  societies  are  under  no  compulsion 

536 


The  Cost  of  Living, 

as  to  drawing  their  supplies  therefrom.  The  members  who  attend 
the  quarterly  meetings  of  the  C.W.S.  and  vote  for  the  minimum 
wage,  eight  hours  day,  &c.,  are  not  always  ready  to  back  up  these 
sentiments  by  means  of  increased  purchases  from  the  O.W.S.  In 
the  field  of  production,  also,  the  hands  of  the  C.W.S.  are  tied. 
It  cannot  extend  its  operations  in  this  direction  unless  there  is  a 
demand  which  will  warrant  it  doing  so.  The  policy  of  the  C.W.S. 
is  to  meet  the  demands  of  societies  as  far  as  possible,  but  it  stands 
to  reason  that  as  a  business  concern  it  cannot  enter  into  the 
production  of  any  commodity  unless  and  until  it  is  sure  of  a 
market.  The  expense  which  would  necessarily  be  involved  is  too 
great  to  admit  of  such  experiments  unless  it  had  some  guarantee 
that  its  efforts  would  be  backed  up.  When  it  is  seen  how  dependent 
is  the  C.W.S.  upon  the  caprice  of  retail  societies  and  their  buyers, 
it  will  be  readily  understood  how  great  would  be  the  risk  incurred 
in  striking  out  in  new  directions.  The  movement  as  it  is  to-day 
is  not  the  compact  body  which  some  of  its  adherents  would  like 
it  to  be.  The  spirit  of  commercialism  is  creeping  in  to  the  danger 
of  the  ideals  of  its  founders. 

Much  might  be  said  on  the  subject  of  overlapping  and  its 
•consequent  evils.  Competition  and  co-operation  are  two  widely 
different  terms,  and  have  nothing  in  common,  and  certainly  there 
should  be  no  competition  within  the  movement  itself.  Co-operators 
must  not  lose  sight  of  the  fact  that  the  ideals  are  the  breath  of  the 
movement,  and  that  commercialism  is  but  a  means  to  the  end. 
What  does  the  term  "co-operation"  really  mean?  It  means  the 
working  together  of  all  co-operators,  and  not  the  fragmentary 
<}o-operation  of  a  few  in  one  place  and  a  few  in  another.  To  caiTy 
out  the  true  principles  of  co-operation  and  to  realise  the  ideals  of 
the  Pioneers  the  societies  composing  the  movement  must  be  more 
closely  organised  one  with  another;  but  how  is  this  to  be 
accomplished?  To  my  mind  there  is  but  one  way.  The  movement 
must  take  a  leaf  out  of  the  book  of  its  opponents  and  form  a  trust — 
a  trust  not  for  the  few  but  for  the  many — a  trust  of  and  for  the 
people. 

Eight  years  have  elapsed  since  the  late  Mr.  J.  C.  Gray,  in 
his  inaugural  address  at  the  Birmingham  Congress,  outUned  his 
scheme  for  a  "National  Co-operative  Society,"  which,  though 
approved  of  by  a  few,  was  despised  and  rejected  by  the  many.  The 
opinion  has  been  expressed  by  a  few  earnest  co-operators  who  have 
the  welfare  of  the  movement  at  heart  that  the  National  Society, 
or  something  equivalent  to  it,  will  have  to  come  if  the  movement 
is  to  hold  its  own  in  the  future.  If  this  is  so,  as — if  one  gives  the 
matter  careful  thought,  in  view  of  the  present  tendency  in  every 
trade  towards  combination — would  seem  to  be  the  case,  then  the 
sooner  a  move  is  made  in  this  direction  the  better  it  will  be.  It 
is  no  use  delaying  the  matter,   lulling  ourselves  into  a  sense  of 

637 


The  Cost  of  Living. 

false  security,  to  find  when  we  awake  that  others  have  taken 
advantage  of  their  opportunities  and  forestalled  us.  If  the 
movement  is  to  justify  its  existence  it  must  be  one  of  the  first  in 
the  field.  Since  the  scheme  for  a  National  Society  was  first 
inaugurated  it  has  been  discussed  favourably  and  otherwise  at 
conferences  all  over  the  country,  and  the  chief  objections  seem 
to  be  the  retention  of  half  dividend  and  the  fear  that  loss  of 
local  interest  might  follow  from  its  establishment.  Mr.  Gray 
advocated  the  retention  of  half  the  dividend  due  to  a  member, 
which  would  be  credited  to  his  transferable  share  account.  In 
the  minds  of  some  co-operators  this  appears  to  be  the  most 
objectionable  feature  of  the  whole  scheme.  But  why?  Surely 
co-operators  are  willing  to  stake  something  for  their  future 
happiness  and  well-being.  Under  the  present  system  members 
might  object  to  leaving  half  their  dividend  as  share  capital,  but 
under  the  national  scheme,  if  the  true  purport  of  the  National 
Society  were  clearly  brought  home  to  them,  the  members  would 
realise  the  advantages  which  would  accrue  to  them  as  individuals 
by  increasing  the  capital  of  the  National  Society.  Each  individual 
member  would  become  a  capitalist  in  a  small  way,  and  would  at 
the  same  time  be  carrying  out  and  helping  forward  true  co-operative 
principles.  The  funds  accumulated  by  the  creation  of  these  shares 
would  be  used  in  growing  the  raw  material  required  for  use  in 
the  co-operative  factories.  The  money  would  thus  be  invested 
merely  as  a  means  of  saving  intermediate  profits  and  ultimately 
reducing  the  cost  of  the  finished  article,  of  which  the  member 
would  reap  the  benefit.  The  reduced  prices  which  would  follow 
from  this  would,  to  my  mind,  more  than  compensate  the  member 
for  the  retention  of  his  dividend  By  leaving  part  of  his  dividend 
the  member  is  simply  "casting  bread  upon  the  waters,"  which 
would  be  returned  to  him  manyfold.  Why  should  there  be  any 
reluctance  on  the  part  of  the  co-operator  to  invest  his  money  in 
his  own  concern,  whether  such  investment  be  in  the  nature  of 
cash  deposited  or  as  profits  due  ?  He  must  be  a  capitalist  in  a  way 
if  his  society  is  to  succeed.  A  great  many  people  would  be  only 
too  glad  to  have  a  safe  investment  yielding  5  per  cent,  interest, 
and  this  is  what  the  co-operator  would  be  getting  on  any  capital 
he  had  invested  in  the  National  Society.  If  he  were  wise  he 
would  leave  not  half  but  the  whole  of  his  dividend  in  the  society, 
as  by  doing  so  he  would  be  furthering  his  own  interests  by  enabling 
his  society  to  enter  even  more  largely  into  the  fields  of  production. 
The  more  capital  invested  in  the  National  Society  the  more  it  could 
do  in  the  way  of  production,  and  the  more  the  movement  can 
produce  for  its  own  consumption  the  cheaper  will  those  commodities 
become. 

There  is  a  good  deal  of  prejudice  against  the  nationalisation  of 
the  movement,  on  the  ground  that  such  a  scheme  would  do  away 
with  local  interest,  and  that  the  committees  of  societies  would  be 

638 


The  Cost  of  Living. 

deprived  of  control.  To  a  certain  extent  they  might,  although 
there  would  still  be  important  duties  for  them  to  carry  out;  but  to 
those  who  cannot  or  will  not  see  beyond  the  limits  of  their  own 
particular  society  I  would  point  out  this  fact,  that  true  co-operation 
cannot  be  parochial — it  must  be  national  and  even  world-wide. 
"Co-operation"  must  not  be  interpreted  to  mean  that  you  and 
your  particular  friends  shall  work  together  for  your  own  individual 
gain.  Co-operation  has  an  infinitely  wider  meaning  than  this.  It 
means  that  men  shall  work  together  for  the  good  of  all  men.  To 
arrive  at  the  true  conception  of  co-operation  it  must  be  lifted  out 
of  the  parochial  into  the  national.  If  we  cannot  appeal  to  sentiment 
in  the  furtherance  of  these  national  ideas,  we  must  endeavour  to 
win  over  these  people  whose  range  of  vision  is  so  circumscribed 
by  showing  them  the  material  advantages  to  be  gained. 

The  evolution  of  a  National  Society  out  of  the  multitudinous 
societies  at  present  in  existence  would  naturally  be  slow  and 
gradual.  It  is  as  well  this  should  be  so,  as  the  necessary 
organisation,  to  be  perfect,  must  be  of  gradual  growth.  The 
question  arises  :  how  is  it  to  be  accomplished.  The  first  step  would 
be  for  the  C.W.S.  to  take  power  in  its  rules  to  carry  on  a  retail 
trade,  not  in  competition  with  existing  distributive  societies,  but 
to  open  out  branches  in  isolated  districts,  where,  owing  to  the 
poverty  of  the  people  or  lack  of  initiative,  co-operation  is  at  present 
unknown.  By  this  means  the  advantages  of  co-operative  trading 
would  be  brought  home  to  those  people  who  might  otherwise  never 
have  been  reached.  The  amount  of  non-members'  trade  as 
ascertained  from  published  statistics  is  under  2  per  cent,  of  the 
total  trade  of  societies,  thus  proving  that  the  bulk  of  those  people 
who  commence  to  buy  at  co-operative  stores  very  soon  realise  that  it 
is  to  their  advantage  to  become  members  and  so  get  full  dividend, 
rather  than  remain  without  the  fold  and  be  content  with  one-half 
of  the  profit  which  is  paid  to  members.  The  extra  dividend  payable 
to  a  member  soon  makes  up  the  share  capital  which  it  is  necessary 
to  hold.  If  people  can  be  attracted  to  the  shops  they  will  soon 
become  members,  and  once  gathered  within  the  movement  it  is 
for  the  movement  to  make  them  true  co-operators.  The  main  object 
is  to  get  them  to  purchase  at  the  store — the  rest  will  follow.  This 
is  where  the  retail  department  would  do  good  work,  and  there 
cannot  be  any  doubt  that  the  business  thus  carried  on  would  be 
profitable.  Several  parts  of  the  country,  especially  in  agricultural 
districts,  remain  untapped  by  the  movement.  The  requirements 
of  the  inhabitants  are  either  supplied  in  the  old-fashioned  and 
totally  inadequate  way  by  the  small  village  grocer,  or  are  catered 
for  by  one  of  the  big  multiple  businesses,  which  are  out  to  make 
large  profits,  and  certainly  do  not  consider  the  consumer  in  any 
way.  A  strong  retail  department  of  the  C.W.S.  could  enter  into 
these  fields  of  operation  and  show  the  consumer  the  advantages 
accruing  from  co-operative  trading.     By  becoming  a  retail  society 

539 


The  Cost  of  Living. 

as  well  as  a  wholesale  society  the  C.W.S.  would  become  the 
nucleus  of  the  National  Society.  Little  by  little  those  societies 
which  perceived  the  advantages  to  be  gained  by  amalgamation 
would  amalgamate  with  the  C.W.S.  retail  department,  and  become 
a  branch  thereof.  The  wholesale  department  of  the  C.W.S.  would 
still  be  kept  separate  and  distinct  in  order  to  supply  the  needs  of 
both  the  independent  societies  and  its  own  retail  department.  This 
would  pave  the  way  for  the  National  Society,  and  when  all  societies 
had  come  into  the  combination  the  C.W.S.  would  change  its 
name  and  constitution,  and  thus  become  a  trust  in  itself,  owned 
and  controlled  by  those  for  whom  it  provided  the  necessaries  of 
life,  each  individual  member  of  the  trust  participating  in  the  profits 
made  by  it,  not,  as  is  the  case  with  the  capitalistic  trust,  according 
to  the  amount  of  capital  held  by  him,  but  on  the  amount  of 
purchases  which  he  had  made.  The  advantages  to  the  consumer 
who  was  a  member  of  the  trust  would  be  enormous,  as  owing  to 
the  greater  economies  effected  by  means  of  concentration  prices 
of  commodities  would  be  considerably  reduced.  There  are  at 
present  1,508  societies  with  probably  7,000  branch  shops.  All 
these  shops  would  become  branches  or  distributing  agencies  of  the 
trust.  The  country  would  be  divided  into  groups,  and  the  goods 
would  be  distributed  to  each  branch  from  depots  established  within 
those  groups.  In  some  cases,  however,  goods  would  be  sent  from 
the  ports  direct,  and  thus  save  needless  expense  in  carriage.  All 
goods  sold  in  the  branches  would  come  from  one  source,  i.e.,  the 
central  authority,  instead  of  from  several  sources  as  at  present. 
All  buying  would  be  done  from  the  centre,  and  the  whole  of  the 
co-operative  trade  being  focussed  through  one  channel,  better  terms 
could  be  obtained  from  the  producers,  and  in  other  directions  great 
economies  would  be  effected.  The  area  covered  by  the  operations 
of  the  National  Society  would  be  divided  into  districts,  each  district 
having  representation  on  the  central  council  or  committee,  which 
itself  would  be  divided  into  sub-committees,  dealing  with  the 
various  phases  of  the  business  of  the  society.  In  order  to  maintain 
local  interest  each  branch  might  elect  a  local  committee  from 
among  its  members.  These  local  committees,  who  would  naturally 
understand  the  requirements  of  the  members  dealing  at  their 
particular  branches,  would  have  a  free  hand  in  stocking  their 
shops  and  also  in  managing  all  local  affairs.  They  would  carry 
on  all  propaganda  and  educational  work  in  their  district,  having  a 
certain  sum  allocated  to  them  by  the  central  committee  for  this 
purpose  periodically.  Also  at  certain  periods  of  the  year  they  would 
have  power  to  send  representatives  to  the  general  meetings  of  the 
National  Society,  which  would  take  the  place  of  the  present  annual 
Congress.  The  prices  to  be  charged  for  goods,  the  appointment 
of  all  servants  necessary  for  carrying  on  the  business  of  the 
National  Society,  and  matters  of  policy  and  finance,  would  be 
decided  by  the  central  authority,  and  the  business,  includiag  the 

540 


The  Cost  of  Living. 

buying  and  selling  of  goods,  would  be  under  its  control.  One 
of  the  most  important  features  of  the  National  Society  would  be 
that  a  fixed  dividend  would  be  paid  to  all  members  of  the  society. 
I  would  suggest  an  all-round  dividend  of  not  more  than  2s.  in  the 
£,  less  if  possible.  Prices  would  be  fixed  on  this  basis,  and  any 
profit  over  and  above  the  2s.  dividend  would  be  used  m  furthering 
the  society's  interests.  Share  capital  should  have  a  fair  return, 
and  I  would  suggest  that  5  per  cent,  per  annum  would  be  a 
reasonable  rate.  Each  member  of  the  National  Society  should  hold 
at  least  one  transferable  shai^e  of  £1,  which  would  not  be 
withdrawable  under  any  circumstances.  The  society  would  then 
be  assured  of  at  least  as  many  pounds  capital  as  it  had  members. 
Once  the  National  Society  is  established  on  these  lines,  and 
with  its  continually  accumulating  capital,  it  could  extend  its 
operations  in  the  field  of  production  both  in  regard  to  the  raw 
material  and  the  various  manufacturing  processes.  In  course  of 
time  it  would  become  both  a  "vertical"  and  "horizontal" 
trust,  producing  from  the  raw  material  through  every  process 
of  manufacture  to  the  finished  article,  and  distributing  such 
manufactures  and  productions  through  its  own  shops  to  the 
consumer,  w'ho,  under  the  co-operative  system,  is  thus  enabled 
to  buy  his  commodities  at  actual  cost  price  plus  the  cost  of 
manufacture  and  distribution.  The  intermediate  profits  of  the 
producer,  manufacturer,  agent,  merchant,  and  middleman  are  thus 
eliminated,  finding  their  way  instead  mto  the  pocket  of  the 
consumer,  who  would  himself  have  fixed  the  price  he  has  had  to 
pay  for  his  requirements.  By  this  means  he  would  have  travelled  a 
long  way  on  the  road  towards  solving  the  problem  of  the  reduction 
in  the  cost  of  living,  as  he  would  be  as  near  to  the  actual  source 
of  his  requirements  as  it  is  possible  to  get.  The  sphere  of  activity 
of  such  a  trust  would  be  illimitable.  It  would  feed,  clothe,  and 
probably  house  its  members,  and  would  find  occupation  for  a 
considerable  number  of  them.  Under  the  present  system  individual 
societies  have  often  to  meet  fierce  competition  and  price-cutting 
on  the  part  of  the  multiple  shops,  with  the  result  that  certain 
members  are  attracted  to  these  shops  for  their  purchases  of  one  or 
two  particular  articles  of  which  a  speciality  is  made.  The  National 
Society  would,  with  the  immense  resources  at  its  command,  be 
able  to  successfully  meet  these  attacks,  as  there  is  no  reason  why  it 
should  not  sell  any  commodity  cheaper  than  any  other  combination 
could  possibly  do.  If  any  branch  of  the  National  Society  were 
attacked  in  this  manner  all  the  forces  of  the  society  would  be 
behind  that  branch,  which  would  make  it  an  impossibility  for  any 
undercutting  to  succeed.  If,  as  would  seem  to  be  the  case,  the 
establishment  of  a  consumers'  trust  or  National  Society  on  the 
hues  I  have  endeavoured  to  point  out  had  the  effect  of  reducing 
the  cost  of  living  all  round,  it  would  be  the  finest  advertisement 
the  movement  has  ever  had  or  could  possibly  have.     Consumers 

541 


The  Cost  of  Living, 

generally  would  begin  to  realise  how  short-sighted  they  had  been 
in  providing  enormous  profits  for  those  who  manipulated  the 
necessaries  of  life,  when  such  profits  might  have  been  retained 
for  themselves.  The  very  fact  that  co-operation  had  been 
instrumental  in  reducing  prices  would  be  an  incentive  to  those 
people  to  join  the  movement  and  to  share  in  the  advantages  to  be 
derived  from  co-operative  trading.  A  great  many  people  are  lost 
to  the  movement  because  they  do  not  know  sufficiently  about  it, 
and  in  fact  have  not  taken  the  trouble  to  inquire.  The  National 
Society  would  become  such  a  force  in  the  nation's  affairs  that  the 
eyes  of  all  would  be  opened,  inquiries  would  be  made,  and  increased 
membership  would  follow.  As  I  have  stated  previously,  they 
would  be  attracted  by  the  material  advantages  to  be  gained  from 
membership  ;  afterwards  they  could  be  imbued  with  the  co-operative 
spirit.  In  support  of  this  I  would  point  out  that  in  the  first  days 
of  the  war  the  fact  that  co-operative  societies  were  in  a  position  to 
keep  prices  down  caused  hundreds  of  people  who  had  hitherto 
obtained  their  requirements  from  the  private  trader  to  apply  for 
membership,  as  they  recognised  the  superior  position  in  which 
members  of  co-operative  societies  were  placed  in  the  crisis.  The 
National  Society,  too,  would  give  a  fillip  to  co-operative 
productions.  There  appears  to  be  a  certain  amount  of  prejudice 
against  co-operative  productions  among  some  of  the  members. 
Why  this  should  be  so  I  cannot  understand.  The  co-operative 
factories  are  the  finest  in  the  world,  and  the  goods  are  manufactured 
under  the  most  ideal  conditions.  Probably  it  is  because  co-operative 
productions  are  not  well  enough  known  on  account  of  them  not 
being  brought  into  sufficient  prominence.  Possibly  those  who  will 
not  have  co-operative  productions  have  not  tried  them.  They  have 
been  so  accustomed  to  seeing  advertisements  recommending 
articles  manufactured  by  certain  firms,  which  advertisements 
have  practically  become  household  words,  that  they  never  think 
of  trying  anything  else,  acting  upon  the  supposition  that  because 
those  articles  have  been  so  extensively  advertised  for  so  many 
years  nothing  can  be  as  good.  A  particular  article  has 
laecome  so  identified  with  the  name  of  a  particular  firm  that  if  a 
customer  asks  for  that  article  he  expects  the  article  which  has 
been  manufactured  by  the  firm  in  question.  Now,  we  know  that 
<30-operative  productions  are  second  to  none,  and  so  far  as  purity 
is  concerned  stand  in  the  front  rank.  Therefore,  it  is  the  duty  of 
co-operators  to  buy  none  but  the  productions  of  their  own  factories. 
Under  the  present  constitution  of  the  movement  societies'  buyers 
are  not  compelled  to  take  co-operative  productions,  and  there  is  no 
incentive  to  push  them.  With  the  National  Society  there  would  be 
no  relying  upon  the  goodwill  of  buyers.  Co-operative  productions 
would  be  placed  in  the  branches  for  sale,  brought  prominently 
before  the  notice  of  members,  sold  at  a  proper  price — probably 
cheaper  than  similar  productions  of  the  private  trader  (the  fact  of 

542 


The  Cost  of  Living. 

the  society  producing  for  its  own  shops  would  enable  this  to  be 
^one) — and  a  demand  would  thus  be  created.  When  the  National 
Society  reached  its  full  development,  producing  raw  material, 
manufacturing,  and  distributing,  the  prices  of  the  finished  articles 
would  in  most,  if  not  all,  cases  be  beyond  competition,  and  as 
price  is  a  considerable  factor  with  most  people  (the  quality  of 
co-operative  productions  need  not  be  .questioned)  a  considerable 
demand  is  likely  to  be  created;  in  fact,  although  a  bold  statement 
to  make,  it  might  even  be  prophesied  that  ultimately  none  but 
co-operatively  produced  goods  would  be  sold  in  the  co-operative 
shops.  And  one  of  the  advantages  of  nationalisation  would  be 
this :  the  necessity  for  exercising  such  great  caution,  as  is  the  case 
at  present,  before  entering  into  new  fields  of  production  would  be 
done  away  with,  as,  instead  of  waiting  for  a  demand,  the  National 
Society  could  create  one,  its  market  being  assured. 

From  whatever  point  of  view  one  looks  at  the  question  it  is 
bound  to  be  conceded  that  the  fullest  advantages  of  co-operation 
can  only  be  secured  by  amalgamation,  with  its  resultant  economies 
through  prevention  of  overlapping,  concentration  of  production 
and  the  centralisation  of  office  work,  buying,  distribution,  and 
financial  arrangements.  If,  in  place  of  the  present  aimless  system 
of  isolation,  each  unit  were  enrolled  in  one  strong  army — the 
National  Co-operative  Society — well  posted,  well  organised, 
presenting  a  solid  front  to  the  enemy,  how  much  better  equipped 
would  the  movement  be  for  withstanding  all  attacks  and  pushing 
forward  towards  increased  prosperity  and  complete  victory.  There 
is  collective  wealth  undreamed  of  among  the  working  classes,  and 
their  savings,  by  complete  combination,  could  be  more  effectively 
used  in  their  fight  against  capitalism.  By  controlling  the  sources 
of  supply  and  production  the  National  Society  would,  with  its 
assured  market,  have  a  decided  voice  in  the  settling  of  prices.  It 
would  be  bound  to  make  its  influence  felt,  as  it  would  be  one  of  the 
largest  trusts  in  the  world — moreover,  a  trust  with  a  soul,  a  trust 
composed  of  and  for  the  benefit  of  the  masses. 

The  possibilities  of  the  National  Society  are  great — it  is 
impossible  to  enter  into  them  here — but  how  are  the  members  to 
be  aroused  from  their  present  apathetic  attitude  ?  Here  is  a  grand 
opportunity  for  those  enthusiastic  propagandists  who  are  the  leaven 
of  the  movement.  The  members  must  be  educated  to  a  sense  of 
their  responsibilities.  It  cannot  be  denied  that  in  the  early  future 
co-operation  will  possess  enormous  opportunities  of  becoming  the 
determining' factor  in  dealing  with  the  all  important  question  as 
to  what  the  cost  of  living  in  this  country  shall  be.  \Yill 
co-operators,  when  the  time  arrives,  make  full  use  of  such 
opportunities?  The  tendency  towards  industrial  combination  was 
never  more  apparent  than  it  is  to-day.  It  is  not  sufficient  that 
co-operators  should  keep  pace  with  the  times ;  they  must  do  more 

543 


•  The  Cost  of  Living. 

than  this  if  they  wish  to  prove  themselves  worthy  of  the  spirit 
which  actuated  the  founders  of  their  faith.  It  is  necessary  that 
co-operators  should  now  take  up  the  banner  once  carried  by  their 
forefathers,  and  become,  as  they  were,  the  pioneers  in  the  great 
army  of  industrial  regeneration.  By  so  doing  they  will  show  to 
the  w^orld  that  is  to  be  that  they  believe  in  co-operation  in  its 
fullest  and  widest  sense,  because  it  offers  such  possibilities, 
beneficial  to  all  mankind,  as  the  mind  of  man  has  never  yet 
conceived. 


544 


The  Handling  and  Transportation  of  the 
Canadian  Grain  Crop. 


BY  EDWAKD   PORRITT. 


THE  Canadian  grain  year — ^the  year  that  covers  the  transport 
and  marketing  of  the  crops  of  Manitoba.  Saska